IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
Much of the military expenditure was focused on defence against Pakistan and countering growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean. In May 2017, the Indian Space Research Organisation launched the South Asia Satellite, a gift from India to its neighbouring SAARC countries. In October 2018, India signed a US$5.43 billion (over Rs 400 billion) agreement with Russia to procure four S-400 Triumf surface-to-air missile defence systems, Russia's most advanced long-range missile defence system.


Japan has strained relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) over the Senkaku Islands; and with the People's Republic of China over the status of Okinotorishima. Japan's relationship with South Korea has been strained due to Japan's treatment of Koreans during Japanese colonial rule, particularly over the issue of comfort women. These women were essentially sex slaves, and although there is no exact number on how many women were subjected to this treatment, experts believe it could be in the tens or hundreds of thousands. Between 1910 and 1945, the Japanese government rebuilt Korean infrastructure.


AUSAustralianCommonwealth of Australia
In 2018 the five largest foreign-born populations were those born in England (4%), Mainland China (2.6%), India (2.4%), New Zealand (2.3%) and the Philippines (1.1%). In the 2016 Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: • English (36.1%) • Australian (33.5%) • Irish (11.0%) • Scottish (9.3%) • Chinese (5.6%) • Italian (4.6%) • German (4.5%) • Indian (2.8%) • Indigenous (2.8%) • Greek (1.8%) • Dutch (1.6%) • Filipino (1.4%) • Vietnamese (1.4%) • Lebanese (1%) At the 2016 census, 649,171 people (2.8% of the total population) identified as being Indigenous — Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders.

International Union for Conservation of Nature

IUCNInternational Union for the Conservation of NatureWorld Conservation Union
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources ) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable".

Blacktip reef shark

Carcharhinus melanopterusBlacktip reef sharksBlacktip Reef
Blacktip reef sharks, particularly small individuals, fall prey to larger fishes, including groupers, grey reef sharks, tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier), and members of their own species. At Palmyra Atoll, adults avoid patrolling tiger sharks by staying out of the central, deeper lagoon. Their known parasites include the tapeworms Anthobothrium lesteri, Nybelinia queenslandensis, Otobothrium alexanderi, and Platybothrium jondoeorum, a myxosporidian in the genus Unicapsula, and the monogenean Dermophthirius melanopteri.

Whitetip reef shark

Triaenodon obesusTriaenodonwhite tip reef sharks
An individual shark may rest inside the same cave for months to years. The daytime home range of a whitetip reef shark is limited to approximately 0.05 km2; at night this range increases to 1 km2. These sharks are not territorial and share their home ranges with others of their species; they do not perform threat displays. Important predators of the whitetip reef shark include tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos sharks (Carcharhinus galapagensis), and possibly also silvertip sharks (Carcharhinus albimarginatus), though they usually occur at depths greater than those favored by whitetip reef sharks.

Sea turtle

sea turtlesmarine turtlemarine turtles
Ancient Chinese texts dating to the 5th century B.C.E. describe sea turtles as exotic delicacies. Many coastal communities around the world depend on sea turtles as a source of protein, often harvesting several sea turtles at once and keeping them alive on their backs until needed. Coastal peoples gather sea turtle eggs for consumption. To a much lesser extent, specific species of sea turtles are targeted not for their flesh, but for their shells. Tortoiseshell, a traditional decorative ornamental material used in Japan and China, comes from the carapace scutes of the hawksbill sea turtle.


La RéunionReunion IslandRéunion Island
Between 2010 and 2017, 23 shark attacks occurred in the waters of Réunion, of which nine were fatal. In July 2013, the Prefect of Réunion Michel Lalande announced a ban on swimming, surfing, and bodyboarding off more than half of the coast. Lalande also said 45 bull sharks and 45 tiger sharks would be culled, in addition to the 20 already killed as part of scientific research into the illness ciguatera. Migrations of humpback whales contributed to a boom of whale watching industries on Réunion, and watching rules have been governed by the OMAR (Observatoire Marin de la Réunion) and Globice (Groupe local d'observation et d'identification des cétacés).


Recife, BrazilMauriciaRecife, PE
Most sharks use the mangroves at least once in life to breed or feed. The destruction of the mangrove swamps where the Suape port was built caused the bull shark females that used the place to procreate migrate to the estuary of the Jaboatão River, to the north. This river flows exactly into the beaches of Recife. Cemit, the Council for Shark Hazard Monitoring, conducts a catch-and-release program to remove the sharks from beaches. 81 sharks were caught, tagged with tracking devices, and released far out to sea. Its GPS data on the sharks tagged show that after being caught, all tiger sharks have migrated to other regions.


ground sharkground sharkscarcharhiniform
Sphyrnidae (hammerhead sharks). Triakidae (houndsharks). Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013) Fish Identification: Ground sharks in FishBase. March 2013 version.

Requiem shark

Carcharhinidaerequiem sharksrequiem
Most Requiem Sharks hunt alone, however some species like the White Tip Reef Sharks and Lemon Sharks are cooperative feeders and will hunt in packs through coordinated, timed attacks against their prey. The 60 species of requiem shark are grouped into 12 genera: † = extinct * Shark meat Genus Galeocerdo J. P. Müller & Henle, 1837. Galeocerdo cuvier Péron & Lesueur, 1822 (tiger shark). Genus Scoliodon J. P. Müller & Henle, 1838. Scoliodon laticaudus J. P. Müller & Henle, 1838 (spadenose shark). Scoliodon macrorhynchos Bleeker, 1852 (Pacific spadenose shark). Genus Carcharhinus Blainville, 1816. Carcharhinus acronotus Poey, 1860 (blacknose shark).

Hammerhead shark

hammerheadSphyrnidaehammerhead sharks
These sharks include great white sharks, tiger sharks, and bull sharks. The hammerhead shark, also known as mano kihikihi, is not considered a man-eater or niuhi; it is considered to be one of the most respected sharks of the ocean, an aumakua. Many Hawaiian families believe that they have an aumakua watching over them and protecting them from the niuhi. The hammerhead shark is thought to be the birth animal of some children. Hawaiian children who are born with the hammerhead shark as an animal sign are believed to be warriors and are meant to sail the oceans.

Great white shark

great white sharksCarcharodon carchariaswhite shark
Though rumors have stated this shark was exaggerated in size or non-existent altogether, witness accounts by the then young Craig Anthony Ferreira, a notable shark expert in South Africa, and his father indicate an unusually large animal of considerable size and power (though it remains uncertain just how massive the shark was as it escaped capture each time it was hooked). Ferreira describes the four encounters with the giant shark he participated in with great detail in his book "Great White Sharks On Their Best Behavior". One contender in maximum size among the predatory sharks is the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier).

Fish fin

anal finpectoral fincaudal fin
Tiger sharks have a large upper lobe, which allows for slow cruising and sudden bursts of speed. The tiger shark must be able to twist and turn in the water easily when hunting to support its varied diet, whereas the porbeagle shark, which hunts schooling fish such as mackerel and herring, has a large lower lobe to help it keep pace with its fast-swimming prey. Other tail adaptations help sharks catch prey more directly, such as the thresher shark's usage of its powerful, elongated upper lobe to stun fish and squid. Foil shaped fins generate thrust when moved, the lift of the fin sets water or air in motion and pushes the fin in the opposite direction.

Shark finning

shark finfinnedfinning
Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) (a species of mackerel shark). Sandbar (Carcharhinus plumbeus) (a species of requiem shark). Silky (Carcharhinus falciformis) (a species of requiem shark). Spinner (Carcharhinus brevipinna" (a species of requiem shark). Thresher (family Alopiidae). Tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier) (a species of requiem shark). Great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) (a species of mackerel shark). Requiem sharks (i.e. Tiger Sharks, Bull Sharks, etc.). Hammerhead sharks. Thresher sharks. Basking sharks. Mackerel sharks. Eagle and mobulid rays. Freshwater stingrays. Whale sharks. Sawfishes. Basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). Great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias).


Ornithoteuthis volatilis, a common squid from the tropical Indo-Pacific, is predated by yellowfin tuna, longnose lancetfish, common dolphinfish and swordfish, the tiger shark, the scalloped hammerhead shark and the smooth hammerhead shark. Sperm whales also hunt this species extensively as does the brown fur seal. In the Southern Ocean, penguins and wandering albatrosses are major predators of Gonatus antarcticus. Giant squid have featured as monsters of the deep since classical times. Giant squid were described by Aristotle (4th century BC) in his History of Animals and Pliny the Elder (1st century AD) in his Natural History.

List of sharks

shark speciesover 500 species
Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo, 1827) (Sandbar shark). Carcharhinus porosus (Ranzani, 1839) (Small-tail shark). Carcharhinus sealei (Pietschmann, 1913) (Black-spot shark). Carcharhinus signatus (Poey, 1868) (Night shark). Carcharhinus sorrah (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839) (Spot-tail shark). Carcharhinus tilstoni (Whitley, 1950) (Australian blacktip shark). Carcharhinus tjutjot (Bleeker, 1852) (Indonesian whaler shark). Carcharhinus sp. A Not yet described (False smalltail shark). Genus Galeocerdo J. P. Müller & Henle, 1837. Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur, 1822) (Tiger shark). Genus Glyphis Agassiz, 1843. Glyphis gangeticus (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839) (Ganges shark). Glyphis garricki L. J.

Bull shark

Carcharhinus leucasbullbull sharks
Along with the tiger shark and great white shark, bull sharks are among the three shark species most likely to bite humans. One or several bull sharks may have been responsible for the Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916, which were the inspiration for Peter Benchley's novel Jaws. The speculation of bull sharks possibly being responsible is based on two fatal bites occurring in brackish and fresh water. Bull sharks have attacked swimmers around the Sydney Harbour inlets. In India, bull sharks swim up the Ganges River and have bitten bathers.

Caribbean Sea

CaribbeanCaribbean coastMar Caribe
In the Caribbean Sea there are around 1,000 documented species of fish, including sharks (bull shark, tiger shark, silky shark and Caribbean reef shark), flying fish, giant oceanic manta ray, angel fish, spotfin butterflyfish, parrotfish, Atlantic Goliath grouper, tarpon and moray eels. Throughout the Caribbean there is industrial catching of lobster and sardines (off the coast of Yucatán Peninsula). There are 90 species of mammals in the Caribbean including sperm whales, humpback whales and dolphins. The island of Jamaica is home to seals and manatees. The Caribbean monk seal which lived in the Caribbean is considered extinct. The solenodon is endangered.


dolphinsgenital slitaquatic mammal
For most of the smaller species of dolphins, only a few of the larger sharks, such as the bull shark, dusky shark, tiger shark and great white shark, are a potential risk, especially for calves. Some of the larger dolphin species, especially orcas (killer whales), may also prey on smaller dolphins, but this seems rare. Dolphins also suffer from a wide variety of diseases and parasites. The Cetacean morbillivirus in particular has been known to cause regional epizootics often leaving hundreds of animals of various species dead.


In the cartilaginous fishes (class Chondrichthyes), sharks of the families Lamnidae (porbeagle, mackerel, salmon, and great white sharks) and Alopiidae (thresher sharks) exhibit endothermy. The degree of endothermy varies from the billfishes, which warm only their eyes and brain, to the bluefin tuna and the porbeagle shark, which maintain body temperatures in excess of 20 C above ambient water temperatures. Endothermy, though metabolically costly, is thought to provide advantages such as increased muscle strength, higher rates of central nervous system processing, and higher rates of digestion. Fish reproductive organs include testicles and ovaries.


raysrayray fish
The clade is represented today by sharks, sawfish, rays and skates. The classification of batoids is currently undergoing revision; however, molecular evidence refutes the hypothesis that skates and rays are derived sharks. Nelson's 2006 Fishes of the World recognizes four orders. The Mesozoic Sclerorhynchoidea are basal or incertae sedis; they show features of the Rajiformes but have snouts resembling those of sawfishes. However, evidence indicates they are probably the sister group to sawfishes.

Basking shark

basking sharksCetorhinus maximusCetorhinus
The endangered aspect of this shark was publicised in 2005 with a postage stamp issued by Guernsey Post. Historically, the basking shark has been a staple of fisheries because of its slow swimming speed, placid nature, and previously abundant numbers. Commercially, it was put to many uses: the flesh for food and fishmeal, the hide for leather, and its large liver (which has a high squalene content) for oil. It is currently fished mainly for its fins (for shark fin soup). Parts (such as cartilage) are also used in traditional Chinese medicine and as an aphrodisiac in Japan, further adding to demand.

Megamouth shark

Megachasma pelagiosmegamouthmegamouths
The megamouth shark (Megachasma pelagios) is a species of deepwater shark. It is rarely seen by humans and is the smallest of the three extant filter-feeding sharks alongside the whale shark and basking shark. Since its discovery in 1976, few megamouth sharks have been seen, with fewer than 100 specimens being observed or caught. Like the other two planktivorous sharks, it swims with its enormous mouth wide open, filtering water for plankton and jellyfish. It is distinctive for its large head with rubbery lips.

Nictitating membrane

third eyelidnictating membranehaw
The membrane can be used to protect the eye while attacking prey, as in sharks. Nictitating membranes can protect eyes from ultraviolet radiation, as they do in polar bears to prevent snow blindness. The nictitating membranes in cats and dogs do not have many muscle fibers, so they are not usually visible; chronic visibility should be taken as a sign of poor condition or ill health. It can, however, be seen clearly when gently opening the eye of the healthy animal when it is asleep, or pushing down/applying pressure on the eyeball, which will cause it to appear.