flip flopsflip-flopthongs
Flip-flops are a type of sandal, typically worn as a form of casual wear. They consist of a flat sole held loosely on the foot by a Y-shaped strap known as a toe thong that passes between the first and second toes and around both sides of the foot or can be a hard base with a strap across all the toes (these can also be called sliders). This style of footwear has been worn by the people of many cultures throughout the world, originating as early as the ancient Egyptians in 1,500 B.C. The modern flip-flop descends from the Japanese zōri, which became popular after World War II when soldiers returning to the United States brought them back.

Platform shoe

platform shoesplatform bootsplatform boot
Kimel, a Jew, escaped Berlin, Germany, and settled in the United States with his family in 1939 and opened the Kimel shoe factory in Los Angeles. The design soon became very popular amongst Beverly Hills elite. In 1938, The Rainbow was a platform sandal designed by famous shoe designer, Salvatore Ferragamo. “The Rainbow” was created and was the first instance of the platform shoe returning in modern days in the West. The platform sandal was designed for Judy Garland, an American singer, actress, and vaudevillian. This shoe was a tribute to Judy Garland's signature song “Over the Rainbow” performed in the Wizard of Oz in 1939.


ORState of OregonOregon, U.S.
Starting in 1842–43, the Oregon Trail brought many new American settlers to the Oregon Country. For some time, it seemed that Britain and the United States would go to war for a third time in 75 years (see Oregon boundary dispute), but the border was defined peacefully in 1846 by the Oregon Treaty. The border between the United States and British North America was set at the 49th parallel. The Oregon Territory was officially organized on August 13, 1848. Settlement increased with the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 and the forced relocation of the native population to Indian reservations in Oregon.

Mule (shoe)

mulesmulemule sandal
They were especially popular during the end of the 1990s in the high-fashion as elite designers put their own touch on the mule. The twenty-first century has accepted and rejected the mule trend. Most recently, Elle magazine called mules the shoe of 2017. Mules have changed in style over time. In the fifteenth century mules from Venice were stilted and resembled chopines. Their toes were of all shapes: round, square and forked. The heel similarly was not constrained in height. Heels ranged from 1 5/8 inches to 2 ½ inches. Mules were embroidered across centuries from 1550 to 1700.


Starting in 1963 and continuing into 1964 Karl Birkenstock released his first athletic sandal with a flexible footbed called Madrid. It soon became popular, especially among gymnasts. In 1966 Birkenstocks were introduced in the United States, as well as elsewhere. The American Margot Fraser "discovered" Birkenstock sandals while visiting a spa in Germany. She gained relief from a foot condition, and founded a trading company called Birkenstock Footprint Sandals, Inc., in Novato, California, based on her enthusiasm for the sandals.


trainersathletic shoesneaker
In some urban areas in the United States, the slang for sneakers is kicks. Other terms include training shoes or trainers (Britain), sandshoes, gym boots or joggers (Geordie English in the UK and Australian English), running shoes, runners or gutties (Canada, Australia and Scotland), daps in Wales, runners in Hiberno-English, sneakers (North America, New Zealand and Australia), tennis shoes (North American and Australia), gym shoes, tennies, sports shoes, sneaks, takkies (South Africa and Hiberno-English), rubber shoes (Philippine English) or canvas shoes (Nigeria). Plimsolls (British English) are "low tech" athletic shoes, and are also called 'sneakers' in American English.

Oxford shoe

OxfordOxfordsoxford shoes
However, the shoes were later named Oxfords after Oxford University. This shoe style did not appear in North America until the 1800s. In the United States, Oxfords are called "Bal-type" as opposed to "Blucher-type". In France, Oxfords are known as Richelieu. Oxfords were derived from the Oxonian, a half-boot with side slits that gained popularity at Oxford University in 1800. Unlike early shoes, Oxfords were cut smaller than the foot. The side slit evolved into a side lace that eventually moved to the instep, as students rebelled against knee-high and ankle-high boots.

Ballet flat

ballet flatsflatsballerina flat
They only went out of fashion in the 17th and 18th centuries when the high-heeled shoe came into fashion after Catherine de' Medici requested that her cobbler add 5 cm (2 inches) to her wedding shoes. Heels went out of fashion quickly after Marie Antoinette walked to the guillotine in a pair of heels. Functional shoessandals, boots, and flat shoes – prevailed in the 19th century. Ballet flats took off again when Audrey Hepburn wore them with cigarette pants in Funny Face in 1957. In 1947, Rose Repetto hand stitched her first ballet flat for her son, famous dancer and choreographer, Roland Petit.

Sneaker collecting

sneakerheadsneaker cultureQuickstrikes
Nike has also employed celebrities from outside of the sports world to design and market new shoe lines. One example is the Nike Air Yeezy, designed by rapper Kanye West and released in 2009, as well as the Nike Air Yeezy II, released in 2012. Skateboarding, since about 2005, has been a major player in the shoe collecting industry especially with the variety introduced with the Nike SB and Supra product lines. Jordan brands most popular models include the Jordan 1, 3, 4,11, and 13. The sneakerhead subculture originated in the United States during the late 1980s and had gone global by the end of the 1990s.


clogswooden shoeswooden shoe
For more protection, they may have steel toecaps and/or steel reinforcing inserts in the undersides of the soles. open sandal type fitting. For example, Japanese geta. toe peg styles. For example, Indian paduka. Overshoes; are wooden soles with straps designed to be worn over other footwear for protection, commonly known as pattens. Patten style clogs are not used anymore. However the derivative galoshes are common worldwide. Bata Shoe Museum, Canada. International Wooden Shoe Museum Eelde, Netherlands. Bai Mi Wooden Clog Village, Taiwan. Clitheroe Castle Museum, Lancashire, UK.

Association football

The sport also exacerbated tensions at the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s, when a match between Dinamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade degenerated into rioting in May 1990. Women may have been playing "football" for as long as the game has existed. Evidence shows that an ancient version of the game (Tsu Chu) was played by women during the Han Dynasty (25–220 CE). Two female figures are depicted in Han Dynasty (25–220 CE) frescoes, playing Tsu Chu. There are, however, a number of opinions about the accuracy of dates, the earliest estimates at 5000 BCE. Association football, the modern game, also has documented early involvement of women.

Boat shoe

boat shoesboating and deck shoesboating shoe
Sperry Top-Siders are still a popular brand of boat shoe today, among many others, including Sebago and Timberland. Boat shoes are worn by both women and men. Boat shoes are used by sailors, as the name suggests; however, since the 1970s they have become casual footwear in coastal areas of the Netherlands, United States, Canada, Argentina, Australia, China, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Some boat shoes today have traditional white, non-marking soles, though many others today have dark non-marking soles. They usually have a moc-toe (like a moccasin) construction.


adidas AGAdidas EyewearAdidas Japan
The model provides a contoured orthopedic rubber sole with synthetic upper, and was designed as an après-sport slide, but the adilette were quickly used everywhere out of the sporting world. Opting for a wide, over the foot strap rather than the design of flip flops, the adilette sandals provide a fresh style and a different level of comfort for the wearer. The strap is also glued to the sides of the sandal, which directs tension to less stressful areas of the sandal, which gives the sandals more durability. The Santiossage is a uni-sex slide-style sandal. The sandal has the trademarked three stripes on a velcro strap toward the front of the shoe. Santiossage comes in black, navy, or red.


RBKReebok HockeyReebok India
In 1979, at the Chicago International Sneaker Trade show an American businessman, Paul Fireman, took notice of Reebok. Fireman was working for team sports and negotiated a deal to license and distribute the Reebok brand in the United States. The division was called Reebok USA Ltd. Later that year, Fireman introduced three new shoes to the market at $60. By 1981, Reebok reached more than $1.5 million in sales. In 1982, Reebok debuted the Reebok Freestyle aerobics shoe, the first athletic shoe designed for women. Fitness professional Gin Miller became the face of "Step Reebok," the company's aerobics fitness campaign and program. The following year, Reebok's sales were $13 million.


Other notable minority languages include Armenian, Georgian, and the Greco-Turkic dialect spoken by the Urums, a community of Caucasus Greeks from the Tsalka region of central Georgia and ethnic Greeks from southeastern Ukraine who arrived in mainly Northern Greece as economic migrants in the 1990s. Throughout the 20th century, millions of Greeks migrated to the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and Germany, creating a large Greek diaspora.

Mary Jane (shoe)

Mary JanesMary JaneMary Jane shoes
These styles were especially popular in the United States in the late 1990s and early 2000s, within punk rock, psychobilly and goth subcultures. Many times the wearers would accent the look with knee-high knit socks in dark-colored stripes or patterns and/or some form of hosiery (stockings/pantyhose), and often complete the look with a plaid, pleated schoolgirl-style skirt. Velma Dinkley, member of the fictional Scooby-Doo gang, is most notably attributed to donning a red pair of Mary Jane shoes.

Barefoot running

barefootrunning barefootran barefoot
The United States Army has banned the use of toe shoes for image reasons. However, many other barefoot-inspired shoes that do not feature individual toes can still be used in its place. The United States Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and United States Coast Guard, however, have approved minimalist shoes, including toe shoes, to be used during physical training. Sales of minimalist running shoes have grown into a $1.7 billion industry. Sales of minimalist running shoes grew from $450,000 in 2006 to $59 million in 2012, and grew 303% from November 2010 through November 2012, compared to a 19% increase in the overall sales of running shoes during the same time period.

Converse (shoe company)

ConverseConverse shoesConverse Rubber Shoe Company
Converse shoes are distinguished by a number of features, including the company's star insignia, the All Star's rubber sole, smooth rounded toe, and wrap-around strip. Converse manufactures its products under the Cons, Chuck Taylor All-Star, John Varvatos, and Jack Purcell trade names. In addition to apparel and footwear, the company sells other items through retailers in over 160 countries and through approximately 75 company-owned retail stores across the United States, and employed 2,658 in the U.S. in 2015. At age 47, Marquis Mills Converse, who was previously a manager at a footwear manufacturing firm, opened the Converse Rubber Shoe Company in February 1908 in Malden, Massachusetts.


Crocs, Inc.Croc
In 2008, the company entered the golf shoe marketplace, acquiring golf shoe manufacturer Bite Footwear. A Croc-styled pair of golf shoes, the Ace, was introduced. Crocs announced in 2006 that it filed complaints with the United States International Trade Commission (ITC) and the United States district court against 11 companies that manufacture, import or distribute products, called "croc-offs", that Crocs believes infringe its patents. Seizures of fake Crocs occurred in 2007 in the Philippines and Denmark, and were under litigation in South Africa. In 2010, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit held that Crocs' design patent had been infringed. In 2007, the U.S.


Teva NaotSource Sandal designTeva Neot
Teva Naot is an Israeli shoe and sandal manufacturer based at Kibbutz Neot Mordechai. Naot, which opened in 1942, started out as a small kibbutz factory producing work boots. Currently, it employs 160 workers and designs a new line of footwear every year to keep up with global fashion trends. Naot's products include a variety of shoes and sandals for men, women and children with special insoles that conform to the shape of the wearer's foot. Footbeds can be replaced by a user's custom orthotic insoles, or by standard replacements for worn ones. In 1988, shoe manufacturing in Israel suffered from the glut of expensive imports from the Far East.

Shy (company)

They often have a stand at upmarket shoe events such as the Micam Shoe-event in Milan in 2006, also having season long exhibitions at cities such as Paris and Milan. SHY release a new themed collection twice a year, one for spring/summer and one for fall/winter. The collections often revolve around a central theme such as bright colours or metal, and the collection usually contains different styles of shoe such as stilettos, sandals, boots and usually have a similarly styled handbag. In each collection, there are different themed sets, each one consisting of 6-8 different shoes and 2-3 handbags.

Deckers Outdoor Corporation

TevaDeckers BrandsDeckers
The inner sole is softer and serves as the footbed, and most of the models come with arch support and Microban Zinc, a technology that reduces odor and kills bacteria. The outer sole is harder and is formulated to have a good grip on wet surfaces. The toe post: a strap that goes on the front of the sandal, across the toes and between the inner and outer sole. The heel strap: Goes around the ankle to prevent the sandal from sliding off. The side strap: Connects the toes post and the heel strap on the outer side of the sandal, this prevents the sandal from stretching in awkward positions where injury could occur.


Apparel/Footwear Retaildesignerfashion footwear
In modern society, high-heeled shoes are a part of women's fashion and are widespread in certain countries around the world. Modern footwear is usually made up of leather or plastic, and rubber. In fact, leather was one of the original materials used for the first versions of a shoe. The soles can be made of rubber or plastic, sometimes having a sheet of metal inside. Roman sandals had sheets of metal on their soles so that it would not bend out of shape. More recently, footwear providers like Nike, have begun to source environmentally friendly materials. In Europe, the footwear industry has declined in the last years.


bootswork bootsGrinders
European boots were influenced by military styles, featuring thick soles and turnover tops that were originally designed to protect horse mounted soldiers. In the 1700s, distinctive, thigh-high boots worn by Hessian soldiers fighting in the American Revolutionary War influenced the development of the iconic heeled cowboy boots worn by cattlemen in the American west. Boots which are designed for walking through snow, shallow water and mud may be made of a single closely stitched design (using leather, rubber, canvas, or similar material) to prevent the entry of water, snow, mud or dirt through gaps between the laces and tongue found in other types of shoes.