Steve Mann

Prof. Steve MannSteve Mann’sSteven Mann
Mann has been referred to as the "father of wearable computing", having created the first general-purpose wearable computer, in contrast to previous wearable devices that perform one specific function such as time-keeping (e.g. wristwatch); calculations (e.g. wearable abacus); or Edward O. Thorp and Claude Shannon's wearable computers, which were timing devices concealed in shoes or cigarette packs and designed for cheating at a game of roulette. Mann has also been described as "the world's first cyborg" in Canadian popular press such as NOW, The Globe and Mail, National Post, and Toronto Life, but has himself rejected the term "cyborg" as being too vague.

Clock face

dialfacehour hand
Until the last quarter of the 17th century, hour markings were etched into metal faces and the recesses filled with black wax. Subsequently, higher contrast and improved readability was achieved with white enamel plaques painted with black numbers. Initially, the numbers were printed on small, individual plaques mounted on a brass substructure. This was not a stylistic decision, rather enamel production technology had not yet achieved the ability to create large pieces of enamel. The "13-piece face" was an early attempt to create an entirely white enamel face. As the name suggests, it was composed of 13 enamel plaques: 12 numbered wedges fitted around a circle.

Haptic technology

force feedbackhaptic feedbackhaptic
In 2015 Apple started to sell a wrist watch which included skin tap sensing of notifications and alerts to mobile phone of the watch wearer. The majority of electronics offering haptic feedback uses vibrations, and most use a type of eccentric rotating mass (ERM) actuator, consisting of an unbalanced weight attached to a motor shaft. As the shaft rotates, the spinning of this irregular mass causes the actuator, and in turn, the attached device, to shake.


Under normal conditions, the watch goes into standby mode down when not in use in order to extend its battery life. The device was distributed with a software development kit which allows for creation of new software written in the programming language C. The successor to the Ruputer is the onHand PC. The onHand PC was available in two color styles, clear & black, and a single format. While the Ruputer was available with either 512Kb of storage (original Ruputer), 2Mb (Ruputer PRO), or 4 Mb of flash memory (Ruputer PRO4), the onHand PC came only in a single version with 2Mb of storage. The operating system is known as W-PS-DOS version 1.16.

Apple Watch Series 2

Apple WatchSeries 1
The Apple Watch Series 1 and Apple Watch Series 2 are the second-generation model of the Apple Watch. It uses an Apple S2 (Series 2) or Apple S1P (Series 1) SiP (System in Package), has a built-in quick-on GPS (Series 2) and the display has twice the brightness of the previous generation for easier readability outdoors. The Apple Watch Series 1 and 2 require an iPhone 5 or later on iOS 10 or later. Apple Watch Series 2 has a water resistance rating of 50 meters. It can keep track of the number of laps and distance while swimming. It uses the speaker for expelling residual water after a swim or immersion in water. During swimming the touch function can be manually disabled. * – official site


GNU/LinuxLinLinux operating system
This includes routers, automation controls, televisions, digital video recorders, video game consoles, and smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run Android and other Linux derivatives. Because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open-source software collaboration. The source code may be used, modified and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.

Liquid-crystal display

LCDliquid crystal displayliquid crystal displays
Tetsuro Hama and Izuhiko Nishimura of Seiko received a US patent dated February 1971, for an electronic wristwatch incorporating a TN-LCD. In 1972, the first wristwatch with TN-LCD was launched on the market: The Gruen Teletime which was a four digit display watch. The same year, the first active-matrix thin-film transistor (TFT) liquid-crystal display panel was prototyped in the United States by T. Peter Brody's team at Westinghouse, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1973, Sharp Corporation introduced the use of LCD displays for calculators, and then mass-produced TN LCD displays for watches in 1975.

GPS navigation device

GPSIntegratedGPS receiver
Defense Advanced GPS Receiver. Head unit. GPS puck. GPS watch. Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver. Radio clock#GPS clocks. Turn-by-turn navigation.

Astron (wristwatch)

Astron35 SQ AstronElectronic Quartz Wristwatch
The Astron wristwatch, formally known as the Seiko Quartz-Astron 35SQ, was the world's first "quartz clock" wristwatch. It is now registered on the List of IEEE Milestones as a key advance in electrical engineering. The Astron was unveiled in Tokyo on December 25, 1969, after ten years of research and development at Suwa Seikosha (currently named Seiko Epson), a manufacturing company of Seiko Group. Within one week 100 gold watches had been sold, at a retail price of 450,000 yen (US$1,250) each (at the time, equivalent to the price of a medium-sized car).


barometricaneroid barometerbarometers
A barometer can also be found in smartphones such as the Samsung Galaxy Nexus, Samsung Galaxy S3-S6, Motorola Xoom, Apple iPhone 6 smartphones, and Timex Expedition WS4 smartwatch, based on MEMS and piezoresistive pressure-sensing technologies. Inclusion of barometers on smartphones was originally intended to provide a faster GPS lock. However, third party researchers were unable to confirm additional GPS accuracy or lock speed due to barometric readings. The researchers suggest that the inclusion of barometers in smartphones may provide a solution to determining a user's elevation, but also suggest that several pitfalls must first be overcome.

Button cell

coin cellLR44CR2032
A watch battery or button cell is a small single cell battery shaped as a squat cylinder typically 5 to 25 mm in diameter and 1 to 6 mm high — like a button on a garment, hence the name. A metal can forms the bottom body and positive terminal of the cell. An insulated top cap is the negative terminal. Button cells are used to power small portable electronics devices such as wrist watches, pocket calculators, artificial cardiac pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators, automobile keyless entry transmitters, and hearing aids. Wider variants are usually called coin cells.

Apple S1

S1Apple S1PS1P
Apple mobile application processors, the range of ARM-based mobile processors designed by Apple for their consumer electronic devices. Apple Watch. Apple S2.


Garmin Ltd.Garmin CorporationGarmin Europe
The company specializes in GPS technology for automotive, aviation, marine, outdoor, and sport activities. Due to their development in wearable technology, they have also been competing with activity tracker and smartwatch consumer developers such as Fitbit and Apple. In 1983, Gary Burrell recruited Min H. Kao from the defense contractor Magnavox while working for the former King Radio. They founded Garmin in 1989 in Lenexa, Kansas, as "ProNav". ProNav's first product was a GPS unit which sold for 2,500. The company was later renamed "Garmin", a portmanteau of its two founders, Gary Burrell and Min H. Kao. In 1991, the U.S. Army became their first customer.

Samsung Gear S3

Gear S3
The Samsung Gear S3 is a Tizen-based circular smartwatch developed by Samsung Electronics. It was released on 18 November 2016. The Gear S3 has two models: Classic and Frontier. The Classic has a silver watch case and black leather band, while the Frontier has a black watch case and rubber band. Both are rated IP68 (water resistant) and have GPS, as well as heart rate monitor sensors. One notable feature is that the bezel ring rotates as part of the user interface, although users can also navigate by swiping the screen and/or using the two buttons on the side. Its successor, the Samsung Galaxy Watch, was released 9 August 2018.

Nelsonic Industries

The chronograph digital watches, typically made of molded plastic, invariably featured an alarm and utilized LCD screens to display the time for their wearers. In time the company began manufacturing multi-purpose units that used the LCD screen to combine time display functions with simple video game functions. These simple video games were variations on the theme of the calculator watch, and the patent covering the Game Watch line is in fact classified as an "electronic calculator watch structure." The company's first game watch was called Space Attacker.

GPS tracking unit

GPS trackingGPS tracking deviceGPS
GPS aircraft tracking. GPS navigation device. GPS tracking server. GPS watch. GPS wildlife tracking. Intelligent transportation system (ITS). IVMS. Mobile phone. Radio clock#GPS clocks. Real-time locating. Telematics. Telematics 2.0. Vehicle infrastructure integration. Fleet management and recovery solution. Best low cost Indian GPS vehicle Tracker. How to build a GPS car tracking system.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarFirst
The draft was universal and included blacks on the same terms as whites, although they served in different units. In all 367,710 black Americans were drafted (13% of the total), compared to 2,442,586 white (87%). Forms of resistance ranged from peaceful protest to violent demonstrations and from humble letter-writing campaigns asking for mercy to radical newspapers demanding reform. The most common tactics were dodging and desertion, and many communities sheltered and defended their draft dodgers as political heroes. Many socialists were jailed for "obstructing the recruitment or enlistment service".

TAG Heuer

HeuerTAG Heuer WatchAristo
All manual-wind Autavias from the 1960s had a black dial, with white registers. Early cases had a screw-back and later models (from and after 1968) had snap-backs. The "Autavia" name had previously been used on Heuer's dashboard timers (described above). 1963 The Carrera chronograph was introduced, designed by Jack Heuer, great grandson of Edouard. The Carrera had a very simple design, with only the registers and applied markers on the dial. The fixed inner bezel is divided into 1/5 second increments. The 1960s Carreras were available with a variety of dials, including all-white, all-black, white registers on a black dial, and black registers on a black dial.

Samsung Gear 2

Gear 2
As with the Galaxy Gear, an updated Gear Manager app is installed on the Galaxy device to coordinate communications, customize the watch, and download apps from Samsung Apps. The Gear 2's Gear Manager adds the ability to customize which apps the watch displays notifications from, upload a custom wallpaper, and perform backups. The Gear 2 and Gear 2 Neo received mixed reviews. TechRadar considered the device to be a "much, much better attempt at making the smartwatch more relevant", with particular praise towards the streamlined design and ability to use custom watch straps, and its improved battery life, but panned the high cost of the device and its "convoluted" user interface.

Android (operating system)

AndroidAndroid operating systemAndroid OS
Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including Android Wear, later renamed Wear OS, for wearable devices such as wrist watches, Android TV for televisions, and Android Things for smart devices and Internet of things. Additionally, by providing infrastructure that combines dedicated hardware and dedicated applications running on regular Android, Google have opened up the platform for its use in particular usage scenarios, such as Android Auto for cars, and Daydream, a Virtual Reality platform.


star sapphiresapphire crystalsapphires
Because of the remarkable hardness of sapphires – 9 on the Mohs scale (the third hardest mineral, after diamond at 10 and moissanite at 9.5) – sapphires are also used in some non-ornamental applications, such as infrared optical components, high-durability windows, wristwatch crystals and movement bearings, and very thin electronic wafers, which are used as the insulating substrates of very special-purpose solid-state electronics (especially integrated circuits and GaN-based LEDs). Sapphire is the birthstone for September and the gem of the 45th anniversary. A sapphire jubilee occurs after 65 years.

SIM card

SIMnano-SIMSIM cards
Apple implemented eSIM support in its Apple Watch series 3 and second generation iPad Pro devices. In October 2017, Google unveiled the Pixel 2, which added eSIM support for use with its Project Fi service. The following year, Apple released the iPhone XS and iPhone XR with eSIM support. eSIM support on iPhone requires iOS 12.1 or later. PLINTRON implemented eSIM4Things product based on eSIM support for the Devices and available in 28 Countries. The use of SIM cards is mandatory in GSM devices. The satellite phone networks Iridium, Thuraya and Inmarsat's BGAN also use SIM cards.

Sony SmartWatch

Sony Smart Watch 2 Figures in the Top 10 wathces of 2013. Waterproof Smartwatch.


Team Tissot
Tissot introduced the first mass-produced pocket watch as well as the first pocket watch with two time zones in 1853 and the first anti-magnetic watch, in 1929–30. Charles-Emile Tissot left for Russia in 1858 and succeeded in selling their savonnette pocket watches across the Russian Empire. The Tissot company was also the first to make watches out of plastic (Idea 2001 in 1971), stone (the Alpine granite RockWatch in 1985), mother of pearl (the Pearl watch in 1987), and wood (the Wood watch in 1988). Tissot merged with Omega in 1930 and Tissot-Omega watches from this era are sought after by collectors.