languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
Many languages use morphology to cross-reference words within a sentence. This is sometimes called agreement. For example, in many Indo-European languages, adjectives must cross-reference the noun they modify in terms of number, case, and gender, so that the Latin adjective bonus, or "good", is inflected to agree with a noun that is masculine gender, singular number, and nominative case. In many polysynthetic languages, verbs cross-reference their subjects and objects. In these types of languages, a single verb may include information that would require an entire sentence in English.


Generally, the affixes used with a root word are bound morphemes. * Inflectional morphemes modify a verb's tense, aspect, mood, person, or number, or a noun's, pronoun's or adjective's number, gender or case, without affecting the word's meaning or class (part of speech). Examples of applying inflectional morphemes to words are adding -s to the root dog to form dogs and adding -ed to wait to form waited. An inflectional morpheme changes the form of a word. In English, there are eight inflections. Allomorphs are variants of a morpheme that differ in pronunciation but are semantically identical.


nounssubstantiveabstract noun
In some languages, genders are assigned to nouns, such as masculine, feminine and neuter. The gender of a noun (as well as its number and case, where applicable) will often entail agreement in words that modify or are related to it. For example, in French, the singular form of the definite article is le with masculine nouns and la with feminines; adjectives and certain verb forms also change (with the addition of -e with feminines). Grammatical gender often correlates with the form of the noun and the inflection pattern it follows; for example, in both Italian and Russian most nouns ending -a are feminine.


The Extreme Male Brain (EMB) theory proposes that individuals on the autistic spectrum are characterized by impairments in empathy due to sex differences in the brain: specifically, people with autism spectrum conditions show an exaggerated male profile. A study showed that some aspects of autistic neuroanatomy seem to be extremes of typical male neuroanatomy, which may be influenced by elevated levels of fetal testosterone rather than gender itself.


In speech repetition, speech being heard is quickly turned from sensory input into motor instructions needed for its immediate or delayed vocal imitation (in phonological memory). This type of mapping plays a key role in enabling children to expand their spoken vocabulary. Masur (1995) found that how often children repeat novel words versus those they already have in their lexicon is related to the size of their lexicon later on, with young children who repeat more novel words having a larger lexicon later in development. Speech repetition could help facilitate the acquisition of this larger lexicon. There are several organic and psychological factors that can affect speech.


Ecolinguistics explores the role of language in the life-sustaining interactions of humans, other species and the physical environment. The first aim is to develop linguistic theories which see humans not only as part of society, but also as part of the larger ecosystems that life depends on. The second aim is to show how linguistics can be used to address key ecological issues, from climate change and biodiversity loss to environmental justice. Sociolinguistics is the study of how language is shaped by social factors.

Preposition and postposition

Adpositions themselves are usually non-inflecting ("invariant"): they do not have paradigms of form (such as tense, case, gender, etc.) the same way that verbs, adjectives, and nouns can. There are exceptions, though, such as prepositions that have fused with a pronominal object to form inflected prepositions. The following properties are characteristic of most adpositional systems: As noted above, adpositions are referred to by various terms, depending on their position relative to the complement. While the term preposition is sometimes used to denote any adposition, in its stricter meaning it refers only to one which precedes its complement.

Child development stages

developmental milestonesdevelopmental stagesmilestones
Physical Motor development Physical Motor development Physical Motor development Physical Motor development Cognitive development English language Social Walking development Physical Motor development Cognitive English language Social and emotional Physical Motor development Cognitive development Physical development Motor development Cognitive English language Social development Physical Motor development Cognitive English language development Social development Physical Motor development English language Social and emotional Motor development Writing grips *The dynamic tripod grip is the final stage of holding writing implements English language Social and emotional Motor development English


Closed class word. Comparative. Complement. Compound noun and adjective. Conjugation. Conjunction. Constituent. Coordination. Coreference. Crossover. Dangling modifier. Declension. Dependency grammar. Dependent marking. Determiner. Discontinuity. Do-support. Dual (form for two). Ellipsis. Endocentric. Exceptional case-marking. Expletive. Extraposition. Finite verb. Function word. Gapping. Gender. Gerund. Government. Head. Head marking. Infinitive. Inverse copular construction. Inversion. Lexical item. m-command. Measure word (classifier). Merge. Modal particle. Modal verb. Modifier. Mood. Movement. Movement paradox. Nanosyntax. Negative inversion. Non-configurational language.

Sign language

deaf sign languagesign languagessigning
Still, this kind of system is inadequate for the intellectual development of a child and it comes nowhere near meeting the standards linguists use to describe a complete language. No type of home sign is recognized as a full language. There have been several notable examples of scientists teaching signs to non-human primates in order to communicate with humans, such as common chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans. However, linguists generally point out that this does not constitute knowledge of a human language (as a complete system, rather than simply signs/words).


The general structure of the syllables that they are producing is very closely related to the sounds of their native language and this form of babbling significantly predicts the form of early words. Around 11 months, babies imitate inflections, rhythms, and expressions of speakers. By 12 months, babies typically can speak one or more words. These words now refer to the entity which they name; they are used to gain attention or for a specific purpose. Children continue to produce jargon babbles beyond their first words. Manual babbling is structurally identical to vocal babbling in its development.


verbsv.verbal morphology
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand). In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive. In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice. A verb may also agree with the person, gender or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object.

Grammatical number

Inflection. Measure word. Names of numbers in English. Noun class. Plurale tantum. Romance plurals.


Lat.Latin languagelat
The grammatical function can be changed by changing the markers: the word is "inflected" to express different grammatical functions, but the semantic element usually does not change. (Inflection uses affixing and infixing. Affixing is prefixing and suffixing. Latin inflections are never prefixed.) For example, amābit, "he (or she or it) will love", is formed from the same stem, amā-, to which a future tense marker, -bi-, is suffixed, and a third person singular marker, -t, is suffixed. There is an inherent ambiguity: -t may denote more than one grammatical category: masculine, feminine, or neuter gender.

German language

German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection, with three grammatical genders; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root. German nouns inflect by case, gender and number: This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin, Ancient Greek and Sanskrit, and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English, modern Icelandic or Russian. The three genders have collapsed in the plural.


grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
Analytic languages use syntax to convey information that is encoded via inflection in synthetic languages. In other words, word order is not significant and morphology is highly significant in a purely synthetic language, whereas morphology is not significant and syntax is highly significant in an analytic language. Chinese and Afrikaans, for example, are highly analytic, and meaning is therefore very context-dependent. (Both do have some inflections, and have had more in the past; thus, they are becoming even less synthetic and more "purely" analytic over time.) Latin, which is highly synthetic, uses affixes and inflections to convey the same information that Chinese does with syntax.

French language

According to the French lexicogrammatical system, French has a rank-scale hierarchy with clause as the top rank, which is followed by group rank, word rank, and morpheme rank. A French clause is made up of groups, groups are made up of words, and lastly, words are made up of morphemes. French grammar shares several notable features with most other Romance languages, including Every French noun is either masculine or feminine. Because French nouns are not inflected for gender, a noun's form cannot specify its gender. For nouns regarding the living, their grammatical genders often correspond to that which they refer to.


For nouns, in general, gender is not declined in Modern English, or at best one could argue there are isolated situations certain nouns may be modified to reflect gender, though not in a systematic fashion. Loan words from other languages, particularly Latin and the Romance languages, often preserve their gender-specific forms in English, e.g. alumnus (masculine singular) and alumna (feminine singular). Similarly, names borrowed from other languages show comparable distinctions: Andrew and Andrea, Paul and Paula, etc.

Grammatical category

grammatical categoriescategoriescategory
For example, the values available in a given language for the category "tense" are called "tenses", the values available for the category "gender" are called "genders", and so on. A phonological manifestation of a category value (for example, a word ending that marks plurality on a noun) is sometimes called an exponent. A given constituent of an expression can normally take only one value from a particular category. For example, a noun or noun phrase cannot be both singular and plural, since these are both values of the category of number. It can, however, be both plural and feminine, since these represent different categories (number and gender).

Lemma (morphology)

lemmacitation formdictionary form
In older dictionaries, which are still commonly used today, the triliteral of the word, either a verb or a noun, is used. Hebrew often uses the third-person masculine perfect, e.g., ברא bara' create, כפר kaphar deny. Georgian uses the verbal noun. For Korean, -da is attached to the stem. In Irish, words are highly inflected depending on their case (genitive, nominative, dative and vocative); they are also inflected on their place within a sentence because of initial mutations. The noun cainteoir, the lemma for the noun meaning "speaker", has a variety of forms: chainteoir, gcainteoir, cainteora, chainteora, cainteoirí, chainteoirí and gcainteoirí.

Analytic language

analyticanalytic languagesanalytical
For example, while Proto-Indo-European had much more complex grammatical conjugation, grammatical genders, dual number and inflections for eight or nine cases in its nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals, participles, postpositions and determiners, standard English has lost nearly all of them (except for three modified cases for pronouns) along with genders and dual number and simplified its conjugation. Latin, German, Greek, and Russian are synthetic languages. Nouns in Russian inflect for at least six cases, most of them descended from Proto-Indo-European cases, whose functions English translates using other strategies like prepositions, verbal voice, word order, and possessive instead.

Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticles
Articles have developed independently in many different language families across the globe. Generally, articles develop over time usually by specialization of certain adjectives or determiners, and their development is often a sign of languages becoming more analytic instead of synthetic, perhaps combined with the loss of inflection as in English, Romance languages, Bulgarian, Macedonian and Torlakian.


Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of the psyche, or soul (ψυχή psychē, "breath, spirit, soul" and -λογία -logia, "study of" or "research"). The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century.


past participlepresent participleparticiples
The following points may be noted: Among Indo-European languages, the Lithuanian language is unique for having fourteen different participial forms of the verb, which can be grouped into five when accounting for inflection by tense. Some of these are also inflected by gender and case.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
Conjunctions connect words or group of words. Interjection (expresses feelings and emotions): an emotional greeting or exclamation (Huzzah, Alas). Interjections express strong feelings and emotions. Article (describes, limits): a grammatical marker of definiteness (the) or indefiniteness (a, an). The article is not always listed among the parts of speech. It is considered by some grammarians to be a type of adjective or sometimes the term 'determiner' (a broader class) is used. Categories that will usually be open classes:. adjectives. adverbs. nouns. verbs (except auxiliary verbs). interjections.