Indonesia

🇮🇩IndonesianRepublic of Indonesia
The country's main export markets are China (12%), United States (11%), Japan (11%), Singapore (8%) and India (7%), while its main import partners are China (23%), Singapore (11%), Japan (10%), Thailand (7%) and Malaysia (5%). Indonesia's transport system has been shaped over time by the economic resource base of an archipelago, and the distribution of its 250 million people highly concentrated on Java. All transport modes play a role in the country's transport system and are generally complementary rather than competitive. In 2016, the transport sector generated about 5.2% of GDP. The road transport system is predominant, with a total length of 537838 km.

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
Measured by only land area, the United States is third in size behind Russia and China, just ahead of Canada. The United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest nation by total area (land and water), ranking behind Russia and Canada and just above or below China. The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured. The Encyclopædia Britannica, for instance, lists the size of the United States as 3677649 sqmi, as they do not count the country's coastal or territorial waters. The World Factbook, which includes those waters, gives 3796742 sqmi.

History of China

Chineseimperial Chinaancient China
It was this same bureaucracy that later prevented the Ming government from being able to adapt to changes in society, and eventually led to its decline. The Yongle Emperor strenuously tried to extend China's influence beyond its borders by demanding other rulers send ambassadors to China to present tribute. A large navy was built, including four-masted ships displacing 1,500 tons. A standing army of 1 million troops was created. The Chinese armies conquered and occupied Vietnam for around 20 years, while the Chinese fleet sailed the China seas and the Indian Ocean, cruising as far as the east coast of Africa. The Chinese gained influence in eastern Moghulistan.

Green sea turtle

green turtlegreengreen turtles
Green sea turtles have a relatively slow growth rate because of the low nutritional value of their diet. Body fat turns green because of the consumed vegetation. This diet shift has an effect on the green turtle's skull morphology. Their serrated jaw helps them chew algae and sea grasses. Most adult sea turtles are strictly herbivorous. Only human beings and the larger sharks feed on C. mydas adults. Specifically, tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) hunt adults in Hawaiian waters. Juveniles and new hatchlings have significantly more predators, including crabs, small marine mammals and shorebirds.

List of countries by GDP (PPP)

GDP (PPP)GDP (per capita)PPP
China's PPP is based on prices for 11 administrative regions, extrapolated to the full country, and an urban/rural breakdown. China's entry does not include the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau. These are listed separately.

List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Economic rank, by nominal GDP (2007)GDP (nominal)Nominal GDP
Since China's transition to a market-based economy through privatisation and deregulation, the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth in 1978 to second to only the United States in 2016 as economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016. India has also experienced a similar economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s. When supranational entities are included, the European Union is the second largest economy in the world. It was the largest from 2004, when ten countries joined the union, to 2014, after which it was surpassed by the United States.

List of countries by military expenditures

Military expendituresmilitary expenditureglobal military spending
Military budget of the People's Republic of China. Military budget of the Russian Federation.

Australia

🇦🇺AUSAustralian
Australia is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization, and has pursued several major bilateral free trade agreements, most recently the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement and Closer Economic Relations with New Zealand, with another free trade agreement being negotiated with China—the Australia–China Free Trade Agreement—and Japan, South Korea in 2011, Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement, and has put the Trans-Pacific Partnership before parliament for ratification.

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

ASEANAssociation of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)ASEAN Regional Forum
On 26 August 2007, ASEAN stated its aims of completing free trade agreements (FTA) with China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia, and New Zealand by 2013, which is in line with the start of the ASEAN Economic Community by 2015. In November 2007, ASEAN states signed the ASEAN Charter, a constitution governing relations among member states and establishing the group itself as an international legal entity. During the same year, the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security was signed by ASEAN and the other members of the EAS (Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea), which pursues energy security by finding energy alternatives to conventional fuels.

G20

G-20Group of 20Group of Twenty
The 2019 chair will be Japan, which will host the 2019 G20 Osaka summit. In 2010, President of France Nicolas Sarkozy proposed the establishment of a permanent G20 secretariat, similar to the United Nations. Seoul and Paris were suggested as possible locations for its headquarters. Brazil and China supported the establishment of a secretariat, while Italy and Japan expressed opposition to the proposal. South Korea proposed a "cyber secretariat" as an alternative.

Asia

AsianAsian continentAsian countries
In many Chinese communities, Mahayana Buddhism is easily syncretized with Taoism, thus exact religious statistics is difficult to obtain and may be understated or overstated. The Communist-governed countries of China, Vietnam and North Korea are officially atheist, thus the number of Buddhists and other religious adherents may be under-reported. Jainism is found mainly in India and in oversea Indian communities such as the United States and Malaysia. Sikhism is found in Northern India and amongst overseas Indian communities in other parts of Asia, especially Southeast Asia. Confucianism is found predominantly in Mainland China, South Korea, Taiwan and in overseas Chinese populations.

East Asia Summit

EASEast Asia summits2nd East Asia Summit
India has launched several Look-East connectivity projects with China and ASEAN nations. After the EAS was established the issue arose of whether any future East Asia Community would arise from the EAS or ASEAN Plus Three. Prior to the creation of the EAS it appeared that ASEAN Plus Three would take the role of community building in East Asia. Malaysia felt that it was still the case that the role of the community building fell to ASEAN Plus Three shortly before the second EAS despite "confusion". China apparently agreed whereas Japan and India felt the EAS should be the focus of the East Asian Community.

Réunion

🇷🇪Île BourbonReunion
Sea turtles and dolphins also inhabit the coastal waters. Humpback whales migrate north to the island from the Antarctic waters annually during the Southern Hemisphere winter (June–September) to breed and feed, and can be routinely observed from the shores of Réunion during this season. At least 19 species formerly endemic to Réunion have become extinct following human colonisation. For example, the Réunion giant tortoise became extinct after being slaughtered in vast numbers by sailors and settlers of the island. Between 2010 and 2017, 23 shark attacks occurred in the waters of Réunion, of which nine were fatal.

Southeast Asia

south-east AsiaSoutheastSouth East Asia
The whale shark, the world's largest species of fish and 6 species of sea turtles can also be found in the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean territories of the Philippines. The trees and other plants of the region are tropical; in some countries where the mountains are tall enough, temperate-climate vegetation can be found. These rainforest areas are currently being logged-over, especially in Borneo. While Southeast Asia is rich in flora and fauna, Southeast Asia is facing severe deforestation which causes habitat loss for various endangered species such as orangutan and the Sumatran tiger.

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddha
Records written by Chinese monks visiting India indicate that both Mahāyāna and non-Mahāyāna monks could be found in the same monasteries, with the difference that Mahayana monks worshipped figures of Bodhisattvas, while non-Mahayana monks did not. Much of the early extant evidence for the origins of Mahāyāna comes from early Chinese translations of Mahāyāna texts. These Mahayana teachings were first propagated into China by Lokakṣema, the first translator of Mahayana sutras into Chinese during the 2nd century CE.

List of countries by real GDP growth rate

Real GDP growth rateGDP growth ratefastest growing economies
This article includes a list of countries and dependent territories sorted by their real gross domestic product growth rate; the rate of growth of the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year. The statistics were compiled from the IMF World Economic Outlook Database with the vast majority of estimates corresponding to the 2017 calendar year. Values from other sources are referenced as such.

Vietnam

🇻🇳Viet NamSocialist Republic of Vietnam
Joint military exercises and war games also being held with Brunei, India, Japan, Laos, Russia, Singapore and the United States. Vietnam is divided into 58 provinces (Vietnamese: tỉnh, from the Chinese 省, shěng). There are also five municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc trung ương), which are administratively on the same level as provinces. The provinces are subdivided into provincial municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc tỉnh), townships (thị xã) and counties (huyện), which are in turn subdivided into towns (thị trấn) or communes (xã). The centrally controlled municipalities are subdivided into districts (quận) and counties, which are further subdivided into wards (phường).

Indomalayan realm

IndomalayanOrientalIndomalaya
Also called the Oriental realm by biogeographers, Indomalaya extends from Afghanistan through the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia to lowland southern China, and through Indonesia as far as Java, Bali, and Borneo, east of which lies the Wallace line, the realm boundary named after Alfred Russel Wallace which separates Indomalayan from Australasia. Indomalaya also includes the Philippines, lowland Taiwan, and Japan's Ryukyu Islands. Most of Indomalaya was originally covered by forest, mostly tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, with tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests predominant in much of India and parts of Southeast Asia.

Russia

🇷🇺RUSRussian
In recent years, the country has significantly strengthened bilateral ties with the People's Republic of China by signing the Treaty of Friendship as well as building the Trans-Siberian oil pipeline and gas pipeline from Siberia to China, and has since formed a special relationship with China. India is the largest customer of Russian military equipment and the two countries share extensive defense and strategic relations.

Head of state

heads of statechief of stateheads of states
During the Chinese Cultural Revolution, following the downfall of Liu Shaoqi, who was Chairman of the People's Republic of China, no successor was named, so the duties of the head of state were transferred collectively to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. This situation was later changed: the Head of State of the PRC is now the President of the People's Republic of China. In North Korea, the late Kim Il-sung was named "Eternal President" 4 years after his death and the presidency was abolished.

Japanese war crimes

war crimesatrocitiesJapanese war criminals
The new right/new left also takes the view that the Allies committed no war crimes against Japan, because Japan was not a signatory to the Geneva Convention, and as a victors, the Allies had every right to demand some form of retribution, to which Japan consented in various treaties. Under the same logic, the new right/new left considers the killing of Chinese who were suspected of guerrilla activity to be perfectly legal and valid, including some of those killed at Nanjing, for example. They also take the view that many Chinese civilian casualties resulted from the scorched earth tactics of the Chinese nationalists.

ASEAN Free Trade Area

ASEAN Plus ThreeAFTAAANZFTA
ASEAN–India Free Trade Area (AIFTA), in effect as of 1 January 2010. ASEAN–Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership (AJCEP). ASEAN–Korea Free Trade Area (AKFTA), in effect as of 1 January 2010. Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia.

International Monetary Fund

IMFInternational Monetary Fund (IMF)the International Monetary Fund
Improving governance and fighting corruption. all 188 members' quotas will increase from a total of about SDR 238.5 billion to about SDR 477 billion, while the quota shares and voting power of the IMF's poorest member countries will be protected. more than 6 percent of quota shares will shift to dynamic emerging market and developing countries and also from over-represented to under-represented members. four emerging market countries (Brazil, China, India, and Russia) will be among the ten largest members of the IMF. Other top 10 members are the United States, Japan, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Italy.

List of busiest airports by passenger traffic

passenger traffic11th busiest airport in the worldbusiest airport in the world
As of 2017, seven countries have at least two airports in the top 50; the United States of America has 15, Greater China has 10, and the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, India and Spain have two airports each.

Blacktip reef shark

Blacktip ReefCarcharhinus melanopterusreef shark
Blacktip reef sharks, particularly small individuals, fall prey to larger fishes, including groupers, grey reef sharks, tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier), and members of their own species. At Palmyra Atoll, adults avoid patrolling tiger sharks by staying out of the central, deeper lagoon. Their known parasites include the tapeworms Anthobothrium lesteri, Nybelinia queenslandensis, Otobothrium alexanderi, and Platybothrium jondoeorum, a myxosporidian in the genus Unicapsula, and the monogenean Dermophthirius melanopteri.