Aspirated consonant

Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, and Gujarati have a four-way distinction in stops: voiceless, aspirated, voiced, and breathy-voiced or voiced aspirated, such as. Punjabi has lost breathy-voiced consonants, which resulted in a tone system, and therefore has a distinction between voiceless, aspirated, and voiced:. Some of the Dravidian languages, such as Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada, have a distinction between voiced and voiceless, aspirated and unaspirated only in loanwords from Indo-Aryan languages. In native Dravidian words, there is no distinction between these categories and stops are underspecified for voicing and aspiration.

Sylheti language

SylhetiSylheti dialectlinguistic differences
Sylheti is distinguished by its tonal characteristics and a wide range of fricative consonants corresponding to aspirated consonants in closely related languages and dialects such as Bengali; a lack of the breathy voiced stops; word-final stress; and a relatively large set of loanwords from Assamese, Standard Bengali and other Bengali dialects. Sylheti has affected the course of Standard Bengali in the rest of the state.

Bengali Braille

Bengali Braille is used for the Bengali. According to UNESCO (2013), there are slight different braille conventions for Bengali language in Bangladesh and India, this article compares Bengali Braille in the two countries. *Bharati braille

Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar

P. R. SarkarP.R. Sarkarsadvipra
He is primarily known as the spiritual teacher behind Ananda Marga, but Sarkar wrote over 1500 pages on his socio-politico-economic Progressive Utilization Theory (PROUT), with several thousand more pages dedicated to linguistics and the study of languages; Sarkar's writings on linguistics included, among other works, Shabda Cayanika ("A Collection of Words"), an unfinished, twenty-six volume dictated encyclopaedia on the Bengali language. Beyond this, he wrote books on sociology, agriculture, history, literature, education, medicine, cosmology, and philosophy, also notably founding the philosophy of Neohumanism in 1982 and the Theory of Microvita in 1986.

Voiceless alveolar fricative

svoiceless alveolar sibilant s ''' [s
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are at least six types with significant perceptual differences: * The voiceless alveolar sibilant has a strong hissing sound, as the s in English sin. It is one of the most common sounds in the world. * The voiceless denti-alveolar sibilant (an ad hoc notation), also called apico-dental, has a weaker lisping sound like English th in thin. It occurs in Spanish dialects in southern Spain (eastern Andalusia).


abahattaApabhramsa Avahatta
The Abahattha stage is characterized by In the history of the Bengali language, the Abahatta stage was followed by the Old Bengali language by c. 1100. Loss of affixes and suffixes. Loss of grammatical gender. Increased usage of short vowels. Nasalisation at the end or in the middle of words. The substitution of h for s.


inflectedinflectional morphologyinflect
A few examples are given below: Palancar & Léonard (2015) provided an example with Tlatepuzco Chinantec (an Oto-Manguean language spoken in Southern Mexico), where tones are able to distinguish mood, person, and number: Case can be distinguished with tone as well, as in Maasai language (a Nilo-Saharan language spoken in Kenya and Tanzania) (Hyman, 2016) : Because the Proto-Indo-European language was highly inflected, all of its descendant Indo-European languages, such as Albanian, English, German, Ukrainian, Russian, Persian, Kurdish, Italian, Irish, Spanish, French, Hindi, Marathi, Urdu, Bengali, and Nepali, are inflected to a greater or lesser extent.

Paran Bandopadhyay

Paran Bandyopadhyay
Shadhon Babur Shondeho (Satyajiter Gappo) (1998) on DD Bangla. Bateshworer Abodan-Satyajiter Priyo Galpo (2000) on ETV Bangla. Proloy Asche (2011) on Sananda TV. Boyei Gelo (2013–14) as Bhobhotash Basak on Zee Bangla. Byomkesh (2014–15) as Anukul Babu on Colors Bangla. 2014 - Nominated for Filmfare Award for Best Actor in Supporting Role (Male) – Bengali for Proloy. 2017 - Won for Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor-Male for Cinemawala.


For example, the reflexes of in Bengali include Sanskrit borrowings in tatsama and semi-tatsama form in addition to the inherited tadbhava form. Similarly, Sanskrit exists in modern Hindi as a semi-tatsama and an inherited tadbhava form (via Prakrit ) in addition to the pure tatsama. In such cases, the use of tatsama forms in place of equivalent tadbhava or native forms is often seen by speakers of a language as a marker of a more chaste or literary form of the language as opposed to a more rustic or colloquial form. Often, however, a word exists only in one of the three possible forms, that is, only as a tadbhava, tatsama or semi-tatsama, or has different meanings in different forms.

Indo-Iranian languages

Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian languageIndo-Iranian branch
The Indo-Iranian languages consist of three groups: Most of the largest languages (in terms of speakers) are a part of the Indo-Aryan group: Hindustani (Urdu/Hindi), (~590 million ), Bengali (205 million ), Punjabi (100 million), Marathi (75 million), Gujarati (50 million), Bhojpuri (40 million), Awadhi (40 million), Maithili (35 million), Odia (35 million), Marwari (30 million), Sindhi (25 million), Assamese (24 million), Rajasthani (20 million), Chhattisgarhi (18 million), Sinhalese (19 million), Nepali (17 million), Bishnupuriya (12 million) and Rangpuri (15 million).

Eastern Nagari numerals

Eastern Nagari numerals, also called Bengali–Assamese numerals, Bengali numerals, Assamese numerals (সংখ্যা shôngkha, সংখ্যা xoiŋkha), are the numeral system, originating from the Indian subcontinent, used in Bengali, Sylheti, Chittagonian, Assamese, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Chakma, Hajong and Meithei languages. It is used by more than 350 million people around the world or over 5% of the world's population. The Bengali–Assamese numerals are a variety of the Hindu–Arabic numerals. An example of the number string:- 1065. One thousand sixty five. ১০৬৫. এক হাজার পঁয়ষট্টি। (in Bengali) ১০৬৫. এহেজাৰ পঁষষ্ঠি। (in Assamese) Bengali alphabet. Assamese alphabet. Sylheti Nagari.


diacriticsdiacritical markdiacritical marks
Sanskrit, as well as many of its descendants, like Hindi and Bengali, uses a lossless romanization system. This includes several letters with diacritical markings, such as the macron, over- and underdots as well as a few others . Latin-script alphabets. Alt code. Collating sequence. Combining character. Compose key. English terms with diacritical marks. Heavy metal umlaut. ISO/IEC 8859 8-bit extended-Latin-alphabet European character encodings. Latin alphabet. List of Latin letters. List of precomposed Latin characters in Unicode. List of U.S. cities with diacritics. Romanization. wikt:Appendix:English words with diacritics.

Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticles
Bengali: "Bôi", book; "Bôiti/Bôita/Bôikhana" : "The Book". Bulgarian: стол stol, chair; столът stolǎt, the chair (subject); стола stola, the chair (object). Icelandic: hestur, horse; hesturinn, the horse. Macedonian: стол stol, chair; столот stolot, the chair; столов stolov, this chair; столон stolon, that chair. Persian: sib, apple. (The Persian language does not have definite articles. It has one indefinite article 'yek' that means one. In Persian if a noun is not indefinite, it is a definite noun. "Sib e' man، means my apple. Here 'e' is like 'of' in English; an so literally "Sib e man" means the apple of mine.).

Phonemic orthography

phonetic spellingphonemicphonemic orthographies
English, for example, does not distinguish between aspirated and unaspirated consonants, but other languages, like Korean, Bengali and Hindi, do. On the other hand, Korean does not distinguish between voiced and voiceless consonants unlike a number of other languages. The sounds of speech of all languages of the world can be written by a rather small universal phonetic alphabet. A standard for this is the International Phonetic Alphabet. Sometimes, conversely, a single letter may represent a sequence of more than one phoneme (as x can represent the sequence /ks/ in English and other languages).

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
Portuguese has provided loanwords to many languages, such as Indonesian, Manado Malay, Malayalam, Sri Lankan Tamil and Sinhalese, Malay, Bengali, English, Hindi, Swahili, Afrikaans, Konkani, Marathi, Tetum, Xitsonga, Japanese, Lanc-Patuá (spoken in northern Brazil), Esan and Sranan Tongo (spoken in Suriname). It left a strong influence on the língua brasílica, a Tupi–Guarani language, which was the most widely spoken in Brazil until the 18th century, and on the language spoken around Sikka in Flores Island, Indonesia. In nearby Larantuka, Portuguese is used for prayers in Holy Week rituals.

Bengali-language newspapers

"national unity" ) was a Bengali language newspaper published in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It has the reputation of being the only main Bengali newspaper in the country that catered specifically to the large Bengali community in Pakistan. Founded in the 1940s, the newspaper was discontinued decades later due to financial reasons. It was based in the Chittagong Colony, a Bengali neighbourhood in Karachi. Akhon Samoy is a Bengali-language newspaper published from New York, United States since 2000. Janomot was founded in London and established on 21 February 1969.

Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect. It is a common name used only outside the place, group, or linguistic community in question. An endonym or autonym is an internal name for a geographical place, a group of people, or a language or dialect. It is a common name used only inside the place, group, or linguistic community in question; it is their name for themselves, their homeland, or their language.

Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.


Hindi-languageHindi languageHindi हिंदी
Bengali Language Movement (Manbhum). Hindi Divas – the official day to celebrate Hindi as a language. Languages of India and Languages with official status in India. List of English words of Hindi or Urdu origin. List of Hindi television channels broadcast in Europe (by country). List of Hindi channels in Europe (by type). list of Hindi words at Wiktionary, the free dictionary. List of languages by number of native speakers in India. List of Sanskrit and Persian roots in Hindi. World Hindi Secretariat. Taj, Afroz (2002) A door into Hindi. Retrieved 8 November 2005. Tiwari, Bholanath ([1966] 2004) हिन्दी भाषा (Hindī Bhasha), Kitab Pustika, Allahabad, ISBN: 81-225-0017-X. Further reading.

Official language

official languagesofficialadministrative language
New York state provides voter-registration forms in the following five languages: Bengali, Chinese, English, Korean and Spanish. The same languages are also on ballot papers in certain parts of the state (namely, New York City). The pro-English-only website U.S. English sees a multilingual government as one in which its "services actually encourage the growth of linguistic enclaves...[and] contributes to racial and ethnic conflicts".

De facto

de-factode facto relationshipdefacto
In law and government, de facto ( or ; de facto, "in fact"; ) describes practices that exist in reality, even if not officially recognised by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law. Unofficial customs that are widely accepted are sometimes called de facto standards.

Lingua franca

trade languagecommon languagelinguae francae
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

First language

mother tonguenative languagenative speaker
A first language, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period. In some countries, the term native language or mother tongue refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language. Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual. By contrast, a second language is any language that one speaks other than one's first language.


bihar stateBihar, India Bihar State
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern and Northern India. It is the thirteenth-largest Indian state, with an area of 94163 km2. The third-largest state by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east. Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur.