arteriesarterialarterial system
Theodor Kocher reported that atherosclerosis often developed in patients who had undergone a thyroidectomy and suggested that hypothyroidism favors atherosclerosis, which was, in 1900s autopsies, seen more frequently in iodine-deficient Austrians compared to Icelanders, who are not deficient in iodine. Turner reported the effectiveness of iodide and dried extracts of thyroid in the prevention of atherosclerosis in laboratory rabbits. * Vein * Human arterial system

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
A more controversial link is that between Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection and atherosclerosis. While this intracellular organism has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques, evidence is inconclusive as to whether it can be considered a causative factor. Treatment with antibiotics in patients with proven atherosclerosis has not demonstrated a decreased risk of heart attacks or other coronary vascular diseases. Since the 1990s the search for new treatment options for coronary artery disease patients, particularly for so called "no-option" coronary patients, focused on usage of angiogenesis and (adult) stem cell therapies.


angina pectorischest painstable angina
Myocardial ischemia can result from: Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels) of the heart's arteries and, hence, angina pectoris. Some people with chest pain have normal or minimal narrowing of heart arteries; in these patients, vasospasm is a more likely cause for the pain, sometimes in the context of Prinzmetal's angina and syndrome X. Myocardial ischemia also can be the result of factors affecting blood composition, such as reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, as seen with severe anemia (low number of red blood cells), or long-term smoking. Angina results when there is an imbalance between the heart's oxygen demand and supply.


cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Coronary artery disease, also known as ischaemic heart disease, is caused by atherosclerosis—a build-up of fatty material along the inner walls of the arteries. These fatty deposits known as atherosclerotic plaques narrow the coronary arteries, and if severe may reduce blood flow to the heart. If a narrowing (or stenosis) is relatively minor then the patient may not experience any symptoms. Severe narrowings may cause chest pain (angina) or breathlessness during exercise or even at rest. The thin covering of an atherosclerotic plaque can rupture, exposing the fatty centre to the circulating blood.


balloon angioplastyangioplastiespercutaneous transluminal angioplasty
Carotid artery stenosis is treated with angioplasty in a procedure called carotid stenting for patients at high risk for carotid endarterectomy. Atherosclerotic obstruction of the renal artery can be treated with angioplasty with or without stenting of the renal artery. Renal artery stenosis can lead to hypertension and loss of renal function. Angioplasty is occasionally used to treat venous stenosis, such as stenosis of the subclavian vein caused by thoracic outlet syndrome. Angioplasty requires an access vessel, typically the femoral or radial artery or femoral vein, to permit access to the vascular system for the wires and catheters used.


stentsstent graftstenting
It was used as a scaffold to prevent the vessel from closing and to avoid restenosis in coronary surgery—a condition where scar tissue grows within the stent and interferes with vascular flow. Shortly thereafter, in 1987, Julio Palmaz (known for patenting a balloon-expandable stent ) and Richard Schatz implanted their similar stent into a patient in Germany. Though several doctors have been credited with the creation of the stent, the first FDA-approved stent was invented by Cesare Gianturco and Gary S. Roubin and approved in 1993. To further reduce the incidence of restenosis, the drug-eluting stent was introduced in 2003. Bioresorbable stent. Bronchoscopy. Colonoscopy.


strokesischemic strokecerebrovascular accident
Carotid endarterectomy or carotid angioplasty can be used to remove atherosclerotic narrowing of the carotid artery. There is evidence supporting this procedure in selected cases. Endarterectomy for a significant stenosis has been shown to be useful in preventing further strokes in those who have already had one. Carotid artery stenting has not been shown to be equally useful. People are selected for surgery based on age, gender, degree of stenosis, time since symptoms and the person's preferences.


The rise of the modern anti-smoking movement in the late 19th century did more than create awareness of the hazards of smoking; it provoked reactions of smokers against what was, and often still is, perceived as an assault on personal freedom and has created an identity among smokers as rebels or outcasts, apart from non-smokers: There is a new Marlboro land, not of lonesome cowboys, but of social-spirited urbanites, united against the perceived strictures of public health. The importance of tobacco to soldiers was early on recognized as something that could not be ignored by commanders.

Coronary artery bypass surgery

heart bypassbypass surgeryheart bypass surgery
Other heart surgery factors related to mental damage may be events of hypoxia, high or low body temperature, abnormal blood pressure, irregular heart rhythms, and fever after surgery. Nonunion of the sternum; internal thoracic artery harvesting increases the sternum devascularization risk. Myocardial infarction due to embolism, hypoperfusion, or graft failure. Late graft stenosis, particularly of saphenous vein grafts due to atherosclerosis causing recurrent angina or myocardial infarction. Acute renal failure due to embolism or hypoperfusion. Stroke, secondary to embolism or hypoperfusion. Vasoplegic syndrome, secondary to cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.

Percutaneous coronary intervention

coronary angioplastyPCIpercutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PCI is used primarily to open a blocked coronary artery and restore arterial blood flow to heart tissue, without requiring open-heart surgery. In patients with a restricted or blocked coronary artery, PCI may be the best option to re-establish blood flow as well as prevent angina (chest pain), myocardial infarctions (heart attacks) and death. Today, PCI usually includes the insertion of stents, such as bare-metal stents, drug-eluting stents, and fully resorbable vascular scaffolds (or naturally dissolving stents). The use of stents has been shown to be important during the first three months after PCI; after that the artery can remain open on its own.


aneurysmsaneurismruptured aneurysm
The heart, including coronary artery aneurysms, ventricular aneurysms, aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, and aneurysms following cardiac surgery. The aorta, namely aortic aneurysms including thoracic aortic aneurysms and abdominal aortic aneurysms. The brain, including cerebral aneurysms, berry aneurysms, and Charcot–Bouchard aneurysms. The legs, including the popliteal arteries. The kidney, including renal artery aneurysm and intraparechymal aneurysms. Capillaries, specifically capillary aneurysms. Fatigue. Loss of perception. Loss of balance. Speech problems. Double vision. Severe headaches. Loss of vision. Double vision. Neck pain or stiffness. Pain above or behind the eyes.


The presence or absence of atherosclerosis or atheroma within the walls of the arteries cannot be clearly determined. Coronary angiography can visualize coronary artery stenosis, or narrowing of the blood vessel. The degree of stenosis can be determined by comparing the width of the lumen of narrowed segments of blood vessel with wider segments of adjacent vessel. To detect coronary artery disease, a CT scan is more satisfactory than an MRI scan. The sensitivity and specificity between CT and MRI were (97.2 percent and 87.4 percent) and (87.1 percent and 70.3 percent), respectively.


cardiologistcardiologistscardiovascular medicine
This procedure can also be done proactively, when areas of the vascular system become occluded from Atherosclerosis. The Cardiologist will thread this sheath through the vascular system to access the heart. This sheath has a balloon and a tiny wire mesh tube wrapped around it, and if the cardiologist finds a blockage or Stenosis, they can inflate the balloon at the occlusion site in the vascular system to flatten or compress the plaque against the vascular wall. Once that is complete a Stent is placed as a type of scaffold to hold the vasculature open permanently. Helen B. Taussig is known as the founder of pediatric cardiology.

Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
Atherosclerosis, the formation of lipid lumps (atheromas) in the blood vessel wall, is the most common cardiovascular disease, the main cause of death in the Western world. Blood vessel permeability is increased in inflammation. Damage, due to trauma or spontaneously, may lead to hemorrhage due to mechanical damage to the vessel endothelium. In contrast, occlusion of the blood vessel by atherosclerotic plaque, by an embolised blood clot or a foreign body leads to downstream ischemia (insufficient blood supply) and possibly necrosis. Vessel occlusion tends to be a positive feedback system; an occluded vessel creates eddies in the normally laminar flow or plug flow blood currents.


blood clotsthromboticblood clot
In thrombotic stroke, a thrombus (blood clot) usually forms around atherosclerotic plaques. Since blockage of the artery is gradual, onset of symptomatic thrombotic strokes is slower. Thrombotic stroke can be divided into two categories—large vessel disease and small vessel disease. The former affects vessels such as the internal carotids, vertebral and the circle of Willis. The latter can affect smaller vessels such as the branches of the circle of Willis. Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack, is caused by ischemia, (restriction in the blood supply), often due to the obstruction of a coronary artery by a thrombus.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
The presence of an arterial stenosis increases resistance to flow, however this increase in resistance rarely increases systemic blood pressure because its contribution to total systemic resistance is small, although it may profoundly decrease downstream flow. Substances called vasoconstrictors reduce the caliber of blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. Vasodilators (such as nitroglycerin) increase the caliber of blood vessels, thereby decreasing arterial pressure. In the longer term a process termed remodeling also contributes to changing the caliber of small blood vessels and influencing resistance and reactivity to vasoactive agents.

Peripheral vascular system

peripheral veinperipheral arteriesPeripheral Vessels
Atherosclerosis. Peripheral artery disease. Peripheral vascular disease. Stenosis. Systemic circulation. Thrombosis.

List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes

This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymologies. Most of them are combining forms in New Latin and hence international scientific vocabulary. There are a few general rules about how they combine. First, prefixes and suffixes, most of which are derived from ancient Greek or classical Latin, have a droppable -o-. As a general rule, this -o- almost always acts as a joint-stem to connect two consonantal roots (e.g. arthr- + -o- + logy = arthrology), but generally, the -o- is dropped when connecting to a vowel-stem (e.g. arthr- + itis = arthritis, instead of *arthr-o-itis).


It can be caused by embolism, thrombosis of an atherosclerotic artery, or trauma. Venous problems like venous outflow obstruction and low-flow states can cause acute arterial ischemia. An aneurysm is one of the most frequent causes of acute arterial ischemia. Other causes are heart conditions including myocardial infarction, mitral valve disease, chronic atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathies, and prosthesis, in all of which thrombi are prone to develop. The thrombi may dislodge and may travel anywhere in the circulatory system, where they may lead to pulmonary embolus, an acute arterial occlusion causing the oxygen and blood supply distal to the embolus to decrease suddenly.


inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Non-immune diseases with causal origins in inflammatory processes include cancer, atherosclerosis, and ischemic heart disease. Examples of disorders associated with inflammation include: Atherosclerosis, formerly considered a bland lipid storage disease, actually involves an ongoing inflammatory response. Recent advances in basic science have established a fundamental role for inflammation in mediating all stages of this disease from initiation through progression and, ultimately, the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. These new findings provide important links between risk factors and the mechanisms of atherogenesis.

Heart valve

heart valvesvalvesatrioventricular valves
This is a result of the valve becoming thickened and any of the heart valves can be affected, as in mitral valve stenosis, tricuspid valve stenosis, pulmonary valve stenosis and aortic valve stenosis. Stenosis of the mitral valve is a common complication of rheumatic fever. Inflammation of the valves can be caused by infective endocarditis, usually a bacterial infection but can sometimes be caused by other organisms. Bacteria can more readily attach to damaged valves. Another type of endocarditis which doesn't provoke an inflammatory response, is nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. This is commonly found on previously undamaged valves.