Pseudorandom number generator

pseudo-random number generatorPRNGpseudorandom
This page is about commonly encountered characteristics of pseudorandom number generator algorithms. For the formal concept in theoretical computer science, see Pseudorandom generator.

Waterloo, Ontario

WaterlooCity of Waterloocity of Waterloo, Ontario
Waterloo is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is the smallest of three cities in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo (and previously in Waterloo County, Ontario), and is adjacent to the city of Kitchener.

Steady state

In systems theory, a system or a process is in a steady state if the variables (called state variables) which define the behavior of the system or the process are unchanging in time. In continuous time, this means that for those properties p of the system, the partial derivative with respect to time is zero and remains so:

Equity crowdfunding

Crowdfunding Equity-based crowdfundingequity funding
The first known equity based crowdfunding platform for startups was launched as a private beta in June, 2009 by Grow VC Group followed by full commercial launch in February 2010 The first US. based company ProFounder launched model for startups to raise investments directly on the site in May 2011, but deciding later to shut down its business due regulatory reasons preventing them from continuing, having launched their model prior to JOBS Act. Early platforms include CrowdCube and Seedrs in the UK. Others like the European startup invest their own money in every new startup on top of investment received from others on their website.

Statistical classification

In machine learning and statistics, classification is the problem of identifying to which of a set of categories (sub-populations) a new observation belongs, on the basis of a training set of data containing observations (or instances) whose category membership is known. Examples are assigning a given email to the "spam" or "non-spam" class, and assigning a diagnosis to a given patient based on observed characteristics of the patient (sex, blood pressure, presence or absence of certain symptoms, etc.). Classification is an example of pattern recognition.

Financial statement

financial statementsfinancial reportingfinancial report
Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of the financial activities and position of a business, person, or other entity.

Artificial intelligence

AIartificially intelligentA.I.
In the field of computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and other animals. Computer science defines AI research as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. More specifically, Kaplan and Haenlein define AI as “a system’s ability to correctly interpret external data, to learn from such data, and to use those learnings to achieve specific goals and tasks through flexible adaptation”.

Return on investment

Return on investment (ROI) is a ratio between the net profit and cost of investment resulting from an investment of some resources. A high ROI means the investment's gains favorably to its cost. As a performance measure, ROI is used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiencies of several different investments. In purely economic terms, it is one way of relating profits to capital invested. Return on investment is a performance measure used by businesses to identify the efficiency of an investment or number of different investments.

Technological singularity

Singularityintelligence explosionthe Singularity
Blog on bootstrapping artificial intelligence by Jacques Pitrat. Why an Intelligence Explosion is Probable (Mar 2011). Why an Intelligence Explosion is Impossible (Nov 2017).


The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is all of the shares into which ownership of the corporation is divided. In American English, the shares are commonly called stocks. A single share of the stock represents fractional ownership of the corporation in proportion to the total number of shares. This typically entitles the stockholder to that fraction of the company's earnings, proceeds from liquidation of assets (after discharge of all senior claims such as secured and unsecured debt), or voting power, often dividing these up in proportion to the amount of money each stockholder has invested.

Resampling (statistics)

resamplingstatistical supportstrongly supported
Bootstrap Resampling: interactive demonstration of hypothesis testing with bootstrap resampling in R. Permutation Test: interactive demonstration of hypothesis testing with permutation test in R.

Credit card

credit cardscreditcredit-card
[[File:Creditcardwcontactless.png|thumb|250px|An example of the front in a typical credit card:1. Issuing Bank Logo

Factoring (finance)

factoringbill discounterinvoice discounting
Factoring is a financial transaction and a type of debtor finance in which a business sells its accounts receivable (i.e., invoices) to a third party (called a factor) at a discount. A business will sometimes factor its receivable assets to meet its present and immediate cash needs. Forfaiting is a factoring arrangement used in international trade finance by exporters who wish to sell their receivables to a forfaiter. Factoring is commonly referred to as accounts receivable factoring, invoice factoring, and sometimes accounts receivable financing. Accounts receivable financing is a term more accurately used to describe a form of asset based lending against accounts receivable.


onlinethe Internetweb
The Internet (contraction of interconnected network) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.


econometriceconometricianeconometric analysis
Econometrics is the application of statistical methods to economic data in order to give empirical content to economic relationships. More precisely, it is "the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference". An introductory economics textbook describes econometrics as allowing economists "to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships". The first known use of the term "econometrics" (in cognate form) was by Polish economist Paweł Ciompa in 1910. Jan Tinbergen is considered by many to be one of the founding fathers of econometrics.

Richard J. Christiansen

Richard Christiansen
Richard co-authored his first book Bootstrap Business: A Step-By-Step Business Survival Guide. It was published in 2009 by Wizard Academy Press. Richard's second book, The Zigzag Principle was published in 2011 by McGraw-Hill. The Zigzag Principle is a USA Today,, and Inc. Magazine bestseller. Richard co-authored his third book Even if Your Toes Turn Purple with his sons Tim and Alex Christiansen. Richard was the featured author, in May 2012, of the 12 Books Group leading the discussion of his second book, The Zigzag Principle. Richard is involved in philanthropic efforts around the world. He is particularly interested in helping the people of Nepal.

The Economist

EconomistEconomist magazineEconomist Intelligence Unit
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London. Continuous publication began under its founder, James Wilson, in September 1843. In 2015 its average weekly circulation was a little over 1.5 million, about half of which were sold in the United States. Pearson PLC held a 50% shareholding via The Financial Times Limited until August 2015; at that time Pearson sold their share in the Economist. The Agnelli family's Exor paid £287m to raise their stake from 4.7% to 43.4%, while the Economist paid £182m for the balance of 5.04m shares which will be distributed to current shareholders.

Intellectual property

intellectual property rightsIPintellectual properties
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. Intellectual property encompasses two types of rights; industrial property rights (trademarks, patents, designations of origin, industrial designs and models) and copyright. It was not until the 19th century that the term "intellectual property" began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world.

Intellectual capital

Intellectual capital is the intangible value of a business, covering its people (human capital), the value relating to its relationships (relational capital), and everything that is left when the employees go home (structural capital), of which intellectual property (IP) is but one component. It is the sum of everything everybody in a company knows that gives it a competitive edge. The term is used in academia in an attempt to account for the value of intangible assets not listed explicitly on a company's balance sheets. On a national level intellectual capital refers to national intangible capital, NIC.


Google Inc.Google, Inc.Googling
On September 24, 2012, Google launched Google for Entrepreneurs, a largely not-for-profit business incubator providing startups with co-working spaces known as Campuses, with assistance to startup founders that may include workshops, conferences, and mentorships. Presently, there are 7 Campus locations in Berlin, London, Madrid, Seoul, São Paulo, Tel Aviv, and Warsaw.

Leveraged buyout

leveraged buyoutsLBOleveraged finance
Bootstrap funding. Divisional buyout. Envy ratio. History of private equity and venture capital. List of private equity firms. Vulture capitalist. LCD Loan Market Primer: LBOs – What are leveraged loans used for?. Investopedia definition – Leveraged Buyout.

Series A round

Series ASeries A fundingSeries A financing
Series A rounds also occur in non-technology industries and receive investment from investment banks, corporate investors, angel investors, public agencies, and others, that receive less press coverage than technology startup funding rounds. They all share a similar legal and financial framework, but specific terminology, deal terms, and investment practices vary according to business customs within different countries, business sectors, investor communities, and geographical regions. Angel investor. Crowdsourcing. Private equity. Revenue-based financing. Securities offering. Seed money. Venture round. Venture capital financing.

Bootstrapping (finance)

Bootstrapping Step-By-Step,

Spot contract

spot pricespotspot rate
Spot rates are estimated via the bootstrapping method, which uses prices of the securities currently trading in market, that is, from the cash or coupon curve. The result is the spot curve, which exists for each of the various classes of securities. A simple example: even if you know tomatoes are cheap in July and will be expensive in January, you can't buy them in July and take delivery in January, since they will spoil before you can take advantage of January's high prices. The July price will reflect tomato supply and demand in July. The forward price for January will reflect the market's expectations of supply and demand in January.