Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate

ji ''' [dʑd͡ʑʥ
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are,, and, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are and, though transcribing the stop component with ( in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding or in the IPA and or in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences.

Dialect continuum

dialect chaincontinuumdialect continua
The Indo-Aryan Prakrits also gave rise to languages like Gujarati, Assamese, Maithili, Bengali, Odia, Nepali, Marathi, Konkani and Punjabi. Chinese consists of hundreds of local varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible. The differences are similar to those within the Romance languages, which are similarly descended from a language spread by imperial expansion over substrate languages 2000 years ago. Unlike Europe, however, Chinese political unity was restored in the late 6th century and has persisted (with interludes of division) until the present day. There are no equivalents of the local standard literary languages that developed in the numerous independent states of Europe.

Zero copula

null copulado not have a verbdropped
Many languages exhibit this in some contexts, including Assamese, Bengali, Kannada, Malay/Indonesian, Turkish, Japanese, Ukrainian, Russian, Hungarian, Hebrew, Arabic, Berber, Ganda, Hawaiian, Sinhala, and American Sign Language. Dropping the copula is also found, to a lesser extent, in English and many other languages, used most frequently in rhetoric, casual speech, and headlinese, the writing style used in newspaper headlines. Sometimes, these omissions cause unintended syntactic ambiguity. Standard English exhibits a few limited forms of the zero copula. One is found in comparative correlatives like "the higher, the better" and "the more the merrier".

Bengali dialects

dialectdialectsDialects of Bengali
of the Bengali Language. (''the name with *bold letter are considered as Bengali dialects by some people. Note that except Rarhi and Manbhumi other groups are not linguistically classified as Bengali dialects. Some also consider Sylheti and Chittagonian as separate languages.)]] The dialects of the Bengali language (বাংলা উপভাষাসমূহ Bangla Upobhashashomuho) are part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan language group of the Indo-European language family widely spoken in the Bengal region of South Asia.

Rabindranath Tagore

TagoreRabindranathRabindra Nath Tagore
Yet about nine-tenths of his work was not bhanga gaan, the body of tunes revamped with "fresh value" from select Western, Hindustani, Bengali folk and other regional flavours "external" to Tagore's own ancestral culture. In 1971, Amar Shonar Bangla became the national anthem of Bangladesh. It was written — ironically — to protest the 1905 Partition of Bengal along communal lines: cutting off the Muslim-majority East Bengal from Hindu-dominated West Bengal was to avert a regional bloodbath. Tagore saw the partition as a cunning plan to stop the independence movement, and he aimed to rekindle Bengali unity and tar communalism.

Suniti Kumar Chatterji

S. K. ChatterjiChatterjiChatterji, Suniti Kumar
Language and Literature of Modern India (1963) "World Literature and Tagore "(1971) Sukumar Sen, the renowned Bengali linguist, was one of Chaterjee's most notable students. Suniti Kumar died on May 29, 1977 in Calcutta. A large part of his house 'Sudharma' সুধর্মা, an architectural marvel, in South Calcutta has been converted into a Fabindia store. The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language. Bengali Phonetic Reader. Indo-Aryan and Hindi. Suniti Kumar Chatterjee — a centenary tribute, Sahitya Academi, Kolkata (1997). Prof Suniti Kumar Chatterjee also received Padma Vibhusan award from Govt. of India(earlier he was an awardee of Padma Bhuusan).


MedinipurMidnapoorMidnapore town
A number of local Bengali-language newspapers are circulated from Midnapore; notable among them being Biplabi Sabyasachi, Medinipur Times, Chhapa Khabor and Dainik Upatyaka. The District Library of the Midnapore district is located in the city. The other notable library is Rishi Rajnarayan Library. *D. K. Chakrabarti, Archaeology of coastal West Bengal: Twenty-four Parganas and Midnapur districts (1994) South Asian Studies,10:pp. 135–160 Sonar Bangla Group of Institute, providing courses in Hotel Management, Fire & Safety Management & WBCS Coaching at Nannurchawk, Keranitola, Near Swimming Club, Midnapore www.sbihmedu.com.

Sri Lanka Matha

national anthemSri Lankan national anthemnational anthem of Sri Lanka
In actual practice the unaltered Bengali version is the version sung as the National Anthem, with its words in original Bengali Tatsama, a highly Sanskritized form of Bengali that has Sanskrit words common to both Hindi and Bengali. The Cabinet's December 2010 decision to scrap the Tamil translation of the anthem (which was not subsequently enacted) caused much furore in Sri Lanka. Later, the government denied allegations that the Tamil translation was to be abolished. The Presidential Secretariat has stated that there was no basis to the media report and follow up reports which intimated the same.

Romanisation of Bengali

Romanizationbegun bhôrtagaee holud
Romanisation of Bengali is the representation of written Bengali language in the Latin script. Various romanisation systems for Bengali are used, most of which do not perfectly represent Bengali pronunciation. While different standards for romanisation have been proposed for Bengali, none has been adopted with the same degree of uniformity as Japanese or Sanskrit. The Bengali script has been included with the group of Indic scripts whose romanisation does not represent the phonetic value of Bengali.

Bangla Academy

Rabindra AwardBangla Academy Rabindra AwardBengali Academy
Bangla Academy is an autonomous institution funded by Bangladesh government to promote and preserve Bengali language, literature and culture, to develop and implement national language policy as well as for research in Bengali language. Established in 1955, it is located in Burdwan House in Ramna, Dhaka, within the grounds of the University of Dhaka and Suhrawardy Udyan. Bangla Academy hosts the annual Ekushey Book Fair. The importance of establishing an organisation for Bengali language was first emphasised by the linguist Muhammad Shahidullah.

Languages of Bangladesh

Arakan peopleindigenous minority languagesMain Language(s)
Bangla language.

Byomkes Chakrabarti

Chakrabarti, ByomkesChakraborty, Byomkes
Byomkes Chakrabarti (also spelled Byomkesh Chakraborty or Byomkesh Chakrabarty) (1923–1981) was a Bengali research worker on ethnic languages. He was also a renowned educationist and a poet. His major contribution to linguistics was in finding out some basic relationship between Santali and the Bengali language. He showed how the Bengali language has unique characteristics, which are absent in other Indian languages, under the influence of Santali. His contribution was fundamental to research on the origin and development of the Bengali language and provided scopes of research in newer horizons in linguistics.


Bengali-Assamese script – Bengali, Assamese, Meithei, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Kokborok, Khasi language, Bodo language. Bhaiksuki. Buhid. Burmese – Burmese, Karen languages, Mon, and Shan. Cham. Chakma. Dehong – Dehong Dai. Devanagari – Hindi, Sanskrit, Marathi, Nepali, and many other languages of northern India. Dhives Akuru. Grantha – Sanskrit. Gujarati – Gujarāti, Kachchi. Gurmukhi script – Punjabi. Hanunó’o. Javanese. Kaithi. Kannada – Kannada, Tulu, Konkani, Kodava. Kawi. Khojki. Khotanese. Khudawadi. Khmer. Kolezhuthu – Tamil, Malayalam. Lao. Lepcha. Leke. Limbu. Lontara’ – Buginese, Makassar, and Mandar. Mahajani. Malayalam – Malayalam. Malayanma – Malayalam. Marchen – Zhang-Zhung.

National Library at Kolkata romanisation

Tamil romanisationNLKNational Library at Kolkata romanization
The tables below mostly use Devanagari but they also include letters from Kannada, Tamil, Malayalam and Bengali to illustrate the transliteration of non-Devanagari characters. Many systems provide a way to select Unicode characters visually. ISO/IEC 14755 refers to this as a screen-selection entry method. Microsoft Windows has provided a Unicode version of the Character Map program (find it by hitting then type then hit ) since version NT 4.0 – appearing in the consumer edition since XP. This is limited to characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP). Characters are searchable by Unicode character name, and the table can be limited to a particular code block.

Indo-Aryan languages

Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan languageIndic
Bengali–Assamese :. Assamese - 15 million speakers. Bengali - 268 million speakers. Bangali dialect - 97 million speakers. Rarhi dialect - 30 million speakers. Varendri dialect - 24 million speakers. Sundarbani dialect - 20 million speakers. Rajbanshi dialect - 15 million speakers. Jharkandi dialect - 12 million speakers. Bishnupriya Manipuri - 120,000 speakers. Chakma - 330,000 speakers. Sylheti - 13 million speakers. Jalalabadi dialect - 9 million speakers. Lauri dialect - 2 million speakers. Jaintian dialect - 0.5 million speakers. Barak dialect - 1 million speakers.

Assamese alphabet

AssameseAsamiyaAssamese script
A few of them are given hereafter as examples: Though ক্ষ is used in Bengali as a conjunct letter.

Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi

Paschim Banga Bangla AcademyPaschimbanga Bangla AcademyPashchimbanga Bangla Akademy
Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi, popularly known as Bangla Akademi, is the official regulatory body of the Bengali language in West Bengal. Modeled after Bangla Academy of Bangladesh and France’s Académie française, the Bangla Akademi was founded on May 20, 1986 in Kolkata to act as the official authority of the language and is entrusted with the responsibility of reforming Bengali spelling and grammar, compiling dictionaries, encyclopedias and terminologies and promoting Bengali language and culture in West Bengal.

Bengali–Assamese languages

Bengali–AssameseBengali-AssameseBengali-Assamese language
The Bengali–Assamese languages (or Assamese-Bengali languages) belong to the Eastern zone of Indo-Aryan languages. They are the following:


SantipurSantipur or Shantipur
Diptendu Pramanick - Bengali film personality. Md.Mozammel Haque. Arindam Bhattacharya (politician) - Member of Legislative Assembly.

Aspirated consonant

Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, and Gujarati have a four-way distinction in stops: voiceless, aspirated, voiced, and breathy-voiced or voiced aspirated, such as. Punjabi has lost breathy-voiced consonants, which resulted in a tone system, and therefore has a distinction between voiceless, aspirated, and voiced:. Some of the Dravidian languages, such as Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada, have a distinction between voiced and voiceless, aspirated and unaspirated only in loanwords from Indo-Aryan languages. In native Dravidian words, there is no distinction between these categories and stops are underspecified for voicing and aspiration.

Sylheti language

SylhetiSylheti dialectlinguistic differences
Sylheti is distinguished by its tonal characteristics and a wide range of fricative consonants corresponding to aspirated consonants in closely related languages and dialects such as Bengali; a lack of the breathy voiced stops; word-final stress; and a relatively large set of loanwords from Assamese, Standard Bengali and other Bengali dialects. Sylheti has affected the course of Standard Bengali in the rest of the state.

Bengali Braille

Bengali Braille is used for the Bengali. According to UNESCO (2013), there are slight different braille conventions for Bengali language in Bangladesh and India, this article compares Bengali Braille in the two countries. *Bharati braille

Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar

P. R. SarkarP.R. Sarkarsadvipra
He is primarily known as the spiritual teacher behind Ananda Marga, but Sarkar wrote over 1500 pages on his socio-politico-economic Progressive Utilization Theory (PROUT), with several thousand more pages dedicated to linguistics and the study of languages; Sarkar's writings on linguistics included, among other works, Shabda Cayanika ("A Collection of Words"), an unfinished, twenty-six volume dictated encyclopaedia on the Bengali language. Beyond this, he wrote books on sociology, agriculture, history, literature, education, medicine, cosmology, and philosophy, also notably founding the philosophy of Neohumanism in 1982 and the Theory of Microvita in 1986.

Voiceless alveolar fricative

svoiceless alveolar sibilant s ''' [s
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are at least six types with significant perceptual differences: * The voiceless alveolar sibilant has a strong hissing sound, as the s in English sin. It is one of the most common sounds in the world. * The voiceless denti-alveolar sibilant (an ad hoc notation), also called apico-dental, has a weaker lisping sound like English th in thin. It occurs in Spanish dialects in southern Spain (eastern Andalusia).


abahattaApabhramsa Avahatta
The Abahattha stage is characterized by In the history of the Bengali language, the Abahatta stage was followed by the Old Bengali language by c. 1100. Loss of affixes and suffixes. Loss of grammatical gender. Increased usage of short vowels. Nasalisation at the end or in the middle of words. The substitution of h for s.