Sultanate of Rum

Sultanate of RûmSeljukSeljuks of Turkey
While the two palaces built by Alaeddin Keykubad I carry the names Kubadabad Palace and Keykubadiye Palace, he named his mosque in Konya as Alâeddin Mosque and the port city of Alanya he had captured as "Alaiye". Similarly, the medrese built by Kaykhusraw I in Kayseri, within the complex (külliye) dedicated to his sister Gevher Nesibe, was named Gıyasiye Medrese, and the one built by Kaykaus I in Sivas as Izzediye Medrese. * * bs:Seldžuci Turci Timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. Babai Revolt. Byzantine–Seljuq Wars. Rûm Province, Ottoman Empire.

Kaykaus II

Izz al-Din KaykausKeykavus IIIzz ad-Din Kaykaus II
In the Ottoman period the rebel Sheikh Bedreddin, who drew support largely from Turkmen migrants to the Balkans, claimed descent from Kaykaus II. * * Seljuks in Dobruja. Anatolian Seljuks family tree. Claude Cahen, Pre-Ottoman Turkey: a general survey of the material and spiritual culture and history, trans. J. Jones-Williams, (New York: Taplinger, 1968) 271-279. Claude Cahen, Pre-Ottoman Turkey: a general survey of the material and spiritual culture and history, trans. J. Jones-Williams, (New York: Taplinger, 1968) 271-279.

List of Seljuk sultans of Rûm

Seljuq sultans of RumAncestor of the Seljuq sultans of RumList of Seljuk sultans of Rüm (Anatolia) 1077-1307
*Seljuq dynasty Kutalmish 1060–1077. Kutalmışoglu Suleiman 1077–1086. Abu'l Qasim (self-declared) 1086–1092. Dawud Kilij Arslan I 1092–1107. Malik Shah 1107–1116. Rukn ad-Din Mesud I 1116–1156. Izz ad-Din Kilij Arslan II 1156–1192. Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I 1192–1196. Suleiman II 1196–1204. Kilij Arslan III 1204–1205. Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I (second time) 1205–1211. Izz ad-Din Kaykaus I 1211–1220. Ala ad-Din Kayqubad I 1220–1237. Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw II 1237–1246. Izz ad-Din Kaykaus II 1246–1260. Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan IV 1248–1265. Ala ad-Din Kayqubad II 1249–1257. Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw III 1265–1282. Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1282–1284. Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1284.

Kaykhusraw II

Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev IIKeyhüsrev IIGhiyath ad-Din Kaykhusrau II
According to Rustam Shukurov, it is likely that Keyhusrev II, who was born by a Greek wife, and was yet another Seljuk Sultan with a great interest in Greek women, "bore a dual confessional and ethnic identity". Keyhusrev died leaving three sons: 'Izz al-Din Kaykaus, aged 11, son of the daughter of a Greek priest; 9-year-old Rukn al-Din Kilij Arslan, son of a Turkish woman of Konya; and 'Ala al-Din Kayqubadh, son of the Georgian princess Tamar and at age 7 youngest of the three boys.

Alaeddin Keykubad

Alaeddin Keykubad (disambiguation)
Alaeddin Keykubad may refer to: Kayqubad I, aka Alaeddin Keykubad I (d. 1237). Kayqubad II, aka Alaeddin Keykubad II (d. 1256). Kayqubad III, aka Alaeddin Keykubad III (d. 1302).

Mesud II

Masud IIMesut IIGhiyath Ad-din Masud
He was replaced with Kayqubad III who soon became involved in a similar plot and was executed by Sultan Mahmud Ghazan. The impoverished Masud returned to the throne in 1303. From about 1306 Masud, and the Seljuq Sultanate with him, disappears from the historical record. Although, latest findings in 2015 propose his grave has been identified in Samsun. According to Rustam Shukurov, Masud II "had dual Christian and Muslim identity, an identity which was further complicated by dual Turkic/Persian and Greek ethnic identity". * *


Asia MinorAsiatic TurkeyAnatolian Plateau
In the 10 years following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Seljuk Turks from Central Asia migrated over large areas of Anatolia, with particular concentrations around the northwestern rim. The Turkish language and the Islamic religion were gradually introduced as a result of the Seljuk conquest, and this period marks the start of Anatolia's slow transition from predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking, to predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking (although ethnic groups such as Armenians, Greeks, and Assyrians remained numerous and retained Christianity and their native languages).


KaramanidKaramanKaraman Beylik
According to Muhsin Yazicioglu and others, they were members of the Afshar tribe, which participated in the revolt led by Baba Ishak and afterwards moved to the western Taurus Mountains, near the town of Larende, where they came to serve the Seljuks. Nûre Sûfi worked there as a woodcutter. His son, Kerîmeddin Karaman Bey, gained a tenuous control over the mountainous parts of Cilicia in the middle of the 13th century. A persistent but spurious legend, however, claims that the Seljuq Sultan of Rum, Kayqubad I, instead established a Karamanid dynasty in these lands. Karaman Bey expanded his territories by capturing castles in Ermenek, Mut, Ereğli, Gülnar, and Silifke.

Kaykhusraw III

Keyhüsrev IIIGıyaseddin Keyhüsrev III
Kaykhusraw III or Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Kaykhusraw bin Qilij Arslān (ca. 1259/1263 - 1284) was between two and six years old when in 1265 he was named Seljuq Sultan of Rûm. He was the son of Kilij Arslan IV, the weak representative of the Seljuq line who was controlled by the Pervane, Mu’in al-Din Suleyman.


They began to attack the western parts of Greater Armenia, which was under the Seljuks, the following year. In 1236 Ögedei was commanded to raise up Khorassan and proceeded to populate Herat. The Mongol military governors mostly made camp in the Mughan plain in what is now Azerbaijan. Realizing the danger posed by the Mongols, the rulers of Mosul and Cilician Armenia submitted to the Great Khan. Chormaqan divided the Transcaucasia region into three districts based on the Mongol military hierarchy. In Georgia, the population was temporarily divided into eight tumens.


Nizam al-Mulk of Malik Shah I in Seljuks history. Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha of the Ottoman Empire. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha of the Ottoman Empire. Köprülü Mehmed Pasha and his son Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha of the Ottoman Empire. Vaziri (disambiguation), a surname. Ministerial Head of Government in Iran Heads of Government of Iran (1699-1907). Wazir (Tribe). Waziri language. Waziristan. Wasita (title). Wuzurg framadar. Etymology OnLine. Royal Ark, dynasties in historical context – see each muslim nation quoted in this article, often in the section 'Glossary'. WorldStatesmen – click on each Islamic present state. Etymology OnLine.


CaesareaCaesarea in CappadociaCaesarea Mazaca
The 1500-year-old Kayseri Castle, built initially by the Byzantines, and expanded by the Seljuks and Ottomans, is still standing in good condition in the central square of the city. The Arab general (and later the first Umayyad Caliph) Muawiyah invaded Cappadocia and took Caesarea from the Byzantines temporarily in 647. The city was called Kaisariyah by the Arabs, and later Kayseri by Seljuk Turks, when it was captured by Alp Arslan in 1067. The forces of the latter demolished the city and massacred its population. The shrine of Saint Basil was also sacked after the fall of the city. As a result, the city remained uninhabited for the next half century.


Ala'iyyaAlaiye BeylikAlâiye
The second rule of Kayqubad III was centered there. The Ottoman general Gedik Ahmed Pasha's victory against Kasim Bey and the Karamanids also happened in Alaiye. During this period no major state existed in Anatolia, following the defeat of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm by the Mongol Empire at the Battle of Köse Dag. Following minor Christian incursions in the region in 1371, Badr ad-Din Mahmud Bey, an emir of the Karamanids built a mosque and medrese in 1373-1374 in the city. *(Turkish) Alâiye Beyligi Mecdüddin Mahmud (1293-?). Yusuf (1330-1337). Şemseddin Mehmed (1337-1352). Hüsameddin Mahmud. Savcı Bey ( - 1423). Karaman Bey. Lütfi ( - 1455). Kılıç Arslan (1455 - 1471).

Timeline of Turkish history

milestones in the era of the rebirth of the nation
See History of Turkey. See also the Sultanate of Rum, Ottoman Empire and Republic of Turkey.

Timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum

Timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of RûmTimeline of the Sultanate of RûmTimeline of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm
The timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum (1077–1307) is summarized below. After the battles of Pasinler in 1048 and Malazgirt in 1071 Turks founded a number of states in Anatolia. These were the vassals of Great Seljuk Empire. In fact one of the most powerful of these vassal states had been founded by a member of Seljuk house and the name of this state was the Sultanate of Rum. The founder of the state was Süleyman I. Paternal grandfathers of the sultan Melik Shah of Great Seljuk Empire and Suleyman I were brothers. But soon, the Seljuks of Rûm began to act independently of the Great Seljuk Empire and annexed the territories of other Turkish states in Anatolia.


The name Kayqubad may refer to the following monarchs of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm: * Kai Kobad Kayqubad I (died 1237). Kayqubad II (died 1256). Kayqubad III (died 1302).

Khwarazmian dynasty

Khwarezmid EmpireKhwarezmian EmpireKhwarazmian
He never consolidated his power, however, spending the rest of his days struggling against the Mongols, the Seljuks of Rum, and pretenders to his own throne. He lost his power over Persia in a battle against the Mongols in the Alborz Mountains. Escaping to the Caucasus, he captured Azerbaijan in 1225, setting up his capital at Tabriz. In 1226 he attacked Georgia and sacked Tbilisi. Following on through the Armenian highlands he clashed with the Ayyubids, capturing the town Ahlat along the western shores of the Lake Van, who sought the aid of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. Sultan Kayqubad I defeated him at Arzinjan on the Upper Euphrates at the Battle of Yassıçemen in 1230.

Kaykhusraw I

Keyhüsrev IGıyaseddin Keyhüsrev IGhīyāth al-Dīn Kaykhusraw
His son Kayqubad I, by Manuel Maurozomes' daughter, ruled the Sultanate from 1220 to 1237, and his grandson, Kaykhusraw II, ruled from 1237 to 1246. According to Rustam Shukurov, Kaykhusraw I "had dual Christian and Muslim identity, an identity which was further complicated by dual Turkic/Persian and Greek ethnic identity". Muhammad bin Ali Rawandi dedicated his book, Rahat al-sudur wa-ayat al-surur, to Kaykhusraw. *

Kaykaus I

Keykavus IGhiyaseddin Kay-Khusraw IIzzeddin Keykavus I
According to Rustam Shukurov, it is very probably that Kaykaus I and his brother Kayqubad I, who both spent considerable time in Constantinople with their father, had the same dual confessional (Christian and Muslim) and dual ethnic (Turkic/Persian and Greek) identity as Kaykhusraw I, Kaykaus II, and Masud II. In 1212 Kaykaus built a madrasa in Ankara and in 1217 the Şifaiye Medresesi in Sivas. The latter was designed as a hospital and medical school. The sultan’s mausoleum is in the south eyvan of the building under a conical dome. The façade includes a poem by the sultan in blue faience tiles. *

Gürcü Hatun

TamarGeorgian wife
She was the mother of sultan Kayqubad II and patron to Rumi. Her title Gürcü Hatun means "Georgian Lady" in Turkic languages. She was born as Tamar (თამარი, Tamari) and had a biblical name popular in Kingdom of Georgia and was named after her grandmother Queen Tamar the Great. Gürcü Hatun was the daughter of Queen Rusudan of Georgia and the Seljuk prince Ghias ad-din, a grandson of Kilij Arslan II. She was a sister of King David VI of Georgia. Like most Georgians, Tamar initially remained an Eastern Orthodox Christian but is known to have converted to Islam at a later point, with no further information on how the conversion came about.

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

Cilician ArmeniaArmeniaArmenian Cilicia
In order to enact revenge for his son's death, Bohemond sought an alliance with Seljuk sultan Kayqubad I, who captured regions west of Seleucia. Het'um also struck coins with his figure on one side, and with the name of the sultan on the other. During the rule of Zabel and Het'um, the Mongols under Genghis Khan and his successor Ögedei Khan rapidly expanded from Central Asia and reached the Middle East, conquering Mesopotamia and Syria in their advance towards Egypt. On June 26, 1243, they secured a decisive victory at Köse Dağ against the Seljuk Turks. The Mongol conquest was disastrous for Greater Armenia, but not Cilicia, as Het'um preemptively chose to cooperate with the Mongols.


With Artuqid support, however, Saladin eventually took control of Mosul as well, transferring the rule from nominal Seljuk Empire to the Ayyubid Sultanate by late 1180s. The Seljuk Empire completely disintegrated soon after that in 1194. The Artuklu dynasty remained in nominal command of upper Mesopotamia, but their power declined under Ayyubid rule. The Hasankeyf branch conquered Diyarbakır in 1198 and its center was moved here, but was demolished by the Ayyubids in 1231 when it attempted to form an alliance with the Seljuqs. The Harput branch was destroyed by the Sultanate of Rum due to following a slippery policy between the Ayyubids and Seljuqs.

Persian language

PersianNew PersianFarsi
A branch of the Seljuks, the Sultanate of Rum, took Persian language, art and letters to Anatolia. They adopted Persian language as the official language of the empire. The Ottomans, which can roughly be seen as their eventual successors, took this tradition over. Persian was the official court language of the empire, and for some time, the official language of the empire. The educated and noble class of the Ottoman Empire all spoke Persian, such as Sultan Selim I, despite being Safavid Iran's archrival and a staunch opposer of Shia Islam. It was a major literary language in the empire.

Kilij Arslan IV

Kılıç Arslan IVKılıç Aslan IVKilidj Rukn al-Din Arslan IV
Kilij Arslan IV or Rukn ad-Dīn Qilij Arslān bin Kaykhusraw was Seljuq Sultan of Rûm after the death of his father Kaykhusraw II in 1246. He was installed by the Mongol Empire, as sultan over his elder brother, Kaykaus II. He was executed in 1266 by the Pervâne Mu‘in al-Din Suleyman.

Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu

Jalal ad-DinMingburnuJalal al-Din
Jalal ad-Din spent the rest of his days struggling against the Mongols, pretenders to the throne and the Seljuk Turks of Rum. His dominance in the region required year-after-year campaigning. In 1226, the governor of Kerman, Burak Hadjib, rebelled against him, but after the sultan marched against him he was again brought back into agreement. Jalal ad-Din then had a brief victory over the Seljuks and captured the town of Akhlat in Turkey from the Ayyubids. In 1227 he battled against the Mongols on the approach to Isfahan and while he didn't defeat the invaders following their great losses they weren't able to utilise their victory and withdrew afterwards across the Oxus river.