Third-degree murder

murder in the third degreethird degree murderthird-degree
A conviction for third-degree murder does not require intent to kill as in first-degree murder, but it still requires malice. In general, Pennsylvania courts have ruled that the standard of "malice" required for a conviction of third-degree murder is the same as that required for aggravated assault: not just "ordinary negligence" nor "mere recklessness", but "a higher degree of culpability, i.e., that which considers and then disregards the threat necessarily posed to human life by the offending conduct". A defense of diminished capacity may reduce first-degree murder to third-degree murder.

Crime

criminalcriminalscriminal offence
The notion that acts such as murder, rape, and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What precisely is a criminal offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, in some common law countries no such comprehensive statute exists. The state (government) has the power to severely restrict one's liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which investigations and trials must adhere.

Capital punishment

death penaltyexecutionexecuted
Supporters of the death penalty argued that death penalty is morally justified when applied in murder especially with aggravating elements such as for murder of police officers, child murder, torture murder, multiple homicide and mass killing such as terrorism, massacre and genocide. This argument is strongly defended by New York Law School's Professor Robert Blecker, who says that the punishment must be painful in proportion to the crime. Eighteenth-century philosopher Immanuel Kant defended a more extreme position, according to which every murderer deserves to die on the grounds that loss of life is incomparable to any jail term.

Felony murder rule

felony murderfelony-murder rulefelonious shooting
In England and Wales, the definition of murder requires only an intent to cause grievous bodily harm to the victim, rather than specific intent to kill; the effect is the same as that of the felony murder rule applied to crimes of personal violence, though not to all felonies. There is no equivalent to the felony murder rule in Scots law, which has also never had a specific concept of felonies in the previous style of English law. However, the Scots equivalent of joint enterprise, known as "art and part", also has a similar effect., 46 states in the United States have a felony murder rule, under which felony murder is generally first-degree murder.

2 Girls 1 Cup

2 Girls 1 Cup is the unofficial nickname of the trailer for Hungry Bitches, a 2007 Brazilian scat-fetish pornographic film produced by MFX Media. The trailer features two women defecating into a cup, taking turns in what appears to be consuming the excrement, and vomiting into each other's mouths. "Lovers Theme" by Hervé Roy plays throughout the video.

Diminished responsibility

diminished capacitycapacity for rational thought had been diminishedDiminished capacity in United States law
For example, if the felony murder rule does not apply, first degree murder requires that the state prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant acted with premeditation, deliberation and the specific intent to kill—all three are necessary elements of the state's case. If evidence exists, sufficient to create a reasonable doubt as to whether the defendant because of mental illness or "defect" possessed the capacity to premeditate, deliberate or form the specific intent to kill then the state cannot convict the defendant of first degree murder. This does not mean that the defendant is entitled to an acquittal.

Honor killing

honour killinghonor killingshonour killings
'Pakistan's Kim Kardashian' Murdered by Brother in 'Honor Killing'.

Journalist

reporterjournalistsnews reporter
As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder (71%), crossfire or combat (17%), or on dangerous assignment (11%). The "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq (230 deaths), Philippines (109), Russia (77), Colombia (76), Mexico (69), Algeria (61), Pakistan (59), India (49), Somalia (45), Brazil (31) and Sri Lanka (30). The Committee to Protect Journalists also reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are even higher.

Crime of passion

crimes of passioncrime passionnelCrime passionel
In some jurisdictions, a successful 'crime of passion' defense may result in a conviction for manslaughter or second degree murder instead of first degree murder, because a defendant cannot ordinarily be convicted of first degree murder unless the crime was premeditated. A classic example of a crime of passion involves a spouse who, upon finding his or her partner in bed with another, kills the romantic interloper. In the United States, claims of "crimes of passion" have been traditionally associated with the defenses of temporary insanity or provocation. This defense was first used by U.S. Congresswoman Sara of Missouri in 1859 after he had killed his wife's lover, Barton Key II.

187 (slang)

187Section 1871-8-7
Thus, the charging documents for a suspect charged with murder would be inscribed with "PC 187(a)" or just "PC 187". If a suspect is charged with attempted murder, then the relevant code would be "PC 664/187" because attempt is defined in Penal Code section 664. Under the California Uniform Bail Schedule, the standard bail for murder is $750,000. The standard bail for first-degree murder with special circumstances (that is, circumstances under which the district attorney is seeking the death penalty) is "NO BAIL". * Law enforcement jargon

Depraved-heart murder

depraved heart murderdepraved indifference murderdepraved-heart
In cases involving multiple murders, a second (multiple) murder conviction(s), or the murder of a police officer, then the detention term can be the prisoner's whole life. In English criminal law, however, murder requires intent to kill or cause grievous bodily harm. Recklessness as to harm will not suffice. In a case where death results from recklessness, the defendant will be guilty of reckless manslaughter. In the 1946 case, Commonwealth v. Malone, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania affirmed the conviction of a teenager on the charge of second degree murder using the depraved-heart doctrine.

Horror film

horrorhorror moviehorror films
Slasher films often revolve around a serial killer who systematically murders people through violent means. Examples include: Psycho, The Texas Chain Saw Massacre, Peeping Tom, Black Christmas, Halloween, Friday the 13th, A Nightmare on Elm Street, Child's Play, and Scream. Splatter films deliberately focus on graphic portrayals of gore and graphic violence. Through the use of special effects and excessive blood and guts, they tend to display an overt interest in the vulnerability of the human body and the theatricality of its mutilation. Examples of splatter horror films include: Inside, Train, The Human Centipede, Hostel, Saw, Blood Feast, Storm Warning, and Maniac.

Contract killing

hitmancontract killerhitmen
Murder, Inc. Organized crime. People v. Superior Court (Decker). Private military company. Wetwork. Murder-for-Hire: Web Hits of a Deadly Kind (FBI).

Research on the effects of violence in mass media

media violencetelevision violencemedia violence research
Graphic violence. Moral panic. Motion picture rating system. Video game controversy. Anderson, C. A. & Bushman, B. J. (2001) Media Violence and the American Public: Scientific Facts Versus Media Misinformation. American Psychologist. Anderson, C., & Dill, K. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 772–790. Bargh, J. (2005). Bypassing the will: Towards demystifying the nonconscious control of social behavior. In R. Hassin, J. Uleman and J. Bargh (Eds.) The New Unconscious. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978-0-19-514995-1. Beresin, E. (2010).

Life imprisonment in England and Wales

whole life tarifflife imprisonmentwhole life order
The murder of a single child following abduction, sexual or sadistic conduct also qualifies, as does the murder of a police or prison officer during the course of their duty (since 2015) and murder committed to advance a political, religious or ideological cause - along with any murder which was committed by someone who had previously been convicted of murder. Other multiple murders (two or more) should carry a recommended minimum of 30 years as a starting point sentence prior to consideration of additional aggravating factors and of any mitigating factors.

Murder (Canadian law)

murderfirst-degree murdersecond-degree murder
If the jury finds that the accused committed the murder in the context of one of the criteria listed for first degree murder (under s. 231(5)), then the jury must be satisfied the accused was a substantial cause of the victim's death and had planned the act before performing it (pre-meditated) before finding the accused guilty of first degree murder. Manslaughter is any culpable homicide which is not murder or infanticide. Infanticide is the killing of a newly-born child by its mother where the mother's mind was disturbed as a result of giving birth or of consequent lactation.

Transferred intent

transferred maliceintent follows the bullet
Then one would have to apply the fiction which converts an intention to commit GBH into the mens rea of murder. That was too much. But the accused could be convicted of manslaughter.

Malum in se

mala in seimmoral
For example, most human beings believe that murder, rape, and theft are wrong, regardless of whether a law governs such conduct or where the conduct occurs, and is thus recognizably malum in se. In contrast, malum prohibitum crimes are criminal not because they are inherently bad, but because the act is prohibited by the law of the state. For example, most United States jurisdictions require drivers to drive on the right side of the road. This is not because driving on the left side of a road is considered immoral, but because consistent rules promote safety and order on the roads. This concept was used to develop the various common law offences.

Parole

paroledsupervised releasenon-parole period
In cases of first-degree murder, one can apply for parole after 25 years if convicted of a single murder. However, if convicted of multiple murder (either first or second-degree), the sentencing judge has the option to make parole ineligibility periods consecutive - thereby extending parole ineligibility beyond 25 years and, in rare cases, beyond a normal life-span. In China, prisoners are often granted medical parole or compassionate release, which releases them on the grounds that they must receive medical treatment which cannot be provided for in prison. Occasionally, medical parole is used as a no-publicity way of releasing an accidentally imprisoned convict.

Website

web sitewebsitesonline
A website or web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, and amazon.com.

Year and a day rule

year and a dayone year and one daya year and a day
In English common law, it was held that a death was conclusively presumed not to be murder (or any other homicide) if it occurred more than a year and one day since the act (or omission) that was alleged to have been its cause. The rule also applied to the offence of assisting with a suicide. Certain problems with this rule arise from the advance of medicine. Life support technology can extend the interval between the murderous act and the subsequent death. Application of the year and a day rule prevented murder prosecutions, not because of the merits of the case, but because of the successful intervention of doctors in prolonging life.

Aggravation (law)

aggravated murderaggravatedaggravating circumstances
., to murder or to rape), the extent of injury to the victim, or the use of a deadly weapon. An aggravating circumstance is a kind of attendant circumstance and the opposite of an extenuating or mitigating circumstance, which decreases guilt. In the UK, the Criminal Justice Act 2003 requires a court to consider (a) relevant previous convictions, (b) racial or religious aggravation, and (c) hostility towards the victim or to persons generally based on sexual orientation (or presumed sexual orientation) or disability (or presumed disability) when determining sentence for a conviction. The antonym of aggravation is mitigation. de:Qualifikation (Strafrecht)

Weregild

wergildwergeldcompensation
No distinction was made between murder and manslaughter until these distinctions were instituted by the re-introduction of Roman law in the 12th century. Payment of the weregild was gradually replaced with capital punishment due to Christianization, starting around the 9th century, and almost entirely by the 12th century when weregild began to cease as a practice throughout the Holy Roman Empire. The word weregild is composed of were, meaning "man", and geld, meaning "payment or fee", as in Danegeld. Geld or Jeld was the Old English and Old Frisian word for money, and still is in Dutch, Frisian, German and Afrikaans. The Danish word gæld and Norwegian gjeld both mean "debt".

Thuggee

ThugeeThugsThuggees
They sometimes tended to murder women and children to eliminate witnesses or in case they had substantial loot. Some of the thugs avoided murdering victims they considered proscribed according to their beliefs and let other unscrupulous members commit the murder or were forced to let them by those who did not believe in their customs like the Muslim thugs. The earliest known reference to the Thugs as a band or fraternity, rather than ordinary thieves, is found in Ziau-d din Barni's History of Firoz Shah (written about 1356).

California Penal Code

Penal CodeCal. Penal CodeState Penal Code
Theft or larceny. 487 - Grand theft. 488 - Petty theft. 487 - Grand theft auto. 496 - Receiving stolen property. 503-515 - Embezzlement. 518-527 - Extortion'''. 528-539 - False personation and cheats. 594 - Malicious mischief/vandalism. 597 - Animal cruelty. 602 - Trespassing. 647(b) - Prostitution. 647(f) - Public drunkenness or public intoxication. 664 - Attempt (usually charged together with one of the above like 187 or 211; attempted murder was formerly covered in its own section, 217). 691 - Extortion.