One consensus definition of bootstrapping sees it as "a collection of methods used to minimize the amount of outside debt and equity financing needed from banks and investors". The majority of businesses require less than $10,000 to launch, which means that personal savings are most often used to start. In addition, bootstrapping entrepreneurs often incur personal credit-card debt, but they also can utilize a wide variety of methods. While bootstrapping involves increased personal financial risk for entrepreneurs, the absence of any other stakeholder gives the entrepreneur more freedom to develop the company.


Between 2012 and 2014, three additional co-founders joined to help grow the startup. Another brother, Daniel Simair, joined, along with two friends from university - Jeff Adamson and Andrew Chau. During the first few years of operations, the co-founders bootstrapped the company and raised a small round of seed capital from angel investors. Shortly after, the co-founders raised additional capital from private investors, as well as four prominent venture capital firms - Golden Venture Partners (Toronto, Ontario), Founder Collective (New York, New York), Felicis Ventures (Menlo Park, California), and FJ Labs (Cambridge, Massachusetts).


github.comGistGitHub Pages
Bootstrap (front-end framework). U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Collaborative innovation network. Collaborative intelligence. Commons-based peer production. Comparison of source code hosting facilities. Gitea.


RJMetrics was a bootstrapped company until it received its first round of funding in 2012. The seed round was $1.2 million and came from Red Swan Ventures, Vision Ventures, SoftTech VC, Zelkova Ventures, Lerer Ventures, and SV Angel. In May 2013, RJMetrics received its Series A funding of $6.25 million from Trinity Ventures and SoftTech VC. In September 2014, RJMetrics received its Series B funding of $16.5 million from SoftTech VC, Trinity Ventures, and August Capital. To-date, the Series B funding is one of the biggest rounds of funding received by a Philadelphia-based IT startup.

Drexler–Smalley debate on molecular nanotechnology

Smalley has engaged in open debate with Drexler
., and serving on the scientific advisory board of two other biotechnology and nanotechnology startups. Smalley died of leukemia in October 2005, after the conclusion of his debate with Drexler. Smalley wrote an article, "Of Chemistry, Love, and Nanobots", for the September 2001 issue of the popular science magazine Scientific American, which was a special issue on the topic of nanotechnology. Smalley opened by comparing a chemical reaction to an intricate dance of atoms: "When a boy and a girl fall in love, it is often said that the chemistry between them is good.

Unicorn (finance)

unicornunicornsunicorn company
List of unicorn startup companies. List of venture capital firms. Unicorn bubble. Valuation (finance). Venture capital financing.

Lean startup

leanpivotlean start-up
Lean startup principles have been applied to specific competencies within typical startups and larger organizations: The lean startup methodology was first proposed in 2008 by Eric Ries, using his personal experiences adapting lean management and customer development principles to high-tech startup companies. The methodology has since been expanded to apply to any individual, team, or company looking to develop new products, services, or systems without unlimited resources. The lean startup's reputation is due in part to the success of Ries' bestselling book, The Lean Startup, published in September 2011.

Business model

business modelsmodeloperating model
Matthews, Business Models for Entrepreneurs and Startups, Best of TIM Review, Book 2, Talent First Network, 2013. Alex Osterwalder et al. Business Model Generation, Co-authored with Yves Pigneur, Alan Smith, and 470 practitioners from 45 countries, self-published, 2009. O. Peterovic and C. Kittl et al., Developing Business Models for eBusiness., International Conference on Electronic Commerce 2001, 2001. Alt, Rainer; Zimmermann, Hans-Dieter: Introduction to Special Section – Business Models. In: Electronic Markets Anniversary Edition, Vol. 11 (2001), No. 1. link. Santiago Restrepo Barrera, Business model tool, Business life model, Colombia 2012, http://www.imaginatunegocio.com/#!

Disruptive innovation

disruptive technologydisruptive technologiesdisruption
Disruptive innovations tend to be produced by outsiders and entrepreneurs in startups, rather than existing market-leading companies. The business environment of market leaders does not allow them to pursue disruptive innovations when they first arise, because they are not profitable enough at first and because their development can take scarce resources away from sustaining innovations (which are needed to compete against current competition).

Venture capital

venture capitalistventure capital firmventure capitalists
Inherent in realizing abnormally high rates of returns is the risk of losing all of one's investment in a given startup company. As a consequence, most venture capital investments are done in a pool format, where several investors combine their investments into one large fund that invests in many different startup companies. By investing in the pool format, the investors are spreading out their risk to many different investments instead of taking the chance of putting all of their money in one start up firm.

Computer data storage

main memorystoragememory
Hence, non-volatile primary storage containing a small startup program (BIOS) is used to bootstrap the computer, that is, to read a larger program from non-volatile secondary storage to RAM and start to execute it. A non-volatile technology used for this purpose is called ROM, for read-only memory (the terminology may be somewhat confusing as most ROM types are also capable of random access). Many types of "ROM" are not literally read only, as updates to them are possible; however it is slow and memory must be erased in large portions before it can be re-written. Some embedded systems run programs directly from ROM (or similar), because such programs are rarely changed.

Startup ecosystem

hubscenestartup community
A startup ecosystem is formed by people, startups in their various stages and various types of organizations in a location (physical or virtual), interacting as a system to create and scale new startup companies. These organizations can be further divided into categories such as universities, funding organizations, support organizations (like incubators, accelerators, co-working spaces etc.), research organizations, service provider organizations (like legal, financial services etc.) and large corporations. Local Governments and Government organizations such as Commerce / Industry / Trade departments also play an important role in startup ecosystem.

Shareholders' agreement

shareholders agreementshareholder agreementshareholders' pact
However, where there are a relatively small number of shareholders, like in a startup company, it is quite common in practice for the shareholders to supplement the constitutional document. There are a number of reasons why the shareholders may wish to supplement (or supersede) the constitutional documents of the company in this way: There are also certain risks which can be associated with putting a shareholders' agreement in place in some countries. Shareholders' agreements vary enormously between different countries and different commercial fields.

Business incubator

incubatorbusiness incubatorsbusiness incubation
A business incubator is a company that helps new and startup companies to develop by providing services such as management training or office space. The National Business Incubation Association (NBIA) defines business incubators as a catalyst tool for either regional or national economic development. NBIA categorizes their members’ incubators by the following five incubator types: academic institutions; non-profit development corporations; for-profit property development ventures; venture capital firms, and combination of the above. Business incubators differ from research and technology parks in their dedication to startup and early-stage companies.

Silicon Valley

Silicon Valley, CaliforniaSan JoseSan Francisco Bay Area technology industry
The area is now home to many of the world's largest high-tech corporations, including the headquarters of more than 30 businesses in the Fortune 1000, and thousands of startup companies. Silicon Valley also accounts for one-third of all of the venture capital investment in the United States, which has helped it to become a leading hub and startup ecosystem for high-tech innovation and scientific development. It was in Silicon Valley that the silicon-based integrated circuit, the microprocessor, and the microcomputer, among other technologies, were developed. As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of a million information technology workers.

Stanford University

StanfordLeland Stanford Junior UniversityUniversity of Stanford
StartX is a non-profit startup accelerator for student and faculty-led startups that over 12% of the study body has applied to. It is staffed primarily by students. Other groups include: Stanford's Department of Public Safety is responsible for law enforcement and safety on the main campus. Its deputy sheriffs are peace officers by arrangement with the Santa Clara County Sheriff's Office. The department is also responsible for publishing an annual crime report covering the previous three years as required by the Clery Act. Fire protection has been provided by contract with the Palo Alto Fire Department since 1976.

New York City

New YorkNew York, New YorkNew York City, New York
High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city's position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, New York's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity. Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City., New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.

Minimum viable product

MVPsmallest useful orbital rocket
Lean startup. Minimum marketable feature. Pilot experiment. Startup company. The Cathedral and the Bazaar.

Startup accelerator

seed acceleratoracceleratorbusiness accelerator
Virtually all accelerators end their programs with a "Demo Day", where the startups present to investors. 5) Startups are accepted and supported in cohort batches or classes (the accelerator isn't an on-demand resource ). The peer support and feedback that the classes provide is an important advantage. If the accelerator doesn't offer a common workspace, the teams will meet periodically.

Douglas Engelbart

Doug EngelbartDouglas C. EngelbartDouglas Englebart
Engelbart then formed a startup company, Digital Techniques, to commercialize some of his doctoral research on storage devices, but after a year decided instead to pursue the research he had been dreaming of since 1951. Engelbart took a position at SRI International (known then as Stanford Research Institute) in Menlo Park, California in 1957. He worked for Hewitt Crane on magnetic devices and miniaturization of electronics; Engelbart and Crane became close friends. At SRI, Engelbart soon obtained a dozen patents, and by 1962 produced a report about his vision and proposed research agenda titled Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MITM.I.T.Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
In early 2016, MIT presented its updated Kendall Square Initiative to the City of Cambridge, with plans for mixed-use educational, retail, residential, startup incubator, and office space in a dense high-rise transit-oriented development plan. The MIT Museum will eventually be moved immediately adjacent to a Kendall Square subway entrance, joining the List Visual Arts Center on the eastern end of the campus. Each building at MIT has a number (possibly preceded by a W, N, E, or NW) designation and most have a name as well. Typically, academic and office buildings are referred to primarily by number while residence halls are referred to by name.

Angel investor

angel investorsangel investmentbusiness angel
Kerr, Josh Lerner, and Antoinette Schoar provides evidence that angel-funded startups are more likely to succeed than companies that rely on other forms of initial financing. The paper by Kerr et al., found "that angel funding is positively correlated with higher survival, additional fundraising outside the angel group, and faster growth measured through growth in web site traffic". Angel capital fills the gap in seed funding between "friends and family" and more robust start-up financing through formal venture capital.

Super angel

angel fundssuper angel investor
Serial investing (investing in numerous startup companies). Investing at a seed round in startup companies. Funding rounds in the (approximate) range of $50,000 to several million dollars, larger than typical "friends and family" rounds but smaller than most venture rounds. Taking an active role in portfolio companies. Raising money from general partners and other principals, without passive investors in the fund. Fund principals who are experienced entrepreneurs. Avoid joining boards as a long-term investor in favor of owning stakes for several weeks.

Venture round

Series BSeries CSeries B round
A venture round is a type of funding round used for venture capital financing, by which startup companies obtain investment, generally from venture capitalists and other institutional investors. The availability of venture funding is among the primary stimuli for the development of new companies and technologies. Venture investors obtain special privileges that are not granted to holders of common stock. These are embodied in the various transaction documents. Common rights include: Venture capital financing rounds typically have names relating to the class of stock being sold: Founders or stakeholders. Introduce companies to investors.

Seed money

seed fundingseed roundseed capital
Seed money, sometimes known as seed funding or seed capital, is a form of securities offering in which an investor invests capital in a startup company in exchange for an equity stake or convertible note stake in the company. The term seed suggests that this is a very early investment, meant to support the business until it can generate cash of its own (see cash flow), or until it is ready for further investments. Seed money options include friends and family funding, seed venture capital funds, angel funding, and crowdfunding.