WiFiwireless internetwireless
The Australian radio-astronomer Dr John O'Sullivan with his colleagues Terence Percival, Graham Daniels, Diet Ostry, and John Deane developed a key patent used in Wi-Fi as a by-product of a Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) research project, "a failed experiment to detect exploding mini black holes the size of an atomic particle". Dr O'Sullivan and his colleagues are credited with inventing Wi-Fi. In 1992 and 1996, CSIRO obtained patents for a method later used in Wi-Fi to "unsmear" the signal. The first version of the 802.11 protocol was released in 1997, and provided up to 2 Mbit/s link speeds.


Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions. Such items may be used in wet environments or underwater to specified depths.

Quartz crisis

quartz revolutionadventCentre Electronique Horloger
Mechanical watches have gradually become luxury goods appreciated for their elaborate craftsmanship, aesthetic appeal and glamorous design, sometimes associated with the social status of their owners, rather than simple timekeeping devices. Since 2010s, smartwatches have begun to significantly increase their shares in global watch market, especially after the launch of Apple Watch in 2015.

Mobile phone

cell phonemobile phonesmobile
An unusual example of a phone bill caused by theft (reported on 28 June 2018) was when a biological group in Poland put a GPS tracker on a white stork and released it; during autumn migration over the Blue Nile valley in eastern Sudan someone got hold of the stork's GPS tracker, and found in it a mobile-phone-type sim card, which he put in his mobile phone, and made 20 hours of calls on it, running up a bill of over 10,000 Polish zlotys (= $2700) for the biological group. Demand for metals used in mobile phones and other electronics fuelled the Second Congo War, which claimed almost 5.5 million lives.

Pebble Time

Tom's Guide gave it 3.5 out of 5 stars, saying that it's "the company's most luxurious smartwatch to date, but it's a better choice for Android users." * Apple Watch. MetaWatch. Microsoft Band. Moto 360. Wearable computer.


Nike+iPodNike+ for iPodNike+ GPS
Apple Watch. Activity tracker. GPS watch. Smartwatch.

Seiko Epson

EpsonSeiko Epson CorporationEpson America
In particular, it developed the world's first portable quartz timer (Seiko QC-951) in 1963, the world's first quartz watch (Seiko Quartz Astron 35SQ) in 1969, the first automatic power generating quartz watch (Seiko Auto-Quartz) in 1988 and the Spring Drive watch movement in 1999. The watch business is the root of the company’s micromechatronics technologies and still one of the major businesses for Seiko Epson today although it accounts for less than one-tenth of total revenues. The watches made by the company are sold through the Seiko Watch Corporation, a subsidiary of Seiko Holdings Corporation.

Google Glass

Project GlassGoogle Glass Breastfeeding app trialGlass
Assisted GPS & GLONASS. Barometer. 32GB storage memory. 780 mAh battery. Dynamic driver speaker instead of bone conduction audio transducer. Qualcomm Snapdragon XR1. Quad core Up to 1.7 GHz, 10 nm. Android Oreo with Android Enterprise Mobile Device Management. 3GB LPDDR4. Bluetooth 5.x AoA. 8MP 80° FOV camera. 3 beam-forming microphones. USB Type-C port supporting USB 2.0 480Mbps. 820mAh battery with fast charge. 6-axis accelerometer/gyroscope. On head detection sensor and Eye-on screen sensor for power-saving features. Water and dust resistant. ~46g weight. WearOS. Apple Watch. Google Contact Lens. Google Cardboard. Microsoft HoloLens. Project Tango. Q-Warrior. Samsung Gear VR.

Palm OS

PalmHotSyncGarnet OS
s new Pilot PDA, it has been implemented on a wide array of mobile devices, including smartphones, wrist watches, handheld gaming consoles, barcode readers and GPS devices. Palm OS versions earlier than 5.0 run on Motorola/Freescale DragonBall processors. From version 5.0 onwards, Palm OS runs on ARM architecture-based processors. The key features of the current Palm OS Garnet are: Included with the OS is also a set of standard applications, with the most relevant ones for the four mentioned PIM operations. Manufacturers are free to implement different features of the OS in their devices or even add new features.


computerscomputer systemdigital computer
Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II.


number of steps takennumber of steps walkedstep counter
The Apple Watch extended step-counting capability to Apple's first wearable device using the accelerometer and gyroscope integrated in the Apple S1 SIP (System in package). Apple Watch works in parallel with a connected iPhone to improve accuracy of the user's step count. The Fitbit is an always-on electronic pedometer, that in addition to counting steps also displays distance traveled, altitude climbed (via a number of flights of steps count), calories burned, current intensity, and time of day. Worn in an armband at night, it also purports to measure the length and quality of a user's sleep. Inbuilt is a daily target, of 10,000 steps and 10 flights of stairs.

Timex Group

TimexTimex Corporation
Sequel AG Vertime SA Timex Group Luxury Watches Giorgio Galli Design Lab (Design studio, acquired 2007) Galli designs watches for: Timex. Opex. Nautica. TX Watch Company (2006-2011). Guess. Gc. Versace. Versus. Salvatore Ferragamo Timepieces. Valentino Timeless - no longer licensed. Vincent Bérard (2006-2010). Timex. Nautica. Versace. Versus. Salvatore Ferragamo. Timex Group Corporate website. Timex Brand website.

Personal digital assistant

PDAPDAspersonal digital assistants
The most common operating systems pre-installed on PDAs are: Other, rarely used operating systems: Some PDAs include Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers; this is particularly true of smartphones. Other PDAs are compatible with external GPS-receiver add-ons that use the PDA's processor and screen to display location information. PDAs with GPS functionality can be used for automotive navigation. PDAs are increasingly being fitted as standard on new cars. PDA-based GPS can also display traffic conditions, perform dynamic routing, and show known locations of roadside mobile radar guns. TomTom, Garmin, and iGO offer GPS navigation software for PDAs.

Quantified self

According to Riphagen et al., the history of the quantimetric self-tracking using wearable computers began in the 1970s: "The history of self-tracking using wearable sensors in combination with wearable computing and wireless communication already exists for many years, and also appeared, in the form of sousveillance back in the 1970s [13, 12]" Quantimetric self-sensing was proposed for the use of wearable computers to automatically sense and measure exercise and dietary intake in 2002: "Sensors that measure biological signals, ... a personal data recorder that records ...

List of Fitbit products

FitBit IonicFitbit productsFitbit Surge
Released in April 2018, it has a square design with round edges, similar to the Apple Watch and Pebble watches. It retains most of the Ionic's features and interface. It is capable of tracking women's menstrual cycles. It does not have built-in GPS like the Ionic, instead using connected GPS like the Blaze. There are three variants of the Versa; the standard edition, the Special Edition, and the Lite Edition. The standard Versa comes in three colors: black, rose gold, or silver. The Special Edition comes in rose gold with a lavender band, or graphite with a charcoal band. The Special Edition also includes woven wristbands.

Huawei Watch

The Phandroid said "it is the classiest Android Wear smartwatch available right now". * Wearable computer. Microsoft Band. Apple Watch. Pebble.


In 2014, Metawatch announced Meta M1, a premium smartwatch developed in collaboration with Frank Nuovo. The designer was known for his iconic works at Vertu and Nokia, where he served as a Vice President and Chief of Design. The device was launched at the 2014 Consumer Electronics Show. Wearable computer. Pebble. Apple Watch. Omate TrueSmart.

Moto 360 (1st generation)

Moto 360Moto 360 (2014)Motorola Moto 360
True, it doesn't have the G Watch R's true circular display, the ZenWatch's custom software or the Sony Smartwatch 3's GPS, but I'd say of the three, it strikes the best balance between looks, functionality and price." * Motoactv. Wearable computer. Microsoft Band. Apple Watch. Pebble.

Moto 360 (2nd generation)

Moto 360 (2015)
In contrasting the industrial design with the software, Dan Seifert of The Verge noted "if you buy the Moto 360 smartwatch, you’re paying more for the watch than you are for the smart". The Guardian gave the device four out of five stars, concluding that "it’s no more capable than almost any other Android Wear watch" despite having "fluid performance" and being more comfortable than the first generation. * Moto 360 (1st generation). Wearable computer. Microsoft Band. Apple Watch.

Mobile device

mobile deviceshandheldmobile
Wearable computers. Calculator watches. Smartwatches. Head-mounted displays. Personal digital assistants. Enterprise digital assistants. Graphing calculators. Handheld game consoles. Portable media players. Calculators. Ultra-mobile PCs. Digital media player. Digital still cameras (DSC). Digital video cameras (DVC) or digital camcorders. Feature phones. Pagers. Personal navigation devices (PND). Smart cards. Converged device. HTML5 in mobile devices. List of emerging technologies. Mobile interaction. Near field communication (NFC). Portable communications device. Smart device.

Apple Watch Series 3

Series 3
The Apple Watch Series 3 ships with watchOS 4, which has an updated Heart Rate app (including resting and recovery period monitoring), Workout app (with High Intensity Interval Training), as well as two-way data synchronization with GymKit-integrated cardio fitness equipment from companies such as Life Fitness, Technogym, Cybex, Schwinn, MS Artrix, Stair Master and Star Trac. The Apple Watch Series 3 (GPS) requires an iPhone 5s or later with iOS 11 or later. The Apple Watch Series 3 (GPS + Cellular) requires an iPhone 6 or later with iOS 11 or later. * Apple Watch Series 3


watchOS 3watchOS 2watchOS 1
It taps the HealthKit platform to collect data, particularly those collected by the Apple Watch's heart sensor. WatchOS 5 was first shown to the public at the San Jose WWDC developer conference held by Apple. It had an instant watch-to-watch Walkie-Talkie mode. This is the first version of watchOS to not support the first-generation Apple Watch. Apple announced a new version of watchOS that would contain features such as the App Store, a calculator with tip tools, an audiobooks app, noise level monitoring, and Apple's Voice Memos app. * – official site tvOS. macOS. Wear OS.

Steve Mann (inventor)

Steve MannProf. Steve MannSteve Mann’s
Mann has been referred to as the "father of wearable computing", having created the first general-purpose wearable computer, in contrast to previous wearable devices that perform one specific function such as time-keeping (e.g. wristwatch); calculations (e.g. wearable abacus); or Edward O. Thorp and Claude Shannon's wearable computers, which were timing devices concealed in shoes or cigarette packs and designed for cheating at a game of roulette. Mann has also been described as "the world's first cyborg" in Canadian popular press such as NOW, The Globe and Mail, National Post, and Toronto Life, but has himself rejected the term "cyborg" as being too vague.

Clock face

dialfacehour hand
It is customary for modern advertisements to display clocks and watches set to approximately 10:10 or 1:50, as this V-shaped arrangement roughly makes a smile, imitates a human figure with raised arms, and leaves the watch company's logo unobscured by the hands. In the 1970s, German designer Tian Harlan invented the Chromachron, a wristwatch with a clock face that has no dials but a disc with pie-shaped pattern rotating by the minute over color patterns representing both hours and minutes.