Under normal conditions, the watch goes into standby mode down when not in use in order to extend its battery life. The device was distributed with a software development kit which allows for creation of new software written in the programming language C. The successor to the Ruputer is the onHand PC. The onHand PC was available in two color styles, clear & black, and a single format. While the Ruputer was available with either 512Kb of storage (original Ruputer), 2Mb (Ruputer PRO), or 4 Mb of flash memory (Ruputer PRO4), the onHand PC came only in a single version with 2Mb of storage. The operating system is known as W-PS-DOS version 1.16.

Astron (wristwatch)

Astron35 SQ AstronElectronic Quartz Wristwatch
The Astron wristwatch, formally known as the Seiko Quartz-Astron 35SQ, was the world's first "quartz clock" wristwatch. It is now registered on the List of IEEE Milestones as a key advance in electrical engineering. The Astron was unveiled in Tokyo on December 25, 1969, after ten years of research and development at Suwa Seikosha (currently named Seiko Epson), a manufacturing company of Seiko Group. Within one week 100 gold watches had been sold, at a retail price of 450,000 yen (US$1,250) each (at the time, equivalent to the price of a medium-sized car).

GPS navigation device

GPS receiverGPSGPS navigation
Defense Advanced GPS Receiver. Head unit. GPS puck. GPS watch. Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver. GPS clock. Turn-by-turn navigation.

Liquid-crystal display

LCDliquid crystal displayLCD screen
In 1972 North American Rockwell Microelectronics Corp introduced the use of DSM LCD displays for calculators for marketing by Lloyds Electronics Inc, though these required an internal light source for illumination. Sharp Corporation followed with DSM LCD displays for pocket-sized calculators in 1973 and then mass-produced TN LCD displays for watches in 1975. Other Japanese companies soon took a leading position in the wristwatch market, like Seiko and its first 6-digit TN-LCD quartz wristwatch.


GNU/LinuxLinux on the desktopLin
Linux's greatest success in the consumer market is perhaps the mobile device market, with Android being one of the most dominant operating systems on smartphones and very popular on tablets and, more recently, on wearables. Linux gaming is also on the rise with Valve showing its support for Linux and rolling out its own gaming-oriented Linux distribution. Linux distributions have also gained popularity with various local and national governments, such as the federal government of Brazil. Greg Kroah-Hartman is the lead maintainer for the Linux kernel and guides its development.


barometricaneroid barometerbarometers
A barometer can also be found in smartphones such as the Samsung Galaxy Nexus, Samsung Galaxy S3-S6, Motorola Xoom, Apple iPhone 6 smartphones, and Timex Expedition WS4 smartwatch, based on MEMS and piezoresistive pressure-sensing technologies. Inclusion of barometers on smartphones was originally intended to provide a faster GPS lock. However, third party researchers were unable to confirm additional GPS accuracy or lock speed due to barometric readings. The researchers suggest that the inclusion of barometers in smartphones may provide a solution for determining a user's elevation, but also suggest that several pitfalls must first be overcome.

Nelsonic Industries

NelsonicNelsonic game watchPrincess Toadstool's Castle Run
The chronograph digital watches, typically made of molded plastic, invariably featured an alarm and utilized LCD screens to display the time for their wearers. In time the company began manufacturing multi-purpose units that used the LCD screen to combine time display functions with simple video game functions. These simple video games were variations on the theme of the calculator watch, and the patent covering the Game Watch line is in fact classified as an "electronic calculator watch structure." The company's first game watch was called Space Attacker.


Garmin Ltd.Garmin InternationalGarmin Aviation
It has a built-in accelerometer (calculates distance during indoor workouts, without the need for a foot pod), step counter, auto goal (learns the wearer's activity level and assigns a daily step goal), move bar, and sleep-monitoring capabilities. Other series include the Quatix aimed at water sports, the D2 aviator watches, the Approach golf watches. In 2018, Garmin introduced functionality such as maps, Bluetooth music playback, NFC payment and pulse-oximetry for its wristwear. In October 2018, Garmin announced it has integrated Spotify to its Garmin Fenux 5 Plus and Garmin Forerunner 645 Music GPS sports watch.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
The draft was universal and included blacks on the same terms as whites, although they served in different units. In all 367,710 black Americans were drafted (13% of the total), compared to 2,442,586 white (87%). Forms of resistance ranged from peaceful protest to violent demonstrations and from humble letter-writing campaigns asking for mercy to radical newspapers demanding reform. The most common tactics were dodging and desertion, and many communities sheltered and defended their draft dodgers as political heroes. Many socialists were jailed for "obstructing the recruitment or enlistment service".

Samsung Gear S3

Gear S3
The Samsung Gear S3 is a Tizen-based circular smartwatch developed by Samsung Electronics. It was released on 18 November 2016. There are two models of the Gear S3, Classic and Frontier. The Classic has a silver watch case and black leather band, while the Frontier has a black watch case and rubber band. Both are rated IP68 (water resistant) and have GPS and heart rate monitor sensors. One notable feature is that the bezel ring rotates as part of the user interface, although users can also navigate by swiping the screen and/or using the two buttons on the side. The Gear S3's successor, the Samsung Galaxy Watch, was released 9 August 2018.

GPS tracking unit

GPS trackingGPS trackerGPS tracking device
GPS aircraft tracking. GPS navigation device. GPS tracking server. GPS watch. GPS wildlife tracking. Intelligent transportation system (ITS). IVMS. Mobile phone. Radio clock#GPS clocks. Real-time locating. Telematics. Telematics 2.0. Vehicle infrastructure integration. Vehicle tracking system.

TAG Heuer

HeuerTAG Heuer WatchAristo
All manual-wind Autavias from the 1960s had a black dial, with white registers. Early cases had a screw-back and later models (from and after 1968) had snap-backs. The "Autavia" name had previously been used on Heuer's dashboard timers (described above). 1963 The Carrera chronograph was introduced, designed by Jack Heuer, great-grandson of Edouard. The Carrera had a very simple design, with only the registers and applied markers on the dial. The fixed inner bezel is divided into 1/5 second increments. The 1960s Carreras were available with a variety of dials, including all-white, all-black, white registers on a black dial, and black registers on a black dial.

Citizen Watch

CitizenCitizen Watch Co.Citizen Holdings
Citizen Watch Co., Ltd. is an electronics company primarily known for its watches, and is the core company of a Japanese global corporate group based in Tokyo. In addition to Citizen brand watches, it is the parent of American watch company Bulova, and is also known for manufacturing small electronics such as calculators. The company was founded in 1930 by Japanese and Swiss investors. It took over Shokosha Watch Research Institute (founded in 1918) and some facilities of the assembly plant opened in Yokohama in 1912 by the Swiss watchmaker Rodolphe Schmid. The brand Citizen was first registered in Switzerland by Schmid in 1918 for watches he sold in Japan.


sapphire crystalstar sapphireBlue sapphire
Because of the remarkable hardness of sapphires – 9 on the Mohs scale (the third hardest mineral, after diamond at 10 and moissanite at 9.5) – sapphires are also used in some non-ornamental applications, such as infrared optical components, high-durability windows, wristwatch crystals and movement bearings, and very thin electronic wafers, which are used as the insulating substrates of special-purpose solid-state electronics such as integrated circuits and GaN-based blue LEDs. Sapphire is the birthstone for September and the gem of the 45th anniversary. A sapphire jubilee occurs after 65 years.

Android (operating system)

AndroidAndroid operating systemList of Android devices
Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including Android Wear, later renamed Wear OS, for wearable devices such as wrist watches, Android TV for televisions, and Android Things for smart devices and Internet of things. Additionally, by providing infrastructure that combines dedicated hardware and dedicated applications running on regular Android, Google have opened up the platform for its use in particular usage scenarios, such as Android Auto for cars, and Daydream, a Virtual Reality platform.

Samsung Gear 2

Gear 2
As with the Galaxy Gear, an updated Gear Manager app is installed on the Galaxy device to coordinate communications, customize the watch, and download apps from Samsung Apps. The Gear 2's Gear Manager adds the ability to customize which apps the watch displays notifications from, upload a custom wallpaper, and perform backups. The Gear 2 and Gear 2 Neo received mixed reviews. TechRadar considered the device to be a "much, much better attempt at making the smartwatch more relevant", with particular praise towards the streamlined design and ability to use custom watch straps, and its improved battery life, but panned the high cost of the device and its "convoluted" user interface. *

Head-up display

HUDheads-up displayheads up display
Wearable computer. Rochester Archives Article—'Buccaneer HUD PDU'. BBC Article—'Pacman comes to life virtually'. 'Clinical evaluation of the 'head-up' display of anesthesia data'. 'When will the Head-up go Civil' – Flight 1968 archive. 'Elliott Brothers to BAE SYSTEMS' – a short history of Elliott Brothers. Head-up Over the Hills – a 1964 Flight International article on flying using an early Specto head-up display. Jaguar Unveils 'Virtual Widescreen' Technology to Assist Drivers – Latin Post.

Kevin Lynch (computing)

Kevin Lynch
Lynch has been responsible for developing the software of Apple's smartwatch project, the Apple Watch, a device he demonstrated at the September 2014 Apple Launch Event. Lynch graduated from Lincoln-Way Central High School in New Lenox, Illinois. He attended the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) College of Engineering as an undergraduate student, where he studied computer science and interactive computer graphics and worked in the UIC College of Engineering’s Electronic Visualization Laboratory. Lynch helped start one of the first Mac software startups called Mac3D—the first Mac 2D/3D drawing application.

Transflective liquid-crystal display

transflectivetransflective liquid crystal displaytransflective LCD
An application is digital LCD wristwatches. In dim ambient light or at night a backlight allows reading of the display in its transmissive mode. Digital time displays in alarm clocks for bedrooms may also work this way. The backlighting is dim, so that the display is comfortably readable at night. Some 21st century smartwatches such as the Pebble Smartwatch and the Amazfit Stratos also use transflective LCDs. When an illuminance sensor is added for control of the backlight, such a transflective LCD can be read over a wide range of illuminance levels. This technique is often found in automotive instrumentation.

Mobile operating system

mobile platformsmobile OSmobile
LG releases the LG Watch Urbane LTE smartwatch running "LG Wearable Platform OS" based on webOS. This is a version of their Android Wear OS-based LG Watch Urbane, with added LTE connectivity. watchOS, based on iOS, is released by Apple with the Apple Watch. September. Apple releases iOS 9 with the iPhone 6S and 6S Plus, iPad Pro, and iPad Mini 4, plus watchOS 2. tvOS 9 is also made distinct from iOS, with its own App Store, launching with Apple TV 4th generation. Google releases Android 6.0 "Marshmallow".

Smart Personal Objects Technology

At the Consumer Electronics Show of 2003, Microsoft announced that wristwatches would be the first type of device to utilize the technology in a partnership with watch manufacturers Citizen Watch Co., Fossil, and Suunto. Bill Gates also demonstrated a set of prototype smart watches. SPOT was not Microsoft's foray into the smartwatch business—the company previously co-developed the Timex Datalink with Timex in 1994.

Samsung Galaxy Gear

Galaxy Gear
The development of the Galaxy Gear came in the midst of a push towards the growing smartwatch market; Samsung's main competitor Apple had been the subject of rumors suggesting an upcoming watch product, while the Kickstarter-backed Pebble (which reached mass market availability in July 2013) has been credited with creating mainstream interest in the concept. Lee Young-hee, vice president of Samsung's mobile business, revealed in July 2013 that the company had been working on a watch for a long time, and referred to it as a "product for the future".

Microsoft Band

BandMicrosoft Health
. * 1) Optical heart rate monitor. 2) Three-axis accelerometer. 3) Gyrometer. 4) GPS. 5) Microphone. 6) Ambient light sensor. 7) Galvanic skin response sensors. 8) UV sensor. 9) Skin temperature sensor. 10) Capacitive sensor. Smart Personal Objects Technology. Apple Watch. Android Wear. Microsoft Band 2. Fitbit. Garmin.

Omate TrueSmart

In contrast to other smart watches, the TrueSmart is a standalone smartwatch that can support 3G GSM micro SIM card. The TrueSmart is a full featured Android smartphone in a watch form factor promoted as a smartwatch 2.0 (Telecom Wearable) by Omate to differentiate the device with other traditional smart watches which are mainly companion devices. Its sensors include a magnetometer, a three-axis accelerometer and a GPS. It has a vibrator, a microphone and an audio speaker. The watch is charged and connected to computers using a standard USB cable and an external charging cradle accessory.

Sony Ericsson LiveView

The Sony Ericsson LiveView is a wearable device that connects to an Android phone and can display Twitter feeds, RSS feeds, SMS, control the phone's media player, and is capable of running third-party plugins obtainable from Google's Play Store. It is compatible with most Android-powered devices. LiveView comes with a belt clip and watch band and features a 128x128 OLED display, and Bluetooth radio. LiveView was introduced on 28 September 2010 and released by the end of the year. Smartwatch. Wearable computer. Sony SmartWatch. Pebble watch. Omate TrueSmart. Official website. Official announcement. Video showing the device. Reviews: Engadget PCmag slashgear.