He continued to serve in the NRA for the rest of the Nanjing decade, and again rose to army command in the Second Sino-Japanese War, eventually defecting to the Japanese in 1943. The war in Ningxia damaged the reputation of the Nationalist government, as it showcased Chiang Kai-shek's political opportunism. Despite this, the Nationalists continued to try to strengthen their position in the northwestern provinces through similar strategies in the following years with minimal success. The Ma warlords ruled their territories until they were defeated by the Communist People's Liberation Army in the late stages of the Chinese Civil War. *
also foughtattempted to conquerhis attempt to conquer Ningxia
General Guan again successfully accomplished his mission and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek promoted him to commander of the 52nd corps when the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out the next year. Guan led his unit in successive battles against the Japanese Army, which included the Battle of Taierzhuang, Battle of Wuhan, and Battle of Changsha (1939). Because of his personal bravery, he was nicknamed Guan the Brave and the Iron Fist. In 1938, General Guan was promoted to command the 33rd army, and was promoted to the position of commander-in-chief of 15th army group, becoming the first graduate of the Whampoa Military Academy to command an army group.
RailChinese rail networkfirst
During the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945, the Republican government dismantled a number of railways to slow the Japanese advance and added 1,900 km of railways, mostly in the interior of China after coastal regions were occupied. Among the completed lines were the Longhai Railway (Lingbao-Tongguan and Xi'an-Baoji sections), Zhejiang-Jiangxi Railway (Hangzhou-Pingxiang section) and the Guangdong-Hankou Railway (Zhuzhou-Shaoguan section). The Shanxi warlord Yan Xishan built the narrow gauge Datong-Puzhou Railway across Shanxi Province. The Japanese occupiers, using forced labor, built 5,700 km of railway in Manchuria and Rehe Province and 900 km of railway in China Proper.
retreatedKMT retreat to Taiwan in 1949relocated to Taiwan
Yan Xishan. Chiang Ching-kuo. Lee Teng-hui. Conservatism in Taiwan. Two Chinas.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War Jin toured areas of China not controlled by the Japanese, staging patriotic anti-Japanese plays. Shortly after his marriage to Sun, Jin was sent to the camp of Kim Il-sung to stage a play for Communist soldiers serving in the Korean War. While in Kim's camp, Jin was accused of having an affair with one of Kim's female secretaries. When Kim discovered the affair he had the secretary shot, and turned Jin over to the commander of the Chinese forces, Peng Dehuai. Peng sent Jin back to Beijing with the recommendation that Jin be executed.
After the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War, he commanded the 3rd Army Group and in 1937 was made Deputy Commander in Chief of the 5th War Area defending the lower Yellow River valley. Han was suspected of having conducted secret negotiations with the Japanese to spare his province and his position of power. When the Japanese crossed the Yellow River he abandoned his base in Jinan. Han abandoned his army on January 6 and fled to Kaifeng, where he was arrested on 11th and brought to Wuchang and was later executed by Chiang Kai-shek for disobeying orders from superior commanders and retreating on his own accord. Chiang did this to set an example for those not following his orders.
Premier of the Republic of ChinaPremier21st
This government moved to Chongqing during the Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and during the Chinese Civil War relocated to Taipei where it exists today. * Period: 24 May 1948 – present List of vice premiers of the Republic of China. List of Presidents of the Republic of China. List of Vice Presidents of the Republic of China. List of rulers of Taiwan.
BeijingZhongduAncient history of Beijing
The Marco Polo Bridge Incident triggered the Second Sino-Japanese War, World War II as it is known in China. After continued clashes and failed cease-fire talks, Japanese reinforcements with air support launched a full-scale offensive against Beiping and Tianjin in late July. In fighting south of the city, deputy commander of the 29th Army Tong Lin'ge and division commander Zhao Dengyu were both killed in action. They along with Zhang Zizhong, another 29th Army commander who died later in the war, are the only three modern personages after whom city streets are named in Beijing.
In 1930, he supported Shanxi warlord Yan Xishan in opposing Chiang Kai-shek. In 1933, he became a member of the China Democratic Socialist Party. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, he went to Chongqing. After the end of the Chinese Civil War, he stayed on the mainland and died in Beijing at the age of 90. He was the younger brother of Tang Hualong.
In 1930 he fought in the Central Plains War as a colonel in the central army against an anti-central government coalition under Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang and Li Zongren. In 1932, he was received by Chiang Kai-shek after successfully defend his position under communist attacks during the Fourth Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet. He was promoted to brigade commander and later as commander of the 51st division. Two years later he participated the Fifth Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet and captured Chinese communist leader Fang Zhimin and killing another red army commander in battle around September 1934.
Zhao withdrew from politics and the military soon afterwards, but came out of retirement to head the Provisional Hunan Assembly during the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1939. He joined other Kuomintang leaders in exile in Taiwan in 1949, and was appointed a senior adviser to President Chiang Kai-shek. He died in Taipei in 1972 at the age of 91. * Rulers: Chinese Administrative divisions, Hunan
Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895). Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). Sino-Korean. Sino-Soviet border conflict, 1969. Sino-Soviet split. Sino-Tibetan languages. Sino-Vietnamese War. Sinology. Siu Nim Tao. Six Dynasties. Six Steeds of Zhao Mausoleum. Sixteen Kingdoms. Sixteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China. Siyi dialect. Four Barbarians. Sky High (1922 film). Snake (zodiac). Snake Kung Fu. Socialist market economy. Soho, Hong Kong. Soko Islands. Somari. Sonam Gyatso. Song Dynasty. Song Dynasty (420-479). Song Dynasty (960-1279). Song Zheyuan. Songhua River. Songshan Airport. Songshan District, Taipei. Songshan Line. Songshan Station. Soochow University. Soong. Soong Ai-ling.
Yan Xishan, the nationalist commander-in-chief and the warlord of Shanxi was not willing to sacrifice his own troops to help Fu Zuoyi, the nationalist commander and warlord who controlled Hebei. The personal relationship between the two nationalist commanders were strained due to history: prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War, Fu Zuoyi was originally a trusted officer of Yan Xishan but later defected from Yan's clique in the wars among warlords, and eventually became a rival of Yan. Although both came under Chiang Kai-shek's nationalist government's rule after World War II, the distrust among the two still ran deep.
After the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out, Wang Xiang resigned his post, and he accompanied Yan Xishan escaped to Shaanxi, and later Wang went to Hong Kong. In 1942 Wang returned to Shanxi, and in April 1943 he was appointed Chief of the Agency for Education of the Shanxi Province, the Wang Jingwei regime. In next June he was promoted to be Governor and Security Commander of Shanxi. After the Wang Jingwei regime had collapsed, Wang Xiang was protected by Yan Xishan, and Wang was appointed Senior Councilor of the Shanxi Provincial Government. But Shanxi's public opinion claimed Yan must not granted a perdon to Wang.
List of wars 1900–1944
This is a list of wars that began between 1900 and 1944. Other wars can be found in the historical lists of wars and the list of wars extended by diplomatic irregularity. Major global conflicts of this period are World War I and World War II, while major continental conflicts include the Chinese Civil War in Asia, the Banana Wars in North America, the Second Italo-Ethiopian War in Africa, the Spanish Civil War in Europe, and the Chaco War in South America.
Zhengzhou was elevated to city status by warlord Feng Yuxiang in 1928, then in 1931, following the military confrontation between Chiang Kai-shek, Yan Xishan and Feng during the Central Plains War, Zhengzhou once more became a county. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, on June 9, 1938, in order to stop the westward advance of the Japanese Army along the Longhai Railway, Nationalist KMT troops blew up the dikes along the south bank of the Yellow River at Huayuankou causing the 1938 Yellow River flood.
Pacific TheaterPacificPacific Theatre
It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean theater, the South West Pacific theater, the South-East Asian theater, the Second Sino-Japanese War, and the Soviet–Japanese War. The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
60 million peoplecasualties70 million people
The official Chinese government (communist) statistic for China's civilian and military casualties in the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937–1945 is 20 million dead and 15 million wounded. Chinese scholar Bianxiu Yue has published a study of China's population losses in the Second Sino-Japanese War . He put total Chinese losses at 20.6 million dead and 14.2 million injured. Official Nationalist Chinese casualty figures were: killed 1,319,958; wounded 1,716,335 and missing 130,126, An academic study of the Chinese population concluded that these figures are "unreasonably low" and "highly suspect". R. J. Rummel's estimate of total war dead in 1937–45 is 19,605,000.
Soviet UnionSoviet Volunteer Fighter Pilots in ChinaSoviet volunteer military pilots
The Soviet Volunteer Group was the volunteer part of the Soviet Air Forces sent to support the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War between 1937 and 1941. After the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, the Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact was signed and strong Soviet support was given to China by the Soviet Union, including the volunteer squadrons. China paid for the support in the form of raw materials. In the aftermath of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the subsequent worldwide economic crisis, the Empire of Japan pursued an expansionist policy against its weakened neighbors in the Far East.
Battle of Beiping-TianjinLangfang IncidentNorth China Incident
*History of Beijing * Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed., 1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung, Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China. Pg.177-180 Map 2. Discussion and Map of Peiking Tientsin Operation. International Military Tribunal Proceedings.
Battle of NanjingNanjingNanking
The Second Sino-Japanese War was to drag on for another eight years and ultimately end with Japan's surrender in 1945.
Wuhandefense of WuhanWuhan theatre
The Battle of Wuhan, popularly known to the Chinese as the Defense of Wuhan, and to the Japanese as the Capture of Wuhan, was a large-scale battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Engagements took place across vast areas of Anhui, Henan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, and Hubei provinces over a period of four and a half months. This battle was the longest, largest and arguably the most significant battle in the early stages of the Second Sino-Japanese War. More than one million National Revolutionary Army troops from the Fifth and Ninth War Zone were put under the direct command of Chiang Kai-shek, defending Wuhan from the Central China Area Army of the Imperial Japanese Army led by Shunroku Hata.
ShanghaiJapanese invasion of ShanghaiSecond Battle of Shanghai
The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) of the Empire of Japan at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War. It was one of the largest and bloodiest battles of the entire war, later described as "Stalingrad on the Yangtze". Since the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 followed by the Japanese attack of Shanghai in 1932, there had been ongoing armed conflicts between China and Japan without an official declaration of war.
ChungkingChongqing MunicipalityChongqing, China
During the Second Sino-Japanese War, this special weather possibly played a role in protecting the city from being overrun by the Imperial Japanese Army. Chongqing is the largest of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the People's Republic of China. The municipality is divided into 38 subdivisions (3 were abolished in 1997, and Wansheng and Shuangqiao districts were abolished in October 2011 ), consisting of 26 districts, 8 counties, and 4 autonomous counties.
Hump airliftFlying the HumpHump
The Hump was the name given by Allied pilots in the Second World War to the eastern end of the Himalayan Mountains over which they flew military transport aircraft from India to China to resupply the Chinese war effort of Chiang Kai-shek and the units of the United States Army Air Forces (AAF) based in China. Creating an airlift presented the AAF a considerable challenge in 1942: it had no units trained or equipped for moving cargo, and no airfields existed in the China Burma India Theater (CBI) for basing the large number of transports that would be needed.