Shandong ProvinceShantungShantung Province
Weihai, a former British port city important in the second Sino-Japanese War has British-era heritage architecture. World Heritage Sites:. Temple and Cemetery of Confucius, and the Kong Family Mansion in QufuKong Yuxu - two bixi - seen from S - P1060231.JPG. Tai Shan, sacred mountain, in Tai'an. Weifang is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong province. It is made up of four urban districts (Kuiwen, Weicheng, Hanting and Fangzi) and Changle County, largely being urbanized.

Zhang Xueliang

Chang Hsueh-LiangCheung Hok-leungYoung Marshal
"Yan Xishan’s Activities Opposing Chiang Kai-shek and Zhang Xueliang before and after the Nanjing-Guangdong Conflict." Modern Chinese History Studies 5 (2005): 2. " Peter H.L. Chang (Zhang Xueliang) Oral History Materials.".


Beijing, ChinaPekingPeking, China
The Marco Polo Bridge Incident triggered the Second Sino-Japanese War, World War II as it is known in China. During the war, Beijing fell to Japan on 29 July 1937 and was made the seat of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China, a puppet state that ruled the ethnic-Chinese portions of Japanese-occupied northern China. This government was later merged into the larger Wang Jingwei government based in Nanjing. In the final phases of the Chinese Civil War, the People's Liberation Army seized control of the city peacefully on 31 January 1949 in the course of the Pingjin Campaign.

Russo-Japanese War

Russian-Japanese WarRusso Japanese WarRusso–Japanese War
Two decades after that, the Kwantung Army staged an incident that led to the invasion of Manchuria in the Mukden Incident; the Kwantung Army eventually came to be heavily involved in the state's politics and administration, leading to a series of localized conflicts with Chinese regional warlords that finally extended into the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. As a result, most Chinese historians consider the Russo-Japanese War as a key development in Japan's spiral into militarism in the 1920s–30s.

Second United Front

United FrontSecond Kuomintang-CCP United Fronta nominal alliance
The communists under the leadership of Mao Zedong also began to focus most of their energy on building up their sphere of influence wherever opportunities were presented, mainly through rural mass organizations, administrative, land and tax reform measures favoring poor peasants; while the KMT allocated many divisions of its regular army to carry out military blockade of the CPC areas in an attempt to neutralize the spread of Communist influence until the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War. After the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chiang Kai Shek and Mao Zedong attempted to engage in peace talks.


The modern usage of the term stems from the Second Sino-Japanese War in which circumstances forced political figures in China to choose between resistance and collaboration. Nuance in understanding not just why some Chinese chose to cooperate with Japanese but as well as inquiring why cooperation made sense to people at that time has opened up hanjian into being an ambiguous term in modern history rather than the black and white one that it is so often used as.

Mukden Incident

Manchurian IncidentSeptember 18 IncidentMukden
Second Sino-Japanese War. Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1931). January 28 Incident (Shanghai, 1932). Defense of the Great Wall (1933). Marco Polo Bridge Incident (Beijing, 1937). Gleiwitz incident, the similarly staged pretext for Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland. History of Sino-Japanese relations#Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. History of the Republic of China. Military of the Republic of China. National Revolutionary Army. World War II Database- Manchurian Incident. Manchurian Crisis. Article on Japanese military cliques and their involvement in The Mukden Incident from Japanese Press Translations 1945–46.

Chinese Red Army

Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red ArmyRed ArmyFirst Red Army
The Red Army was incorporated into the National Revolutionary Army as part of the Second United Front with the Kuomintang to fight against the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937. In the later stages of the Chinese Civil War, they were renamed the People's Liberation Army. In the summer of 1927, the Communist Party of China (CCP) took over the two divisions of the Chinese Nationalist Party forces and led a military mutiny. Nationalist forces General He Long commanded the 20th Corps to join them. They had a total of 20,000 soldiers and planned to occupy Guangzhou. However, they were defeated before they reached Guangzhou with only a few thousand men surviving the battle.

Xi'an Incident

Xian IncidentChiang was kidnappedhis kidnap and release
The Xi'an Incident was a political crisis that took place in Xi'an, Republic of China in 1936. Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Republic of China, was detained by his subordinates, Generals Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng, in order to force the ruling Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang or KMT) to change its policies regarding the Empire of Japan and the Communist Party of China (CPC).

Mao Zedong

MaoMao Tse-tungChairman Mao
Although the CPC temporarily allied with the KMT under the United Front during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), China's civil war resumed after Japan's surrender and in 1949 Mao's forces defeated the Nationalist government, which withdrew to Taiwan. On 1 October 1949, Mao proclaimed the foundation of the PRC, a single-party state controlled by the CPC. In the following years he solidified his control through campaigns against landlords, suppression of "counter-revolutionaries", and through a psychological victory in the Korean War, which altogether caused the deaths of several-million Chinese.

Eighth Route Army

8th Route Army18th Army GroupEighth Army
The Eighth Route Army, officially known as the 18th Group Army of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, was a group army under the command of the Chinese Communist Party, nominally within the structure of the Chinese military headed by the Chinese Nationalist Party during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Eighth Route Army was created from the Chinese Red Army on September 22, 1937, when the Chinese Communists and Chinese Nationalists formed the Second United Front against Japan at the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, as World War II is known in China.

Wei Lihuang

Wei Li-huang
Wei Lihuang (16 February 1897 – 17 January 1960) was a Chinese general who served the Nationalist government throughout the Chinese Civil War and Second Sino-Japanese War as one of China's most successful military commanders. First joining the Kuomintang (KMT) during the early 1920s, Wei would rise to become general after the Northern Expedition, a two-year campaign to unify China. His later success under Chiang Kai-shek during the Bandit (Communist) Suppression Campaigns from 1930 to 1934 would earn him the nickname "Hundred Victories Wei". A general during the Second Sino-Japanese War, Wei commanded the First War Area.

Imperial Japanese Army

Japanese ArmyJapanese Imperial ArmyJapanese
Throughout the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army had shown immense brutality and engaged in numerous atrocities against civilians, as well as prisoners of war – with the Nanking Massacre being the most well known example. Such atrocities throughout the war caused many millions of deaths. Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution renounced the right to use force as a means of resolving disputes. This was enacted by the Japanese in order to prevent militarism, which had led to conflict.

Kwantung Army

Kwangtung ArmyGuandong ArmyKantōgun
The Kwantung Army was largely responsible for the creation of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo and was one of the main Japanese fighting forces during the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937. In August 1945, the Kwantung Army was engaged by Soviet troops during the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation. The Kwantung Army surrendered to the Soviets the day after the Surrender of Japan and was subsequently dissolved. The Kwantung Army was responsible for many of the worst Japanese war crimes during World War II, including the sponsorship of Unit 731 which performed biological warfare and human experimentation on civilians and prisoners of war.

People's Liberation Army

PLAChinese People's Liberation ArmyChinese Army
During the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945, the Communist military forces were nominally integrated into the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China forming two main units known as the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army. During this time, these two military groups primarily employed guerrilla tactics, generally avoiding large-scale battles with the Japanese with some exceptions while at the same time consolidating their ground by absorbing nationalist troops and paramilitary forces behind Japanese lines into their forces.

Battle of Taiyuan

the final defense of Taiyuandefended Taiyuanfall of the city to the invading Japanese
Yan Xishan also sent troops to reinforce Shijiazhuang, but that caused a lack of personnel to defend the North China area, allowing the Japanese army to break through in the north forcing the Chinese to fall back to a new line at Xinkou. Fighting continued in October in the Battle of Xinkou until the Japanese outflanked Niangziguan in late October, compromising the Chinese defense resulting in the fall of Taiyuan. *Order of battle of the Battle of Taiyuan Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed., 1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung, Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China. Pg. 195-200, Map 6.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano RooseveltFranklin RooseveltRoosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (, ; January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by the initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the Democratic Party, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U.S. history.

Zhu De

Chu TehZhuZhū Dé
During the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War, he held the position of Commander-in-Chief of the Red Army and, in 1940, Zhu, alongside Peng Dehuai, devised and organized the Hundred Regiments Offensive. Initially, Mao supported this offensive. While a successful campaign, Mao later attributed it as the main provocation for the devastating Japanese Three Alls Policy later and used it to criticize Peng at the Lushan Conference. In 1949 Zhu was named Commander-in-Chief of the People's Liberation Army (PLA);it is in this way posterity regards him as a principal founder of the PLA.


Republic of ChinaFormosaRepublic of China (Taiwan)
As the Qing dynasty was defeated in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), Taiwan, along with Penghu and Liaodong Peninsula, were ceded in full sovereignty to the Empire of Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Inhabitants on Taiwan and Penghu wishing to remain Qing subjects were given a two-year grace period to sell their property and move to mainland China. Very few Taiwanese saw this as feasible. On 25 May 1895, a group of pro-Qing high officials proclaimed the Republic of Formosa to resist impending Japanese rule. Japanese forces entered the capital at Tainan and quelled this resistance on 21 October 1895.

Chen Cheng

Chen Cheng (January 4, 1897 – March 5, 1965) was a Chinese political and military leader, and one of the main National Revolutionary Army commanders during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War. After moving to Taiwan at the end of the civil war, he served as the Governor of Taiwan Province, Vice President and Premier of the Republic of China (ROC). He represented the ROC in visits to the United States. He also helped to initiate land reforms and tax reduction programs that caused Communism to become unattractive in Taiwan, where peasants were able to own land. His courtesy name was Chen Tsyr-shiou.

Beiyang Army

Beiyang cliqueBeiyangBeiyang Naval Academy
The First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) was fought almost entirely by the Beiyang Army, unsupported by the forces of other provinces. In the war the Beiyang Fleet, which included two pre-Dreadnought battleships, was overwhelmed by the well-served quick-firing guns of a lighter Japanese fleet. Similarly, on land, Japan's German-styled conscript army, led by academy trained professional officers, handily defeated the Beiyang Army. Some Beiyang officers were also academy trained at the Tianjin Military Academy in Western style drill with foreign advisors. The Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves formed part of the Beiyang Army.

Seishirō Itagaki

Itagaki SeishiroSeishiro ItagakiItagaki Seishirō
From 1937 to 1938 Itagaki was commander of the IJA 5th Division in China during the early part of the Second Sino-Japanese War. His Division took a leading part in the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin, Operation Chahar, and the Battle of Taiyuan. However, in the Battle of Xuzhou his forces were repulsed during the Battle of Taierzhuang in the vicinity of Linyi that prevented them from coming to the aid of Rensuke Isogai's IJA 10th Division. Recalled to Japan in 1938, Itagaki briefly served as War Minister from 1938-1939.

Battle of Taierzhuang

Battle of Tai'erzhuangBattle of Tai er zhuangasymmetric battle
Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed., 1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung, Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China. Pg. 221-230. Map. 9-1. Taierzhuang Campaign. Memorial museum of the Battle of Tai'erzhuang (in Chinese). 台儿庄战役 Map of Tai'erzhuang Campaign in Chinese. (slow to load). Axis History Forum Index » WW2 in the Pacific & Asia » The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail) See Pg. 1-2 for narrative, maps, order of battle and discussion of this battle. Taierzhuang Campaign.


Ji'nanJinan, ChinaTsinan
During the Nanjing decade of the Republic of China, Han Fuju, a military commander from the warlord era who had aligned himself with the Kuomintang, was rewarded with the military governorship of Shandong, after fighting against the rebel troops of Yen Hsi-shan and his former commander Feng Yu-hsiang in the Central Plains War in 1930. He established his base in Jinan and is credited with curtailing banditry and drug trading, thereby bringing a measure of peace and prosperity to the city. However, from 1935 onwards Han was under heavy pressure from the Japanese consul in Jinan to declare Shandong an "independent state" allied with Japan.

H. H. Kung

H.H. KungKung Hsiang-hsiHsiang-hsi Kung
Warlord: Yen Hsi-shan in Shansi Province 1911-1949. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1967. . . . .