Standard Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin Chinese
Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters (plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), and Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Zhuyin for teaching). Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: Standard Chinese is also commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably, and (compare for English, and ). In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language.


Federation of MalaysiaMalaysianMalaya
Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo). Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government.


Republic of SingaporeSingapore CitySingaporean
Singapore Chinese characters are written using simplified Chinese characters. Around 100,000 Singaporeans, or 3% of the population, speak Tamil as their native language. Tamil has official status in Singapore and there have been no attempts to discourage the use of other Indian languages. Education for primary, secondary, and tertiary levels is mostly supported by the state. All institutions, private and public, must be registered with the Ministry of Education. English is the language of instruction in all public schools, and all subjects are taught and examined in English except for the "mother tongue" language paper.

Second round of simplified Chinese characters

informal simplifiedsecond attempt to simplify the characterssecond round of character simplifications
The fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911 and subsequent loss of prestige associated with classical writing helped facilitate this shift, but a series of further reforms aided by the efforts of reformers such as Qian Xuantong were ultimately thwarted by conservative elements in the new government and the intellectual class. Continuing the work of previous reformers, in 1956 the People's Republic of China promulgated the Scheme of Simplified Chinese Characters, later referred to as the "First Round" or "First Scheme." The plan was adjusted slightly in the following years, eventually stabilizing in 1964 with a definitive list of character simplifications.

Mao Zedong

MaoMao Tse-tungChairman Mao
He joined the university's Philosophy and Journalism Societies and attended lectures and seminars by the likes of Chen Duxiu, Hu Shih, and Qian Xuantong. Mao's time in Beijing ended in the spring of 1919, when he travelled to Shanghai with friends who were preparing to leave for France. He did not return to Shaoshan, where his mother was terminally ill. She died in October 1919 and her husband died in January 1920. On May 4, 1919, students in Beijing gathered at the Gate of Heavenly Peace to protest the Chinese government's weak resistance to Japanese expansion in China.

Chinese independent high school

Chinese independent schoolsUnified Examination CertificateUnified Examinations Certificate
However, there are also a number of schools that developed English teaching materials and uses English as the medium of teaching. * Education in Malaysia * United Chinese School Committees Association of Malaysia (UCSCAM), known as Dong Jiao Zong (Chinese:董教总)

Malaysian Mandarin

Mandarinlocalised MandarinMalaysian dialect
Words from other Chinese languages are also injected, depending on the educational and cultural background of the speaker (see Education in Malaysia and Rojak language). Mandarin in Malaysia has also been localized, as a result of the influence of other Chinese variants spoken in Malaysia, rather than the Malay language. Loan words were discouraged in Mandarin instructions at local Chinese school and were regarded as mispronunciations. * Malaysian Chinese Variants of Mandarin Chinese: * 马来西亚华语-南洋的北方官话方言 Angela, 你們不是應該要拿那個 'form' 先, 然後才去四樓那個 'counter' 的咩 (meh)? (Angela, do you need to get that form before going to the counter in 4/F?).


Japan (日本, Nippon or Nihon ; formally 日本国, or Nihon-koku, ) is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.

May Fourth Movement

May 4th MovementMay FourthMay 4 Movement
The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement which grew out of student protests in Beijing on 4 May 1919.

Lu Xun

Lu HsunCall to ArmsZhou Shuren
In 1917, an old friend of Lu's, Qian Xuantong, invited Lu to write for New Youth, a radical populist literary magazine that had recently been founded by Chen Duxiu. At first Lu was skeptical that his writing could serve any social purpose, and told Qian: "Imagine an iron house: without windows or doors, utterly indestructible, and full of sound sleepers – all about to suffocate to death. Let them die in their sleep, and they will feel nothing. Is it right to cry out, to rouse the light sleepers among them, causing them inconsolable agony before they die?"


Hanyu PinyinpPīnyīn
When preceded by a consonant, iou, uei, and uen are simplified as iu, ui, and un (which do not represent the actual pronunciation). As in zhuyin, what are actually pronounced as buo, puo, muo, and fuo are given a separate representation: bo, po, mo, and fo. The apostrophe is used before a syllable starting with a vowel (a, o, or e) in a multiple-syllable word when the syllable does not start the word (which is most commonly realized as ), unless the syllable immediately follows a hyphen or other dash. This is done to remove ambiguity that could arise, as in Xi'an, which consists of the two syllables xi an, compared to such words as xian .

Malaysian Chinese

ChineseChinese Malaysianethnic Chinese
Malaysian Chinese people or Chinese Malaysians, are ethnic Chinese (Han Chinese) who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia. The great majority of this group descend from Southern Chinese immigrants who arrived between the early 19th century and the mid-20th century, and now form the second largest community of Overseas Chinese in the world, after Thai Chinese. Within Malaysia, they represent the second largest ethnic group after the Malay majority. They are usually referred to simply as "Chinese" in Malaysia, "Orang Cina" in Malay, "Sina" or "Kina" among Borneo indigenous, "Cīṉar" in Tamil and "Huaren" (華人, Chinese people) or "Huaqiao" (華僑, Overseas Chinese) by Chinese themselves.

Seal script

sealSeal Script (篆)Seal scripts
Seal script is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BCE. It evolved organically out of the Zhou dynasty script. The Qin variant of seal script eventually became the standard, and was adopted as the formal script for all of China during the Qin dynasty. It was still widely used for decorative engraving and seals (name chops, or signets) in the Han dynasty. The literal translation of the Chinese name for seal script, 篆書 (), is decorative engraving script, a name coined during the Han dynasty, which reflects the then-reduced role of the script for the writing of ceremonial inscriptions.

Education in China

Education in the People's Republic of ChinaeducationChina
In 1964 the Committee for Reforming the Chinese Written Language released an official list of 2,238 simplified characters most basic to the language. Simplification made literacy easier, although some people (especially in Hong Kong which is still using traditional Chinese) taught only in simplified characters were cut off from the wealth of Chinese literature written in traditional characters. Any idea of replacing ideographic script with romanized script was soon abandoned, however by government and education leaders. A third area of change involved the proposal to use the pinyin romanization system more widely.

Lin Shu

In 1981, the Commercial Press, the original publisher of many of Lin's translations, reprinted ten of Lin's renditions (in simplified characters, with modern punctuations). In his essay, Qian Zhongshu quoted Goethe's simile of translators as geschäftige Kuppler, and stated that Lin Shu served well as a matchmaker between Western literature and Chinese readers, as he himself (a most avid reader of western books) was indeed motivated by Lin's translations to learn foreign languages. Qian also pointed out that Lin Shu often made "improvements" to the original as well as abridgments. According to Qian, Lin Shu's career, which lasted almost 30 years, can be divided into two phases.

Liu Bannong

Liu Banlong
Published in 1930, it was a key work in the standardisation of simplified Chinese characters. In 1933 Liu Bannong conducted an interview with Sai Jinhua. He wrote The Wife of Zhuangyuan: Sai Jinhua, which he called her "true story". He died of an acute illness after a linguistic field-trip, at the age of 44. Lu Xun wrote a short memoir about Liu after his death. He was the elder brother of the musicologist Liu Tianhua. * Hu, Ying. Tales of Translation: Composing the New Woman in China, 1899-1918. Stanford University Press, 2000. ISBN: 0804737746, 9780804737746. * Yang Jianmin, "The story of Liu Bannong and she"

Muar District

MuarBandar Maharanidistrict of Muar
The Muar District is a district in Johor, Malaysia. Muar is located at the mouth of the Muar River, on the coast of the Straits of Malacca. The Muar District covers, with a population of 233,779 (2010).

Butterworth, Penang

ButterworthButterworth, MalaysiaBagan
Butterworth, within the North Seberang Perai District, is the largest city in Seberang Perai, the mainland half of the Malaysian state of Penang. It lies approximately 3 km east of George Town, the capital city of Penang, across the Penang Strait., Butterworth contained a total of 71,643 residents.

Pei Hwa Independent High School

Pei Hwa High School
Mati in Malay language (simplified Chinese: 培华独中校友会). Persatuan Murid-Murid Tua Sekolah Pei Hwa (Sg. Mati) Johor Selatan in Malay language (simplified Chinese: 培华. Persatuan Murid-Murid Tua Sekolah Pei Hwa Sg. Mati in Malay language (simplified Chinese: 利丰港培华校友会). To support efforts by the school to keep alumni informed on school developments; renew friendships developed at the school. To provide ways for alumni to network and meet each other in their communities and involve alumni in career development and job placement of students and graduates. To organise social events, help alumni maintain connections to others alumni and their educational institution.

Index of China-related articles (M–Z)

Simplified Chinese character. SINA Corporation. Sing Pao Daily News. Sing Tao Daily. Singapore Airlines Flight 6. Singher. Sinicization -. Sino-African relations. Sino-American relations. Sino-British Joint Declaration. Sino-Indian War. Sino-Japanese relations. Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895). Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). Sino-Korean. Sino-Soviet border conflict, 1969. Sino-Soviet split. Sino-Tibetan languages. Sino-Vietnamese War. Sinology. Siu Nim Tao. Six Dynasties. Six Steeds of Zhao Mausoleum. Sixteen Kingdoms. Sixteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China. Siyi dialect. Four Barbarians. Sky High (1922 film). Snake (zodiac). Snake Kung Fu.

Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia

Chinese Language Standardisation Council
The simplified Chinese script is used in Malaysia. In 1997, Malaysia hosted the Seminar on Chinese Language Teaching in Southeast Asia, after which scholars in Malaysia agreed to form the Chinese Language Standardisation Working Committee, which was the predecessor to Yufan. The Working Committee consisted of representatives from civil society organisations. It was dissolved in 2003. In order to standardise the use of Chinese by the Chinese media in Malaysia, the Ministry of Information formed the Standardisation Council on 12 February 2004.


ElopuraKampong Bukit MerahSandakan Bay
Sandakan (, Jawi:, ) formerly known at various times as Elopura, is the capital of the Sandakan District in Sabah, Malaysia. It is the second largest town in Sabah after Kota Kinabalu. It is located on the Sandakan Peninsula and east coast of the state in the administrative centre of Sandakan Division and was the former capital of British North Borneo. The town has an estimated population of 157,330 while the surrounding municipal area has a total population of 396,290.


TawaoBandar TawauTawau River
Tawau (, Jawi:, ) formerly known as Tawao, is the capital of the Tawau District in Sabah, Malaysia. It is the third-largest town in Sabah, after Kota Kinabalu and Sandakan. It is located on Semporna Peninsula and the south east coast of the state in the administrative centre of Tawau Division which bordered by the Sulu Sea to the east, the Celebes Sea to the south at Cowie Bay and shares a border with North Kalimantan. The town had an estimated population of 113,809, while the whole municipality area had a population of 397,673.

Chinese characters

ChineseChinese characterChinese:
The use of traditional Chinese characters versus simplified Chinese characters varies greatly, and can depend on both the local customs and the medium. Before the official reform, character simplifications were not officially sanctioned and generally adopted vulgar variants and idiosyncratic substitutions. Orthodox variants were mandatory in printed works, while the (unofficial) simplified characters would be used in everyday writing or quick notes.

Doubting Antiquity School

Yigupaimodern textual scholarshipSkeptical School
Hu Shih initiated the critical movement, with his pupil Gu Jiegang and his friend Qian Xuantong continuing this school of thought. Their writings also had influence on many western sinologists, including Bernhard Karlgren and Samuel Griffith. In a more specific way, the Doubting Antiquity School was represented by Gushibian 古史辨 (Debates on Ancient History), the scholarly movement led by Gu Jiegang, centered on the magazine of the same name. Seven issues of the magazine, 1926-1941, contain about 350 essays. Major critics of the Doubting Antiquity School were historians associated with the Critical Review (Xueheng 學衡), a journal founded in 1922.