Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now widely accepted, and considered a foundational concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.


Responsive communitarians have been playing a considerable public role, presenting themselves as the founders of a different kind of environmental movement, one dedicated to shoring up society (as opposed to the state) rather than nature. Like environmentalism, communitarianism appeals to audiences across the political spectrum, although it has found greater acceptance with some groups than others. Although communitarianism is a small philosophical school, it has had considerable influence on public dialogues and politics.


missionariesmissionary workmission
Fulton, female medical missionary to China, founder of Hackett Medical College for Women in Guangzhou, China. Eusebio Kino, (Roman Catholic Jesuit) missionary. Zenas Sanford Loftis, medical missionary to Tibet. Robert E. Longacre, Christian linguist missionary to Mexico. Dada Maheshvarananda, Ananda Marga yoga missionary. Fred Prosper Manget, medical missionary to China, founder of Houzhou General Hospital, Houzhou, China, also a doctor with the Flying Tigers and U.S. Army in Kunming, China, during World War II. Lottie Moon, Baptist missionary to China. Arthur Lewis Piper, medical missionary to the Belgian Congo. Dada Pranakrsnananda, Ananda Marga yoga missionary.


communicationscommunicatecommunication skills
Communication (from Latin communicare, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs, symbols, and semiotic rules.

Charismatic authority

charismatic leadercharismatic leadershipcharismatic
Eileen Barker discusses the tendency for new religious movements to have founders or leaders who wield considerable charismatic authority and are believed to have special powers or knowledge. Charismatic leaders are unpredictable, Barker says, for they are not bound by tradition or rules and they may be accorded by their followers the right to pronounce on all aspects of their lives. Barker warns that in these cases the leader may lack any accountability, require unquestioning obedience, and encourage a dependency upon the movement for material, spiritual and social resources. George D.

Vision statement

visioncalling statementVision of what is possible
A vision statement is a declaration of an organization's objectives, intended to guide its internal decision-making. A vision statement is not limited to business organizations and may also be used by non-profit or governmental entities.

Team building

team-buildingteam spiritteambuilding
Team building is a collective term for various types of activities used to enhance social relations and define roles within teams, often involving collaborative tasks. It is distinct from team training, which is designed by a combine of business managers, learning and development/OD (Internal or external) and an HR Business Partner (if the role exists) to improve the efficiency, rather than interpersonal relations.

Nonverbal communication

non-verbal communicationnonverbalnon-verbal
Nonverbal communication (NVC) is the nonlinguistic transmission of information through visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic (physical) channels.

Communication accommodation theory

accommodateaccommodationcommunication accommodation
Communication accommodation theory (CAT) is a theory of communication developed by Howard Giles. This theory concerns "(1) the behavioral changes that people make to attune their communication to their partner, and (2) the extent to which people perceive their partner as appropriately attuning to them." This theory is concerned with the links between language, context, and identity. It focuses on both the intergroup and interpersonal factors that lead to accommodation, as well as the ways that power, macro and micro-context concerns affect communication behaviors.

Face negotiation theory

face-negotiatingFace-saving Theory
Face-Negotiation Theory was a theory conceived by Stella Ting-Toomey in 1985, to understand how people from different cultures manage rapport and disagreements. The theory posits "face", or self-image, as a universal phenomenon that pervades across cultures. In conflicts, one's face is threatened; and thus the person tends to save or restore his or her face. This set of communicative behaviors, according to the theory, is called "facework". Since people frame the situated meaning of "face" and enact "facework" differently from one culture to the next, the theory poses a cultural-general framework to examine facework negotiation.

Face (sociological concept)

facesave facelose face
Face is a class of behaviors and customs operating (active) in different countries and cultures, associated with the morality, honor, and authority of an individual (or group of individuals), and its image in social groups.

Stanford University

StanfordLeland Stanford Junior UniversityStanford Cardinal
Cisco, 1984, founders Leonard Bosack (M.S) and Sandy Lerner (M.S) who were in charge of Stanford Computer Science and Graduate School of Business computer operations groups respectively when the hardware was developed. Coursera, 2012, founders Andrew Ng (Associate Professor) and Daphne Koller (Professor, PhD). Google, 1998, founders Larry Page (M.S) and Sergey Brin (M.S). Hewlett-Packard, 1939, founders William R. Hewlett (B.S, PhD) and David Packard (M.S). Silicon Graphics, 1981, co-founders James H. Clark (Associate Professor) and several of his grad students. Sun Microsystems, 1982, co-founders Vinod Khosla (M.B.A), Andy Bechtolsheim (PhD) and Scott McNealy (M.B.A). Yahoo!

Edward Lazear

More recently, Lazear turned his attention to studying entrepreneurs. In a paper “Entrepreneurship,” (Journal of Labor Economics, 2005), is very widely cited because it is one of the few papers that offers an economic model why some people become entrepreneurs and some do not. The tendency to become an entrepreneur originates with one’s training: people who can build their experience as a jack-of-all-trades will rationally become entrepreneurs, and specialists will work as employees.

University of Zurich

ZurichZürichZurich University
Diethelm, Swiss businessman and Group General Counsel at UBS AG • Marc Faber, an investment analyst and entrepreneur • Marcel Rohner (banker), Swiss businessman (UBS AG) • Karl Brunner (economist), Swiss economist • Bruno Frey, Swiss economist • Raynold Kaufgetz, Swiss economist • Adriano B.

University of Siegen

SiegenSiegen UniversityUniversity
The University of Siegen (Universität Siegen) is a public research university located in Siegen, North Rhine-Westphalia and is part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, a society of Germany's leading research universities. The University was founded in 1972. 18,618 students were enrolled at the university as of the year 2017.

Empirical research

empiricalempirical evidenceempirical studies
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence. It is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience. Empiricism values such research more than other kinds. Empirical evidence (the record of one's direct observations or experiences) can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively. Quantifying the evidence or making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical questions, which should be clearly defined and answerable with the evidence collected (usually called data). Research design varies by field and by the question being investigated.

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

CsikszentmihalyiMihály CsíkszentmihályiCsikszentmihalyi’s
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (, Csíkszentmihályi Mihály, ; born 29 September 1934) is a Hungarian-American psychologist. He recognized and named the psychological concept of flow, a highly focused mental state. He is the Distinguished Professor of Psychology and Management at Claremont Graduate University. He is the former head of the department of psychology at the University of Chicago and of the department of sociology and anthropology at Lake Forest College.

Flow (psychology)

flowflow statein the zone
In positive psychology, flow, also known colloquially as being in the zone, is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity. In essence, flow is characterized by complete absorption in what one does, and a resulting loss in one's sense of space and time.

Maria Montessori

MontessoriDr MontessoriDr. Maria Montessori
Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori (August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952) was an Italian physician and educator best known for the philosophy of education that bears her name, and her writing on scientific pedagogy. At an early age, Montessori broke gender barriers and expectations when she enrolled in classes at an all-boys technical school, with hopes of becoming an engineer. She soon had a change of heart and began medical school at the University of Rome, where she graduated – with honors – in 1896. Her educational method is in use today in many public and private schools throughout the world.

Knowledge management

knowledgeknowledge management systemKM
Knowledge management (KM) is the process of creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge and information of an organisation. It refers to a multidisciplinary approach to achieving organisational objectives by making the best use of knowledge.

Steve Jobs

JobsdeathSteven Jobs
He was the chairman, chief executive officer (CEO), and co-founder of Apple Inc.; chairman and majority shareholder of Pixar; a member of The Walt Disney Company's board of directors following its acquisition of Pixar; and the founder, chairman, and CEO of NeXT. Jobs is widely recognized as a pioneer of the microcomputer revolution of the 1970s and 1980s, along with Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak. Jobs was born in San Francisco, California, and put up for adoption. He was raised in the San Francisco Bay Area. He attended Reed College in 1972 before dropping out that same year, and traveled through India in 1974 seeking enlightenment and studying Zen Buddhism.

Opportunity cost

opportunity costshidden costhidden costs
In microeconomic theory, the opportunity cost, also known as alternative cost, of making a particular choice is the value of the most valuable choice not taken. When an option is chosen from two mutually exclusive alternatives, the opportunity cost is the "cost" incurred by not enjoying the benefit associated with the alternative choice.


assetstotal assetstangible asset
In financial accounting, an asset is any resource owned by the business. Anything tangible or intangible that can be owned or controlled to produce value and that is held by a company to produce positive economic value is an asset. Simply stated, assets represent value of ownership that can be converted into cash (although cash itself is also considered an asset). The balance sheet of a firm records the monetary value of the assets owned by that firm. It covers money and other valuables belonging to an individual or to a business.

Value (economics)

valueeconomic valuemonetary value
Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent. It is generally measured relative to units of currency, and the interpretation is therefore "what is the maximum amount of money a specific actor is willing and able to pay for the good or service"?


knowhowstreetwisestreet smarts
Know-how (or knowhow) is a term for practical knowledge on how to accomplish something, as opposed to "know-what" (facts), "know-why" (science), or "know-who" (communication). Know-how is often tacit knowledge, which means that it is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalising it. Dubickis and Gaile-Sarkane (2017) states that the performance of know-how transfer is affected by accuracy of the stated aim, applied teaching, learning and assessment methods and both internal and external environment characteristics of the stakeholders involved in the process. The opposite of tacit knowledge is explicit knowledge.