Benchmark (venture capital firm)

BenchmarkBenchmark CapitalBalderton Capital
Beyond the two founders, the two biggest shareholders for the planned early 2017 Snap IPO were Benchmark and Lightspeed Venture Partners, both prior Snap investors and venture-capital firms from Silicon Valley. They held a combined stake of about 20%. * CrunchBase Profile

San Jose, California

San JoseSan Jose, CASan José
The city is home to many performing arts companies, including Opera San Jose, Symphony Silicon Valley, Ballet San Jose Silicon Valley, sjDANCEco, Children's Musical Theater of San Jose, the San Jose Youth Symphony, the San Jose Repertory Theatre, City Lights Theatre Company, The Tabard Theatre Company, San Jose Stage Company, and the now-defunct American Musical Theatre of San Jose which was replaced by Broadway San Jose in partnership with Team San Jose. San Jose also is home to the San Jose Museum of Art, one of the nation's premiere Modern Art museums.

Santa Clara Valley

South BaySouth Bay AreaSanta Clara
Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose, Downtown San Jose. San Jose International Airport, San Jose. San Jose Museum of Art, San Jose. San Jose State University, San Jose. Santa Clara University, Santa Clara (includes original Santa Clara Mission site). California's Great America, Santa Clara. The Tech Museum of Innovation, San Jose. Moffett Federal Airfield, Sunnyvale/Mountain View. Yvonne Jacobson, Passing Farms, Enduring Values: California's Santa Clara Valley. Robin Chapman, California Apricots:: The Lost Orchards of Silicon Valley.

Santa Clara, California

Santa ClaraSanta Clara, CAcity of Santa Clara
Santa Clara owns and operates an electric utility called Silicon Valley Power. In 2005 Silicon Valley Power brought online the Donald Von Raesfeld (DVR) Power Plant. The new combined cycle gas turbine plant produces 147 megawatts of electricity for the city and its residents. As a result, the going rate for electricity in Santa Clara is considerably cheaper than that offered by Northern California's dominant utility, Pacific Gas and Electric.

Private equity firm

private equity firmsprivate equity groupprivate equity
Private equity. Private equity fund. Private equity – a guide for pension fund trustees. Pensions Investment Research Consultants (PIRC) for the Trades Union Congress. Krüger Andersen, Thomas. Legal Structure of Private Equity Funds. Private Equity and Hedge Funds 2007. Prowse, Stephen D. The Economics of the Private Equity Market, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, 1998.


Essentially, Silicon Valley began as 65 new enterprises born out of Shockley's eight former employees. Since then, hubs of innovation have sprung up globally with similar metonyms, including Silicon Alley encompassing New York City. Another example involves business incubators – a phenomenon nurtured by governments around the world, close to knowledge clusters (mostly research-based) like universities or other Government Excellence Centres – which aim primarily to channel generated knowledge to applied innovation outcomes in order to stimulate regional or national economic growth.

Santa Clara County, California

Santa Clara CountySanta ClaraCounty of Santa Clara
Naval Air Station, is used by the Air National Guard, NASA, Lockheed Martin, Google, and by the San Jose Police and Santa Clara County Sheriff's Department as an air operations base. There are also smaller general aviation airports in Palo Alto (PAO), San Jose (Reid-Hillview) (RHV), and San Martin(E16) Santa Clara County is served by Caltrain commuter rail from Gilroy through San Jose and Silicon Valley north to San Francisco Airport and San Francisco. The Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority operates the VTA light rail system, which primarily serves San Jose, with one line continuing as far north as Mountain View.

List of technology centers

technology clusterhigh-technology business districtTech hub
Silicon Valley: San Jose, California (the original "Silicon" namesake). Silicon Valley of the Sierras: Nevada County, California. Silicotton Valley: Huntsville, Alabama. Silicon Gulf: Davao City, Philippines. Silicon Island: Kyushu, Japan. Silicon Peninsula: Dalian, China. Silicon Valley of China: Shenzhen or Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing, People's Republic of China (PRC). Silicon Valley of India (sometimes referred to as Silicon Plateau): Bangalore. Silicon Valley of Indonesia: Bandung, Indonesia. Silicon Valley of Taiwan: Hsinchu, Taiwan. Silicon Valley of Hong Kong: Cyberport and Hong Kong Science Park. Temis: Besançon, France. Silicon Sentier: Paris, France.

Growth capital

growth equitygrowth capital firmeconomical growth
Growth capital resides at the intersection of private equity and venture capital and as such growth capital is provided by a variety of sources. The types of investors that provide growth capital to companies span a variety of both equity and debt sources, including private equity and late-stage venture capital funds, family offices, sovereign wealth funds, hedge funds, Business Development Companies (BDC), and mezzanine funds. Growth capital investments are also made by more traditional buyout firms. Particularly in markets where debt is less available to finance leveraged buyouts or where competition to fund startup businesses is intense, growth capital becomes an attractive alternative.

Northern California

Northernnorthern portionNorth California
Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) – commuter subway connecting most of the core Bay Area including San Francisco and Oakland with their suburbs with ongoing expansion to San Jose and Antioch. Caltrain – commuter rail between San Francisco to Gilroy (south of San Jose). Muni Metro (San Francisco). VTA Light Rail (San Jose). Altamont Commuter Express (ACE) – commuter train connecting Stockton and the Central Valley with San Jose and the Bay Area. Sacramento Regional Transit District light rail. Amtrak:. California Zephyr – connects Chicago to the Bay Area. Capitol Corridor – San Jose to Auburn (eastern suburb of Sacramento).

Financial sponsor

financial buyerfinancial sponsor coverageprivate-equity firm
Additionally, many companies owned by financial sponsors will raise equity in the public markets through an initial public offering or (IPO) as a means of exiting an investment. Public investors will seek to align their own interests as much as possible with those of the financial sponsor by limiting the financial sponsor's ability to sell shares and managing the use of proceeds from the offering. Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of financial sponsor ownership on the performance of IPOs. Private equity. Private equity firm. Leveraged buyout.


SisiliciumSilicon (Si)
Silicon Valley. Silicon Wadi. Transistor. Silicon at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham). CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. New Semiconductor Materials – Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute St. Petersburg, Russia.

Electronic News

Electronic News Weekly
In 1971, journalist Don Hoefler published a series of articles entitled "Silicon Valley, USA" in Electronic News. This is thought to be the first published use of the phrase Silicon Valley to describe the area of the southern part of the San Francisco Bay area in northern California, United States, an area known for its concentration of companies making semiconductors, among them Intel, LSI Logic, and National Semiconductor. Also in 1971, Electronic News was where Intel first advertised the Intel 4004 microprocessor, considered to be the first single-chip microprocessor.

San Francisco

San Francisco, CaliforniaSan Francisco, CACity and County of San Francisco
Another commuter rail system, Caltrain, runs from San Francisco along the San Francisco Peninsula to San Jose. Historically, trains operated by Southern Pacific Lines ran from San Francisco to Los Angeles, via Palo Alto and San Jose. Amtrak California Thruway Motorcoach runs a shuttle bus from three locations in San Francisco to its station across the bay in Emeryville. Additionally, BART offers connections to San Francisco from Amtrak's stations in Emeryville, Oakland and Richmond, and Caltrain offers connections in San Jose and Santa Clara. Thruway service also runs south to San Luis Obispo with connection to the Pacific Surfliner.

Hangar One (Mountain View, California)

Hangar OneHangars oneMoffett Field, California
The massive hangar has long been one of the most recognizable landmarks of California's Silicon Valley. An early example of mid-century modern architecture, it was built in the 1930s as a naval airship hangar for the USS Macon. Designed by German air ship and structural engineer Dr. Karl Arnstein, Vice President and Director of Engineering for the Goodyear Zeppelin Corporation of Akron, Ohio, in collaboration with Wilbur Watson Associates Architects and Engineers of Cleveland, Ohio, Hangar One is constructed on a network of steel girders sheathed with galvanized steel. It rests firmly upon a reinforced pad anchored to concrete pilings.

Varian Associates

VarianDorothy VarianRussell and Sigurd Varian
Varian Associates was one of the first high-tech companies in Silicon Valley. It was founded in 1948 by Russell H. and Sigurd F. Varian, William Webster Hansen, and Edward Ginzton to sell the klystron, the first vacuum tube which could amplify electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies, and other electromagnetic equipment. Varian Associates split into three companies in 1999: Varian Medical Systems, Varian, Inc. and Varian Semiconductor. On April 20, 1948, the Articles of Incorporation were filed, signed by nine directors: Edward Ginzton, who had worked with the Varian brothers since his days as a doctoral student; William Webster Hansen, Richard M. Leonard, an attorney; Leonard I.

Distressed securities

distressed debtdistresseddistressed investing
Private equity. Special situation. Traditional investments. Vulture fund. This report was the basis so Altman's 1991 publication entitled Distressed Securities. Altman was commissioned by The Foothill Group to prepare a series of “White Papers” on Distressed Debt Markets in 1990 and 1992. Understanding Distressed Securities. Distressed Debt Articles from

William Shockley

Bill ShockleyShockleyWilliam Bradford Shockley
The group's organizer said, "Shockley is the man who brought silicon to Silicon Valley." Late in his life, Shockley became intensely interested in questions of race, human intelligence, and eugenics. He thought this work was important to the genetic future of the human species and he came to describe it as the most important work of his career, even though expressing his views damaged his reputation. Shockley argued that a higher rate of reproduction among the less intelligent was having a dysgenic effect, and that a drop in average intelligence would ultimately lead to a decline in civilization.