inflectedinflectional morphologyinflect
A few examples are given below: Palancar & Léonard (2015) provided an example with Tlatepuzco Chinantec (an Oto-Manguean language spoken in Southern Mexico), where tones are able to distinguish mood, person, and number: Case can be distinguished with tone as well, as in Maasai language (a Nilo-Saharan language spoken in Kenya and Tanzania) (Hyman, 2016) : Because the Proto-Indo-European language was highly inflected, all of its descendant Indo-European languages, such as Albanian, English, German, Ukrainian, Russian, Persian, Kurdish, Italian, Irish, Spanish, French, Hindi, Marathi, Urdu, Bengali, and Nepali, are inflected to a greater or lesser extent.


honorific titlehonorificshonorific titles
The traditional Bengali honorific for ordinary men is the suffix Babu, used with the person's given (first) name. Thus, Shubhash Basu would be Shubhash-Babu. For men with whom one has a more formal relationship, the suffix Moshai (mohashoi is used with the person's family (last) name. Thus, Shubhash Basu would be Basu-Moshai. The traditional Kannada honorific is the suffix -avaru. For example, Visveswariah was referred to as Visveswariah-avaru. The traditional Marathi honorific is the suffix -rao. For example, Madhav Scindia was referred to as Madhav-rao. The traditional Tamil honorific is the suffix Avargal. Dalai Lama would become Dalai Lama Avargal.


For example, the reflexes of in Bengali include Sanskrit borrowings in tatsama and semi-tatsama form in addition to the inherited tadbhava form. Similarly, Sanskrit exists in modern Hindi as a semi-tatsama and an inherited tadbhava form (via Prakrit ) in addition to the pure tatsama. In such cases, the use of tatsama forms in place of equivalent tadbhava or native forms is often seen by speakers of a language as a marker of a more chaste or literary form of the language as opposed to a more rustic or colloquial form. Often, however, a word exists only in one of the three possible forms, that is, only as a tadbhava, tatsama or semi-tatsama, or has different meanings in different forms.

Indo-Iranian languages

Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian languageIndo-Iranian branch
The Indo-Iranian languages consist of three groups: Most of the largest languages (in terms of speakers) are a part of the Indo-Aryan group: Hindustani (Urdu/Hindi), (~590 million ), Bengali (205 million ), Punjabi (100 million), Marathi (75 million), Gujarati (50 million), Bhojpuri (40 million), Awadhi (40 million), Maithili (35 million), Odia (35 million), Marwari (30 million), Sindhi (25 million), Assamese (24 million), Rajasthani (20 million), Chhattisgarhi (18 million), Sinhalese (19 million), Nepali (17 million), Bishnupuriya (12 million) and Rangpuri (15 million).

Eastern Nagari numerals

Eastern Nagari numerals, also called Bengali–Assamese numerals, Bengali numerals, Assamese numerals (সংখ্যা shôngkha, সংখ্যা xoiŋkha), are the numeral system, originating from the Indian subcontinent, used in Bengali, Sylheti, Chittagonian, Assamese, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Chakma, Hajong and Meithei languages. It is used by more than 350 million people around the world or over 5% of the world's population. The Bengali–Assamese numerals are a variety of the Hindu–Arabic numerals. An example of the number string:- 1065. One thousand sixty five. ১০৬৫. এক হাজার পঁয়ষট্টি। (in Bengali) ১০৬৫. এহেজাৰ পঁষষ্ঠি। (in Assamese) Bengali alphabet. Assamese alphabet. Sylheti Nagari.


diacriticsdiacritical markdiacritical marks
Sanskrit, as well as many of its descendants, like Hindi and Bengali, uses a lossless romanization system. This includes several letters with diacritical markings, such as the macron, over- and underdots as well as a few others . Latin-script alphabets. Alt code. Collating sequence. Combining character. Compose key. English terms with diacritical marks. Heavy metal umlaut. ISO/IEC 8859 8-bit extended-Latin-alphabet European character encodings. Latin alphabet. List of Latin letters. List of precomposed Latin characters in Unicode. List of U.S. cities with diacritics. Romanization. wikt:Appendix:English words with diacritics.

Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticles
Bengali: "Bôi", book; "Bôiti/Bôita/Bôikhana" : "The Book". Bulgarian: стол stol, chair; столът stolǎt, the chair (subject); стола stola, the chair (object). Icelandic: hestur, horse; hesturinn, the horse. Macedonian: стол stol, chair; столот stolot, the chair; столов stolov, this chair; столон stolon, that chair. Persian: sib, apple. (The Persian language does not have definite articles. It has one indefinite article 'yek' that means one. In Persian if a noun is not indefinite, it is a definite noun. "Sib e' man، means my apple. Here 'e' is like 'of' in English; an so literally "Sib e man" means the apple of mine.).

Phonemic orthography

phonetic spellingphonemicphonemic orthographies
English, for example, does not distinguish between aspirated and unaspirated consonants, but other languages, like Korean, Bengali and Hindi, do. On the other hand, Korean does not distinguish between voiced and voiceless consonants unlike a number of other languages. The sounds of speech of all languages of the world can be written by a rather small universal phonetic alphabet. A standard for this is the International Phonetic Alphabet. Sometimes, conversely, a single letter may represent a sequence of more than one phoneme (as x can represent the sequence /ks/ in English and other languages).

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
Portuguese has provided loanwords to many languages, such as Indonesian, Manado Malay, Malayalam, Sri Lankan Tamil and Sinhalese, Malay, Bengali, English, Hindi, Swahili, Afrikaans, Konkani, Marathi, Tetum, Xitsonga, Japanese, Lanc-Patuá (spoken in northern Brazil), Esan and Sranan Tongo (spoken in Suriname). It left a strong influence on the língua brasílica, a Tupi–Guarani language, which was the most widely spoken in Brazil until the 18th century, and on the language spoken around Sikka in Flores Island, Indonesia. In nearby Larantuka, Portuguese is used for prayers in Holy Week rituals.

Bengali-language newspapers

"national unity" ) was a Bengali language newspaper published in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It has the reputation of being the only main Bengali newspaper in the country that catered specifically to the large Bengali community in Pakistan. Founded in the 1940s, the newspaper was discontinued decades later due to financial reasons. It was based in the Chittagong Colony, a Bengali neighbourhood in Karachi. Akhon Samoy is a Bengali-language newspaper published from New York, United States since 2000. Janomot was founded in London and established on 21 February 1969.

Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect. It is a common name used only outside the place, group, or linguistic community in question. An endonym or autonym is an internal name for a geographical place, a group of people, or a language or dialect. It is a common name used only inside the place, group, or linguistic community in question; it is their name for themselves, their homeland, or their language.

Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.


Hindi-languageHindi languageHindi हिंदी
Bengali Language Movement (Manbhum). Hindi Divas – the official day to celebrate Hindi as a language. Languages of India and Languages with official status in India. List of English words of Hindi or Urdu origin. List of Hindi television channels broadcast in Europe (by country). List of Hindi channels in Europe (by type). list of Hindi words at Wiktionary, the free dictionary. List of languages by number of native speakers in India. List of Sanskrit and Persian roots in Hindi. World Hindi Secretariat. Taj, Afroz (2002) A door into Hindi. Retrieved 8 November 2005. Tiwari, Bholanath ([1966] 2004) हिन्दी भाषा (Hindī Bhasha), Kitab Pustika, Allahabad, ISBN: 81-225-0017-X. Further reading.

Official language

official languagesofficialadministrative language
New York state provides voter-registration forms in the following five languages: Bengali, Chinese, English, Korean and Spanish. The same languages are also on ballot papers in certain parts of the state (namely, New York City). The pro-English-only website U.S. English sees a multilingual government as one in which its "services actually encourage the growth of linguistic enclaves...[and] contributes to racial and ethnic conflicts".

De facto

de-factode facto relationshipdefacto
In law and government, de facto ( or ; de facto, "in fact"; ) describes practices that exist in reality, even if not officially recognised by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law. Unofficial customs that are widely accepted are sometimes called de facto standards.

Lingua franca

trade languagecommon languagelinguae francae
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

First language

mother tonguenative languagenative speaker
A first language, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period. In some countries, the term native language or mother tongue refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language. Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual. By contrast, a second language is any language that one speaks other than one's first language.


bihar stateBihar, India Bihar State
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern and Northern India. It is the thirteenth-largest Indian state, with an area of 94163 km2. The third-largest state by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east. Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur.


Mizoram StateLushai HillsMizo
Sometime in the 16th century CE, the first batch of Mizo crossed Tiau river and settled in Mizoram and they were called as Kukis by Bengalis. The term Kuki mean the inhabitants of the interior and inaccessible mountain tracts. Sometimes grouped as Kuki-Chin tribes, The First batch were called Old Kukis which are the Biate and the Hrangkhol and the second batch that followed include Lushei (or Lusei), Paite, Lai, Mara, Ralte, Hmar, Thadou, Shendus, and several other. These tribes are subdivided into numerous clans, and these clans are further sub-divided into sub-clans, for example the Hmars are divided into Thiek, Faihriem, Lungtau, Darngawn, Khawbung, Zote and others.


PrākritOther PrakritsPrākṛta
The Prakrits are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly used in India.

Aryan, Kurdistan

Aryan (, also Romanized as Āryān, Āriyān, and Aryān) is a village in Paygelan Rural District, in the Central District of Sarvabad County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 489, in 119 families.

Persian language

PersianFarsiNew Persian
Persian has likewise influenced the vocabularies of other languages, especially other Indo-European languages such as Armenian, Urdu, Bengali and (to a lesser extent) Hindi; the latter three through conquests of Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan invaders; Turkic languages such as Ottoman Turkish, Chagatai, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Azeri, Uzbek, and Karachay-Balkar; Caucasian languages such as Georgian, and to a lesser extent, Avar and Lezgin; Afro-Asiatic languages like Assyrian (List of loanwords in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic) and Arabic; and even Dravidian languages indirectly especially Telugu and Brahui; as well as Austronesian languages such as Indonesian and Malay.

Action film

actionaction thrilleraction comedy
Action film is a film genre in which the protagonist or protagonists are thrust into a series of challenges that typically include violence, extended fighting, physical feats, and frantic chases. Action films tend to feature a resourceful hero struggling against incredible odds, which include life-threatening situations, a villain, or a pursuit which generally concludes in victory for the hero (though a small number of films in this genre have ended in victory for the villain instead). Advancements in CGI have made it cheaper and easier to create action sequences and other visual effects that required the efforts of professional stunt crews in the past.

Bangladeshi folk literature

Bengal folk artsfolk Bengali literaturefolk heritage
Chottogram Gitika Published(1993) By Bangla Academy Editing By Momen chowdhury and Collect By Abdus Sattar Chowdhry( 1919-1982) Folk tales are stories that are handed down orally from one generation to another. They are in prose and can be simple or complex. Based on subject, meaning and form, folk tales is of fairy tales, mythical tales, religious tales, adventure stories, heroic stories, sage tales, historical tales, legends, animal stories, fables, or comic stories. The lead character of Bengali folk tales are fate and divinity dependant and execute magical power rather than intellect, wisdom, labour, struggle or work.


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.