1st Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

1st Division1st Infantry DivisionBritish 1st Infantry Division
The British commander, Sir Redvers Buller, had intended to march with the whole army corps across the Orange River to Bloemfontein, capital of the Orange Free State, but by the time the troops reached Cape Town the Boers had seized the Orange River crossings and begun sieges of Ladysmith, Kimberley and Mafeking. Buller was forced to split his forces, sending divisions to relieve Ladysmith and Kimberley. Methuen and 1st Division were assigned to the relief of Kimberley, but the situation at Ladysmith deteriorated, and Buller diverted Hildyard's 2nd Brigade and Long's artillery to that sector.

Ian Hamilton's March

Ian Hamilton's March is a book written by Winston Churchill. It is a description of his experiences accompanying the British army during the Second Boer War, continuing after the events described in London to Ladysmith via Pretoria. Churchill had officially resigned from the British army in order to pursue a political career, but on hearing of the outbreak of war in South Africa between the British colonies and the free Boer states of Transvaal and Orange Free State, immediately made arrangements to take part. He arranged to act as correspondent for The Morning Post, and by playing them off against the rival newspaper, the Daily Mail, obtained a salary of £250 per month.

1900 in the United Kingdom

by a majority of 213. 8 February – Second Boer War: British troops are defeated by Boers at Ladysmith, South Africa. 12 February – meeting held at Mile End to protest against the Boer War ends in uproar. 14 February – Second Boer War: in South Africa, 20,000 British troops invade the Orange Free State. 27 February.

South African Wars (1879–1915)

South African WarsSouth African WarBechuanaland Expedition
In 1881 the Boers rebelled and the First Anglo-Boer War ensued. In this war, power was regained by the Boers, though any possibility of expansion and alliance was blocked by the British. With the discovery of diamonds around 1885 in Griqualand, West Transvaal struggled with the Cape and the Free State for land, but to no avail. At the end of the South African Wars, the Transvaal was annexed by the 1910 Union of South Africa. By the beginning of the South African Wars, the Orange Free State was independently ruled by the Boers.

Erskine Childers (author)

Erskine ChildersRobert Erskine ChildersErskin Childers
In 1898, as negotiations over the voting rights of British settlers in the Boer territories of Transvaal and Orange Free State failed and the Boer War broke out, he needed little encouragement when in December Basil Williams, a colleague at Westminster and already a member of the volunteer Honourable Artillery Company, suggested that they should enlist together. Childers joined the City Imperial Volunteers, something of an ad hoc force comprising soldiers from different territorial regiments, but funded by City institutions and provided with the most modern equipment.

List of works by Terence Cuneo

Terence Cuneo (1907–1996) was an English painter famous for his scenes of railways, horses, ceremonies, and military action.

Charles Townshend (British Army officer)

Charles TownshendTownshendGeneral Townshend
He was appointed Assistant Adjutant General on the staff of the Military Governor for the Orange Free State in 1900 and then transferred to the Royal Fusiliers later that year. After lobbying the War Office for a promotion and a command in the British Army, he was given a staff job in the Bedfordshire Regiment, which led to him to write that the Bedfordshire regiment was not prestigious enough for him, and what he wanted was a position in the Irish Guards. After much lobbying on his part, the War Office gave him a posting with the Royal Fusiliers instead.

Pretoria Boys High School

Pretoria Boys HighPretoria Boys
This school was not in operation for very long owing to the outbreak of the Second Boer War in 1899. At the time, the building served as a prison, where notably Winston Churchill was briefly imprisoned. The school was part of the whites-only education system, until the abolition of apartheid. With Pretoria under British control, it became apparent to Lord Milner, the Colonial Secretary at the time, that the educational facilities in the city needed attention as there was no secondary school for English-speaking pupils. The Staats Model School was duly refurbished.

February 1901

February 10, 1901February 21, 1901February 27
Four days after becoming a member of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom future Prime Minister Winston Churchill gave his maiden speech, a rebuttal to an address given by another future Prime Minister, David Lloyd George. At 10:30 when Lloyd George had finished an eloquent speech decrying the carnage against the Boers during the Boer War, Churchill responded that British policy should be "to make it easy and honourable for the Boers to surrender, and painful and perilous for them to continue in the field." Churchill would say later that "It was a terrible, thrilling yet delicious experience".

Treaty of Vereeniging

VereenigingTreaty of the Peace of Vereenigingconclusion of peace
The Treaty of Vereeniging (commonly referred to as Peace of Vereeniging) was the peace treaty, signed on 31 May 1902, that ended the Second Boer War between the South African Republic and the Republic of the Orange Free State, on the one side, and the United Kingdom on the other. This settlement provided for the end of hostilities and eventual self-government to the Transvaal (South African Republic) and the Orange Free State as colonies of the United Kingdom. The Boer republics agreed to come under the sovereignty of the British Crown and the British government agreed on various details.

South African Republic

TransvaalTransvaal RepublicZuid-Afrikaansche Republiek
The former national flag, from 1927 to 1994, had, as part of a feature contained within its central white bar, a horizontal flag of the Transvaal Republic (ZAR). * Orange Free State * Documents Illustrating South African History 1795-1910


Bloemfontein, South AfricaTempebloem
With colonial policy shifts, the region changed into the Orange River Sovereignty (1848–54) and eventually the Orange Free State Republic (1854–1902). From 1902–10 it served as the capital of the Orange River Colony and since that time as the provincial capital of the Free State. In 1910 it became the Judicial capital of the Union of South Africa The Orange Free State was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century.

Paul Kruger

KrugerPresident KrugerPresident Paul Kruger
The Boer War (1979).

Kimberley, Northern Cape

KimberleyKimberlyKimberley, South Africa
The Cape Colony, Transvaal, Orange Free State and the Griqua leader Nicolaas Waterboer all laid claim to the diamond fields. The Free State Boers in particular wanted the area as it lay inside the natural borders created by Orange and Vaal Rivers. Following the mediation that was overseen by the governor of Natal, the Keate Award went in favour of Waterboer, who placed himself under British protection. Consequently, the territory known as Griqualand West was proclaimed on 27 October 1871. Colonial Commissioners arrived in New Rush on 17 November 1871 to exercise authority over the territory on behalf of the Cape Governor.

Cape Colony

Cape of Good HopeCapeGovernor of the Cape of Good Hope
This was known as the Great Trek, and the migrating Boers settled inland, forming the "Boer republics" of Transvaal and the Orange Free State. British immigration continued in the Cape, even as many of the Boers continued to trek inland, and the ending of the British East India Company's monopoly on trade led to economic growth. At the same time, the long series of border wars fought against the Xhosa people of the Cape's eastern frontier finally died down when the Xhosa partook in a mass destruction of their own crops and cattle, in the belief that this would cause their spirits to appear and defeat the whites.

Siege of Ladysmith

Ladysmithdefence of LadysmithRelief of Ladysmith
Pakenham, Thomas; The Boer War, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1979, ISBN: 0-7474-0976-5. Reitz, Deneys (1929). Commando: A Boer Journal of the Boer War. ISBN: 0-571-08778-7. Conan Doyle, Arthur; The Great Boer War. Creswicke, Louis; South Africa and the Transvaal War, Vol. 2 (of 6). The Great Boer War, "Chapter 13: The Siege Of Ladysmith".

Great Trek

voortrekkervoortrekkersBoer Trek
The Voortrekkers retaliated with a 347-strong punitive raid against the Zulu (later known as the Flight Commando), supported by new arrivals from the Orange Free State. They were roundly defeated by about 7,000 warriors at Ithaleni, southwest of uMgungundlovu. The well-known reluctance of Afrikaner leaders to submit to one another's leadership, which later hindered sustained success in the Anglo-Boer Wars, was largely to blame. In November 1838 Andries Pretorius arrived with a commando of 60 armed trekkers and two cannon to assist in the defence.

Jameson Raid

Dr. Jameson's RaidAftermathfailed raid
Second Boer War. Second Matabele War.

London to Ladysmith via Pretoria

London to Ladysmith via Pretoria is a book written by Winston Churchill. It is a personal record of Churchill's impressions during the first five months of the Second Boer War. It includes an account of the Relief of Ladysmith, and also the story of Churchill's capture and dramatic escape from the Boers. The book was first published in 1900, and dedicated to the staff of the Natal Government railway. In 1899 Winston Churchill, though he had left his Regiment, the 4th Hussars, in the previous March, was eager as ever to be within the sound of the guns and wasted no time in getting himself accredited to The Morning Post as war correspondent.

1900 United Kingdom general election

19001900 general electiongeneral election of 1900
Also referred to as the Khaki Election (the first of several elections to bear this sobriquet), it was held at a time when it was widely believed that the Second Boer War had effectively been won (though in fact it was to continue for another two years). The Conservative Party, led by Lord Salisbury with their Liberal Unionist allies, secured a large majority of 130 seats, despite securing only 5.6% more votes than Henry Campbell-Bannerman's Liberals. This was largely owing to the Conservatives winning 163 seats that were uncontested by others. The Labour Representation Committee, later to become the Labour Party, participated in a general election for the first time.

Battle of Paardeberg

PaardebergPaardeberg DayBattle of Paardeberg Drift
Bombardment in the Second Boer War. Military history of South Africa. Battle of Poplar Grove. Douglas Monypenny.