Battle of Bergendal

BergendalBelfastbattle of Belfast
The Battle of Berg-en-dal (also known as the Battle of Belfast or Battle of Dalmanutha) took place in South Africa during the Second Anglo-Boer War. The battle was the last set-piece battle of the war, although it was still to last another two years. It was also the last time that the Boers' four 155 mm Creusot Long Tom guns were used in the same battle. Hostilities commenced in October 1899. On the Cape front the British forces broke through in February 1900 and the next month they were in Bloemfontein, the capital of the Orange Free State. Pretoria, the capital of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR) was captured in June 1900.

Battle of Stormberg

The Battle of Stormberg was the first British defeat of Black Week, in which three successive British forces were defeated by Boer irregulars in the Second Boer War. When the British first drew up a plan of campaign against the Boer republics, it was intended that the 3rd Division commanded by Major General William Forbes Gatacre would secure the area known as the Cape Midlands, immediately south of the Orange Free State, in preparation for an advance along the railway running from Cape Town to Bloemfontein. In the event, many of the division's troops had to be diverted to Natal after disasters there, and Gatacre's reduced force arrived late.

Battle of Diamond Hill

Diamond HillDonkerhoekBattle of Donkerhoek
Hamilton credited war correspondent Winston Churchill with recognizing that the key to victory would be in storming the summit, and risking his life to signal Hamilton. [[File:Drage memorial (1900).jpg|thumb|Memorial to Lieutenant P. W. C Drage who fell in the Battle of Diamond Hill.In St James' Church, Sydney. * Ben Viljoen, My Reminiscences of the Anglo-Boer War, (Hood, Douglas and Howard 1902) Brian Kelly, Best Little Stories from the Life and Times of Winston Churchill Cumberland House Publishing, 2008. Sir George Arthur, The Story of the Household Cavalry 1887–1900, vol.III. – Official history.

Frederick Russell Burnham

Frederick R. BurnhamBurnhamFrederick Burnham
The Second Boer War (October 1899 – May 1902) was fought between the British and two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, partly the result of long-simmering strife between them. It was directly caused by each side's desire to control the lucrative Witwatersrand gold mines in the Transvaal.

Bonar Law

Andrew Bonar LawLaw The Right Honourable '''Bonar Law
Replying to anti-Boer War MPs including David Lloyd George, Law used his excellent memory to quote sections of Hansard back to the opposition which contained their previous speeches supporting and commending the policies they now denounced. Although lasting only fifteen minutes and not a crowd- or press-pleaser like the maiden speeches of F.E. Smith or Winston Churchill, it attracted the attention of the Conservative Party leaders. Law's chance to make his mark came with the issue of tariff reform.

Company rule in Rhodesia

RhodesiaSouthern RhodesiaCompany rule
Katanga was also coveted by the owner of the Congo Free State, King Leopold II of the Belgians, whose representatives Rhodes hoped to beat there. "I want you to get Msiri's," Rhodes told one of his agents, Joseph Thomson; "I mean Katanga ... You must go and get Katanga."

Orange River Convention

On 23 February 1854, the Orange River Convention officially recognised the independence of the area which was called the Orange Free State. The convention made no mention of Moshoeshoe I or what the boundaries between the Basotho and the Orange Free State would be. The convention was signed in a building now known as the First Raadsaal by Sir George Clerk, on behalf of the British government, and twenty-five representatives of the Boer people. The first two presidents of the Orange Free State Republic were later sworn into office in this building which later became a prominent symbol in Apartheid era education in South Africa.

Battle of Belmont (1899)

BelmontBattle of BelmontBelmont and Graspan
The Boer force at Belmont was led by Orange Free State Commandant Jacobus Prinsloo, who had arrived there with 1,500 men on 20 November to reinforce an original force of 500 men under T. Van der Merwe. After Methuen began the march, Prinsloo posted detachments on the kopjes about the railway line. Prinsloo's force was joined by 800 men under Koos de la Rey on the day of the battle. *Military history of South Africa * British

First Boer War

FirstBoer WarFirst Anglo-Boer War
By 1899, when tensions erupted into the Second Boer War, the lure of gold made it worth committing the vast resources of the British Empire and incurring the huge costs required to win that war. However, the sharp lessons the British had learned during the First Boer War—which included Boer marksmanship, tactical flexibility and good use of ground—had largely been forgotten when the second war broke out 18 years later.

Battle of Bothaville

Battle of DoornkraalBothaville
De Wet was one of the most successful Boer commanders of the Second Boer War, disrupting British supply lines almost with impunity. On 6 November, De Wet camped at Bothaville on the Valsch River with 800 Orange Free State commandos. His party included the president of the Free State, Marthinus Steyn. De Wet was aware that Maj. Gen. Charles Knox's greatly superior British all-arms force was camped 7 mi away and believed that his outposts would give him adequate warning of any enemy moves. What he did not know was that the men at his main outpost had fallen asleep.

Armoured train

armored trainarmored trainsarmoured trains
Armoured trains saw use during the 19th century in the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), the First and Second Boer Wars (1880–1881 and 1899–1902). During the Second Boer War, Winston Churchill, then a war-correspondent, was travelling aboard an armoured train on 15 November 1899, when a Boer commando led by General Louis Botha ambushed the train. The Boers captured Churchill and many of the train's contingent, but many others escaped, including wounded soldiers who had been carried on the train's engine. Early in the 20th century, Russia used armoured trains during the Russo-Japanese War.

Edward VII

King Edward VIIPrince of WalesAlbert Edward
As king, Edward played a role in the modernisation of the British Home Fleet and the reorganisation of the British Army after the Second Boer War. He reinstituted traditional ceremonies as public displays and broadened the range of people with whom royalty socialised. He fostered good relations between Britain and other European countries, especially France, for which he was popularly called "Peacemaker", but his relationship with his nephew, the German Emperor Wilhelm II, was poor.

Battle of Groenkloof

In the Battle of Groenkloof on 5 September 1901, a British column under Colonel Harry Scobell defeated and captured a small Boer commando led by Commandant Lotter in the Cape Colony during the Second Boer War. While General Lord Kitchener struggled to suppress guerrilla warfare carried on by the Boers in the Orange Free State and the Transvaal, some Dutch settlers living in the Cape Colony also took up arms against the British. To combat the guerrilla war raging in the two Boer republics, Kitchener employed sweep-and-scour columns, farm burning and a policy of forcing Boer women and children into concentration camps.

Leo Amery

Rt Hon. Leo Amery The Right Honourable '''Leo AmeryL.S. Amery
During the Second Boer War Amery was a correspondent for The Times. In 1901, in his articles on the conduct of the war, he attacked the British commander, Sir Redvers Henry Buller, which contributed to Buller's sacking. Amery was the only correspondent to visit Boer forces and was nearly captured with Churchill. Amery later edited and largely wrote The Times History of the South African War (7 vol., 1899–1909). The Boer War had exposed deficiencies in the British Army and in 1903, Amery wrote The Problem of the Army and advocated its reorganisation.

Royal Dublin Fusiliers

Dublin Fusiliersthe Royal Dublin Fusiliers2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers
Both regular battalions of the Regiment fought in the Second Boer War. In the First World War, a further six battalions were raised and the regiment saw action on the Western Front, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East. In the course of the war three Victoria Cross were awarded. Following the establishment of the independent Irish Free State in 1922, the five regiments that had their traditional recruiting grounds in the counties of the new state were disbanded. The regiment was created on 1 July 1881 as a result of Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 102nd Regiment of Foot (Royal Madras Fusiliers) and the 103rd Regiment of Foot (Royal Bombay Fusiliers).

Walter Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne

Lord MoyneWalter GuinnessHon. Walter Guinness
British prime minister Winston Churchill, who once described himself as a "Zionist," for the time-being tempered his support for Zionism. Moyne had been sent to Cairo because of their long personal and political friendship, and Churchill told the House of Commons: If there is to be any hope of a peaceful and successful future for Zionism, these wicked activities must cease, and those responsible for them must be destroyed root and branch. [...]

Battle of Tweebosch

TweeboschBattle of Tweeboscaptured
In the Battle of Tweebosch or De Klipdrift on 7 March 1902, a Boer commando led by Koos de la Rey defeated a British column under the command of Lieutenant General Lord Methuen during the final months of the Second Boer War. In order to trap the Boer guerrillas in the Orange Free State, Lord Kitchener built lines of blockhouses connected with barbed wire. But there was not enough water in the Western Transvaal to employ the blockhouse system. Instead, he unleashed nine columns to hunt down De la Rey and the other Boer commanders in the area. On 24 February 1902, De la Rey pounced on a wagon convoy commanded by Lieutenant Colonel S. B. Von Donop.