List of works by Terence Cuneo

Terence Cuneo (1907–1996) was an English painter famous for his scenes of railways, horses, ceremonies, and military action.

August 1901

August 7
Harry "Breaker" Morant of the Bushveldt Carbineers, an Australian infantry division fighting on the British side of the Second Boer War. Heese had been working along with British missionaries in evangelical activities, and he and the child had been the only surviving witnesses to the Carbineers' murder the day before of four Boer schoolteachers and four Afrikaner soldiers. The missionary's murder would expose the atrocities that had been committed by British forces against civilians during the Boer War. Morant and Lt. Peter Handcock would be convicted of numerous murders in their court martial, and executed on February 27, 1902.

Charles Townshend (British Army officer)

Charles TownshendTownshendGeneral Townshend
He was appointed Assistant Adjutant General on the staff of the Military Governor for the Orange Free State in 1900 and then transferred to the Royal Fusiliers later that year. After lobbying the War Office for a promotion and a command in the British Army, he was given a staff job in the Bedfordshire Regiment, which led to him to write that the Bedfordshire regiment was not prestigious enough for him, and what he wanted was a position in the Irish Guards. After much lobbying on his part, the War Office gave him a posting with the Royal Fusiliers instead.

Australian Regiment (1899–1900)

Australian Regiment1st Australian Regiment
The Victorian Mounted Rifles participated in another reconnaissance into the Orange Free State under Major General James Melville Babington on 9 January. The 12th Lancers came under the command of Hoad at Enslin on 17 January. It served in the northern part of Cape Colony and was quickly mounted in December due to the demand of the conflict for mounted troops. The regiment fought in the defence of the Colesberg front between 9 and 12 February and the advance into the Orange Free State. The regiment was disbanded after it reached Bloemfontein in April; Hoad was made a Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George for his leadership.

History of guerrilla warfare

Whereas the British executed 14 IRA men in 1919–1922, the Free State executed 77 anti-treaty prisoners officially and its troops killed another 150 prisoners or so in the field (see Executions during the Irish Civil War). The Free State also interned 12,000 republicans, compared with the British figure of 4,500. The last anti-Treaty guerrillas abandoned their military campaign against the Free State after nine months in March 1923. In a successful campaign in German East Africa, the German commander Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck fought against the numerically superior allied forces.

Scramble for Africa

Partition of AfricaEuropean colonizationin Africa
The Boers protested, and in December 1880 they revolted, leading to the First Boer War (1880–81). British Prime Minister William Gladstone signed a peace treaty on 23 March 1881, giving self-government to the Boers in the Transvaal. The Jameson Raid of 1895 was a failed attempt by the British South Africa Company and the Johannesburg Reform Committee to overthrow the Boer government in the Transvaal. The Second Boer War, fought between 1899 and 1902, was about control of the gold and diamond industries; the independent Boer republics of the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (or Transvaal) were this time defeated and absorbed into the British Empire.

Federasie van Afrikaanse Kultuurvereniginge

F.A.K.FAK
The Federasie van Afrikaanse Kultuurvereniginge ("Federation of Afrikaans Cultural Associations") is a non-profit, non-governmental Afrikaans cultural organisation. Founded in 1929, it celebrated its 85th year in 2014. Its offices are situated at the Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria.

History of South African nationality

In 1880, the First Boer War erupted between Transvaal Boers and British troops, resulting in relatively heavy losses on the British side leading to a truce in 1881. After two decades of uneasy peace between the groups, military conflict broke out again in 1899 in what would be the Second Boer War. This war significantly deteriorated the Boers' land and resources, a result largely attributable to the British's 'scorched earth' tactics. Nevertheless, the resistance had been strong enough to change the British's policy regarding the Afrikaners from suppression to concession and incorporation into the government of the colony.

History of the Cape Colony from 1870 to 1899

confederation warssouthern Africa
These were later to feed into the far larger Second Boer War. The disastrous end of the First Anglo-Boer War of 1881 had repercussions that spread throughout South Africa. One of the most important results was the first Afrikander Bond congress that was held in 1882 at Graaf Reinet. The Bond developed to include both the Transvaal, the Orange Free State, and Cape Colony. Each country had a provincial committee with district committees, and branches were distributed through South Africa. Later on, the Bond in the Cape Colony dissociated itself from its Republican branches.

Jan Smuts and a British Transvaal

This article is about Jan Smuts in the government of South Africa when part of the British Empire, from the Transvaal's defeat at the end of the Second Boer War in 1902 until the creation of the Union of South Africa in 1910. Smuts emerged from the Boer War as one of the foremost Afrikaner leaders. Working closely with Louis Botha, Smuts engineered the restoration of autonomy. Having won the elections to the restored Transvaal Parliament, Smuts and Botha proceeded to negotiate beneficial terms of unification. The Second Boer War had irrevocably changed the face of South Africa, but, for Smuts, it was back to work as usual.

William Henry Solomon

Sir William Henry SolomonWilliam Henry
After the end of the Second Boer War, the government of the newly created British Colony of Transvaal established a Supreme Court of Transvaal in April 1902. The governor, Lord Milner, appointed Wessels as one of three puisne judges, with Sir James Rose Innes as Chief Justice. Solomon was transferred to this Supreme Court too, and he was appointed to the 1st Appeal Court for the new Union of South Africa when it was formed in 1910. He was appointed Chief Justice of South Africa in 1927. At the end of his career he also sat on the UK Privy Council. He is buried in the Solomon Family Plot in Brookwood Cemetery.

Jan Smuts in the South African Republic

Pakenham, T - The Boer War, (1979). van der Poel, J - The Jameson Raid, (1951). Reitz, FW - A Century of Wrong, (1899).

Education in South Africa

South AfricaEducationcolonial policy
After the Boer War (ended 1902) in the former Afrikaner republics, however, enrolments remained low—only 12 percent in the Orange Free State and 8 percent in the Transvaal—primarily the result of Afrikaner resistance to British education. Enrolments in these republics increased after the government of the Union agreed to the use of Afrikaans in the schools and to allow Afrikaner parents greater control over primary and secondary education.

Walter Edward Davidson

Sir Walter DavidsonWalter DavidsonSir Walter Edward Davidson
Following the peace treaty for the Second Boer War in South Africa in May 1902, Davidson was on 21 June appointed Colonial Secretary in the Colony of Transvaal, and thus a member of the executive council of the governor, Lord Milner. He was appointed a Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) later the same year. In the following years he was involved in the post-Boer War reconstruction of the colony, until he left the office in 1904. In mid 1904 he was appointed as Governor of the Seychelles, which had become a separate colony from Mauritius in 1903. On 21 October 1907 he married Margaret Agnes Feilding, who was the daughter of General Sir Percy Feilding.

Bloemfontein Conference

peace conference
The Bloemfontein Conference was a meeting that took place in Bloemfontein, capital of the Orange Free State from May 31 until June 5, 1899. The main issue dealt with the status of British migrant workers called "Uitlanders", who mined the gold fields in Transvaal. The conference was initiated by Orange Free State president Martinus Theunis Steyn, in order to settle differences between Transvaal President Paul Kruger and British High Commissioner Alfred Milner. It was considered a last effort at reconciliation to prevent war between the two factions.

New Imperialism

neo-imperialismimperialismcolonialists
In 1899, Britain set out to complete its takeover of the future South Africa, which it had begun in 1814 with the annexation of the Cape Colony, by invading the gold-rich Afrikaner republics of Transvaal and the neighboring Orange Free State. The chartered British South Africa Company had already seized the land to the north, renamed Rhodesia after its head, the Cape tycoon Cecil Rhodes.

October 1901

Winston Churchill, a freshman British MP in the House of Commons, denounced Britain's involvement in the Boer War as "an unmitigated nuisance and a blunder" in a speech on the floor of Parliament. Died:. Georg von Siemens, 62, German banker and co-founder of Deutsche Bank. Jane Nye Hammond, American sculptress. Friedrich Preller, 63, German artist. Annie Edson Taylor, a 63-year old schoolteacher from Bay City, Michigan, became the first person to plunge over Niagara Falls in a barrel and to survive. At 4:05 in the afternoon, the barrel and Mrs. Taylor were released into the currents of the Niagara River after being towed by a boat from Grand Island.

Timeline of British diplomatic history

British diplomatEnglish Counselor
Boer War ends in a British victory; Transvaal and Orange Free State are annexed and in 1910 become part of Union of South Africa. Boer leaders especially Jan Smuts accepted as British leaders. 1902: Reports from Captain Watson, naval attaché to Germany indicate that the German build-up that had begun in 1898 is intended to build a fleet meant to challenge British sea power.

List of fictional Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

British Prime MinisterBritish Prime Ministersformer PM
Lord Milner. Prime Minister in 1926, in the Alternative History/Time Travel story "A Slip in Time" by S. M. Stirling, featuring a history in which the First World War was avoided and the Austro-Hungarian Empire survived. The story, takes place mainly in the alternate Vienna. A Vienna paper read by one of the characters makes a reference to "Lord Milner, the British Prime Minister, considering the lifting of martial law in Ireland if there were no more outrages". In actual history, Lord Milner died in 1925 of sleeping sickness, with which he was infected during a visit to South Africa. Evidently, in the history where he became PM that visit was avoided and he survived. Iain Macleod.

List of places named after people

biographical museumList of places named after people (Ukraine)Places and political entities
Brandfort – Johannes Brand, state president of the Orange Free State. Cornelia – Cornelia Mulder, wife of Francis William Reitz, president of the Orange Free State. Dealesville – John Henry Deale. Deneysville – Deneys Reitz. Dewetsdorp – Jacobus de Wet, father of General Christiaan de Wet. Fauresmith – Reverend Phillip Faure and Sir Harry Smith, 1st Baronet. Harrismith – Sir Harry Smith, 1st Baronet. Hennenman – P.F. Hennenman. Hertzogville – James Barry Munnik Hertzog. Hobhouse – Emily Hobhouse. Kestell – Rev Dr J.D. Kestell. Lindley – Rev Daniel Lindley. Paul Roux – Dr Paul Roux. Philippolis – Rev Dr John Philip. Rouxville – Rev Pieter Roux.

Jan Smuts in the Boer War

Hence, on 31 May 1902, the Treaty of Vereeniging, a document that was mostly written by Jan Smuts and Lord Kitchener on their own, was signed by representatives of the United Kingdom, the Orange Free State, and the South African Republic. See Jan Smuts for a complete profile. See Second Boer War.

Carl von Brandis

During the Second Boer War 1899-1902, he remained in Johannesburg and towards the end of the war when the British occupied Johannesburg, he was appointed Registrar of Births and Deaths by the British administrator Alfred Milner. In Hannover, von Brandis married his first wife on 28 January 1856, Matilda Hṻhne, but the marriage lasted just over a year and she and his only child died on 13 May 1857. He would remarry in 1858, when he met and married Jane Margaret Hohne in Cape Town, Cape Colony. He died on 22 June 1903 at his home in Johannesburg and was buried in Braamfontein Cemetery.

Robert Arthur Briggs Chamberlain

Robert Chamberlain
Shortly before the Boer War broke out he went to South Africa as editor of the Johannesburg Star. His staunch opposition to the importation of Chinese labour for the Rand gold mines was so unpopular that he resigned his editorship of the Star. In 1903 Chamberlain moved to the East Africa Protectorate. Together with his colleague A.S. Flemmer, he applied for a 32,000 acre land grant in the Rift Valley. The grant was initially approved by Sir Charles Eliot, Commissioner of the Protectorate, but was later cancelled by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Lansdowne. The controversy surrounding to the grant ultimately led to Eliot's resignation in June 1904.

February 1901

February 10, 1901February 21, 1901February 27
Four days after becoming a member of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom future Prime Minister Winston Churchill gave his maiden speech, a rebuttal to an address given by another future Prime Minister, David Lloyd George. At 10:30 when Lloyd George had finished an eloquent speech decrying the carnage against the Boers during the Boer War, Churchill responded that British policy should be "to make it easy and honourable for the Boers to surrender, and painful and perilous for them to continue in the field." Churchill would say later that "It was a terrible, thrilling yet delicious experience".

Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal

Ladysmith LadysmithEmnambithi/Ladysmith
Other building of interest are the Siege Museum, originally built in 1884 as a marketplace and the Town Hall, damaged by Boer artillery during the Second Boer War. Ladysmith is served by a small airport, is located on the outskirts of town just below Platrand at -28.58°N, 29.75278°W. The Aerodrome is managed and operated by JetVision Holdings Pty Ltd. The Danskraal Yard is located on the Free State main line and the Glencoe–Vryheid line and acts as a depot for train marshalling and maintenance as well as rail maintenance. The passenger station is located some distance away from Danskraal close to the Central Business District.