Mitral valve stenosis

mitral stenosismitral valvuloplastymitral atresia
M1 becomes louder in mitral stenosis. It may be the most prominent sign. If pulmonary hypertension secondary to mitral stenosis is severe, the P 2 (pulmonic) component of the second heart sound (S 2 ) will become loud. An opening snap that is a high-pitch additional sound may be heard after the A 2 (aortic) component of the second heart sound (S 2 ), which correlates to the forceful opening of the mitral valve. The mitral valve opens when the pressure in the left atrium is greater than the pressure in the left ventricle. This happens in ventricular diastole (after closure of the aortic valve), when the pressure in the ventricle precipitously drops.


blood clottingblood coagulationclotting
Coagulation, also known as clotting, is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion, and aggregation of platelets along with deposition and maturation of fibrin. Disorders of coagulation are disease states which can result in bleeding (hemorrhage or bruising) or obstructive clotting (thrombosis).

Congenital heart defect

congenital heart diseaseheart defectcongenital heart defects
Common defects include pulmonic stenosis, aortic stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta, with other types such as bicuspid aortic valve stenosis and subaortic stenosis being comparatively rare. Any narrowing or blockage can cause heart enlargement or hypertension. The septum is a wall of tissue which separates the left heart from the right heart. Defects in the interatrial septum or the interventricular septum allow blood to flow from the right side of the heart to the left, reducing the heart's efficiency. Ventricular septal defects are collectively the most common type of CHD, although approximately 30% of adults have a type of atrial septal defect called probe patent foramen ovale.


cardiologistcardiologistscardiovascular medicine
This procedure can also be done proactively, when areas of the vascular system become occluded from Atherosclerosis. The Cardiologist will thread this sheath through the vascular system to access the heart. This sheath has a balloon and a tiny wire mesh tube wrapped around it, and if the cardiologist finds a blockage or Stenosis, they can inflate the balloon at the occlusion site in the vascular system to flatten or compress the plaque against the vascular wall. Once that is complete a Stent is placed as a type of scaffold to hold the vasculature open permanently. Helen B. Taussig is known as the founder of pediatric cardiology.

Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
Atherosclerosis, the formation of lipid lumps (atheromas) in the blood vessel wall, is the most common cardiovascular disease, the main cause of death in the Western world. Blood vessel permeability is increased in inflammation. Damage, due to trauma or spontaneously, may lead to hemorrhage due to mechanical damage to the vessel endothelium. In contrast, occlusion of the blood vessel by atherosclerotic plaque, by an embolised blood clot or a foreign body leads to downstream ischemia (insufficient blood supply) and possibly necrosis. Vessel occlusion tends to be a positive feedback system; an occluded vessel creates eddies in the normally laminar flow or plug flow blood currents.

Coronary arteries

coronary arterycoronaryarteries
The left coronary artery arises from the aorta above the left cusp of the aortic valve and feeds blood to the left side of the heart. It branches into two arteries and sometimes a third branch is formed at the fork, known as a ramus or intermediate artery. The right coronary artery originates from above the right cusp of the aortic valve. It travels down the right coronary sulcus, towards the crux of the heart. There is also the conus artery, which is only present in about 45 per cent of the human population, and which may provide collateral blood flow to the heart when the left anterior descending artery is occluded.


blood clotsthromboticblood clot
In thrombotic stroke, a thrombus (blood clot) usually forms around atherosclerotic plaques. Since blockage of the artery is gradual, onset of symptomatic thrombotic strokes is slower. Thrombotic stroke can be divided into two categories—large vessel disease and small vessel disease. The former affects vessels such as the internal carotids, vertebral and the circle of Willis. The latter can affect smaller vessels such as the branches of the circle of Willis. Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack, is caused by ischemia, (restriction in the blood supply), often due to the obstruction of a coronary artery by a thrombus.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
In a study of people with heart valve regurgitation that compared measurements 2 weeks apart for each person, there was an increased severity of aortic and mitral regurgitation when diastolic blood pressure increased, whereas when diastolic blood pressure decreased, there was a decreased severity. Blood pressure that is too low is known as hypotension. This is a medical concern if it causes signs or symptoms, such as dizziness, fainting, or in extreme cases, circulatory shock.

Peripheral vascular system

peripheral veinperipheral arteriesPeripheral Vessels
Atherosclerosis. Peripheral artery disease. Peripheral vascular disease. Stenosis. Systemic circulation. Thrombosis.

Heart valve repair

balloon valvuloplastyvalve repairvalvuloplasty
Cardiac surgery. Bentall procedure. Open aortic surgery.

Intra-aortic balloon pump

intra-aortic balloon pump managementBalloon Pump management and transportintra-aortic balloon pumping
Preoperative use is suggested for high-risk patients such as those with unstable angina with stenosis greater than 70% of main coronary artery, in ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction less than 35%. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty. In high risk coronary artery bypass graft surgery where cardiopulmonary bypass time was shortened, as well as during intubation period and hospital stay. Thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction. Severe aortic valve insufficiency. Aortic dissection. Severe aortoiliac occlusive disease and bilateral carotid stenosis. Prosthetic vascular grafts in the aorta. Aortic aneurysm. Aortofemoral grafts. Sepsis. Cardiogenic shock.

Coronary catheterization

coronary angiographycoronary angiogramcardiac catheterization
Specifically, coronary catheterization is a visually interpreted test performed to recognize occlusion, stenosis, restenosis, thrombosis or aneurysmal enlargement of the coronary artery lumens; heart chamber size; heart muscle contraction performance; and some aspects of heart valve function. Important internal heart and lung blood pressures, not measurable from outside the body, can be accurately measured during the test. The relevant problems that the test deals with most commonly occur as a result of advanced atherosclerosis – atheroma activity within the wall of the coronary arteries. Less frequently, valvular, heart muscle, or arrhythmia issues are the primary focus of the test.

ICD-10 Chapter XVII: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities

ICD-10 Chapter QICD-10 Chapter XICD-10 codeICD-10 Chapter XVIreproductive organs
Aortic septal defect. Aortopulmonary window. Other congenital malformations of cardiac septa. Eisenmenger's syndrome. Congenital malformations of pulmonary and tricuspid valves. Pulmonary valve atresia. Congenital pulmonary valve stenosis. Congenital pulmonary valve insufficiency. Other congenital malformations of pulmonary valve. Congenital tricuspid stenosis. Tricuspid atresia. Ebstein's anomaly. Hypoplastic right heart syndrome. Other congenital malformations of tricuspid valve. Congenital malformation of tricuspid valve, unspecified. Congenital malformations of aortic and mitral valves. Congenital stenosis of aortic valve. Congenital insufficiency of aortic valve.

Secondary hypertension

secondarysecondary high blood pressure
Aortic valve disease: unclear cause. Aortic valve disease most often results from longstanding hypertension according to medical opinion. It is associated but not the cause of hypertension. Coarctation of the aorta. Atherosclerosis. Anemia: unclear cause. Fever: unclear cause. White coat hypertension, that is, elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but not in other settings, probably due to the anxiety some people experience during a clinic visit. Perioperative hypertension is development of hypertension just before, during or after surgery.

Takayasu's arteritis

aortic arch syndromeTakayasuTakayasu arteritis
The "pulseless phase" is characterized by vascular insufficiency from intimal narrowing of the vessels manifesting as arm or leg claudication, renal artery stenosis causing hypertension, and neurological manifestations due to decreased blood flow to the brain. Of note is the function of renal artery stenosis in the causation of high blood pressure: Normally perfused kidneys produce a proportionate amount of a substance called renin.

ICD-10 Chapter IX: Diseases of the circulatory system

Chapter IXDiseases of the circulatory system
Nonrheumatic mitral (valve) stenosis. Nonrheumatic aortic valve disorders. Aortic (valve) stenosis. Aortic (valve) insufficiency. Aortic (valve) stenosis with insufficiency. Nonrheumatic tricuspid valve disorders. Nonrheumatic tricuspid (valve) stenosis. Nonrheumatic tricuspid (valve) insufficiency. Nonrheumatic tricuspid (valve) stenosis with insufficiency. Pulmonary valve disorders. Pulmonary valve stenosis. Pulmonary valve insufficiency. Pulmonary valve stenosis with insufficiency. Endocarditis, valve unspecified. Endocarditis and heart valve disorders in diseases classified elsewhere. Acute myocarditis. Myocarditis in diseases classified elsewhere. Cardiomyopathy.

Aortic dissection

dissecting aortic aneurysmdissectionthoracic aortic dissection
About 18% of individuals who present with an acute aortic dissection have a history of open-heart surgery. Individuals who have undergone aortic valve replacement for aortic insufficiency are at particularly high risk because aortic insufficiency causes increased blood flow in the ascending aorta. This can cause dilatation and weakening of the walls of the ascending aorta. Syphilis only potentially causes aortic dissection in its tertiary stage. As with all other arteries, the aorta is made up of three layers, the intima, the media, and the adventitia.

List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes

This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymologies. Most of them are combining forms in New Latin and hence international scientific vocabulary. There are a few general rules about how they combine. First, prefixes and suffixes, most of which are derived from ancient Greek or classical Latin, have a droppable -o-. As a general rule, this -o- almost always acts as a joint-stem to connect two consonantal roots (e.g. arthr- + -o- + logy = arthrology), but generally, the -o- is dropped when connecting to a vowel-stem (e.g. arthr- + itis = arthritis, instead of *arthr-o-itis).


aorticaortic archaortic root
Aortic aneurysm – mycotic, bacterial (e.g. syphilis), senile, genetic, associated with valvular heart disease. Aortic coarctation – pre-ductal, post-ductal. Aortic dissection. Aortic stenosis. Aortitis, inflammation of the aorta that can be seen in trauma, infections, and autoimmune disease. Atherosclerosis. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Marfan syndrome. Trauma, such as traumatic aortic rupture, most often thoracic and distal to the left subclavian artery and often quickly fatal. Transposition of the great vessels, see also dextro-Transposition of the great arteries and levo-Transposition of the great arteries.

Valvular heart disease

heart valve diseasecardiac valve diseasevalve disease
And in some cases surgery may be necessary... 1) Severe aortic stenosis with or without symptoms. 2) Aortic regurgitation with NYHA functional class III-IV symptoms. 3) Mitral stenosis with NYHA functional class II-IV symptoms. 4) Mitral regurgitation with NYHA functional class III-IV symptoms. 5) Aortic and/or mitral valve disease resulting in severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary pressure greater than 75% of systemic pressures). 6) Aortic and/or mitral valve disease with severe LV dysfunction (EF less than 0.40). 7) Mechanical prosthetic valve requiring anticoagulation. 8) Marfan syndrome with or without aortic regurgitation. RHD Action. Heart Valve Voice. ValveLink.

Low-density lipoprotein

LDLlow density lipoproteinLDL cholesterol
In clinical context, mathematically calculated estimates of LDL-C are commonly used as an estimate of how much low density lipoproteins are driving progression of atherosclerosis. The problem with this approach is that LDL-C values are commonly discordant with both direct measurements of LDL particles and actual rates of atherosclerosis progression. Direct LDL measurements are also available and better reveal individual issues but are less often promoted or done due to slightly higher costs and being available from only a couple of laboratories in the United States.

Cardiac stress test

stress testexercise stress testcardiac stress tests
Severe symptomatic aortic stenosis, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, and pericarditis. Multivessel coronary artery diseases that have a high risk of producing an acute myocardial infarction. Decompensated or inadequately controlled congestive heart failure. Uncontrolled hypertension (blood pressure>200/110mm Hg). Severe pulmonary hypertension. Acute aortic dissection. Acutely ill for any reason. Systolic blood pressure decreases by more than 10 mmHg with increase in work rate, or drops below baseline in the same position, with other evidence of ischemia. Increase in nervous system symptoms: Dizziness, ataxia or near syncope.


inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Non-immune diseases with causal origins in inflammatory processes include cancer, atherosclerosis, and ischemic heart disease. Examples of disorders associated with inflammation include: Atherosclerosis, formerly considered a bland lipid storage disease, actually involves an ongoing inflammatory response. Recent advances in basic science have established a fundamental role for inflammation in mediating all stages of this disease from initiation through progression and, ultimately, the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. These new findings provide important links between risk factors and the mechanisms of atherogenesis.


subacute bacterial endocarditisa bacterial infection of his heartendocarditis, bacterial
Occasionally heart surgery is required. The number of people affected is about 5 per 100,000 per year. Rates, however, vary between regions of the world. Males are affected more often than females. The risk of death among those infected is about 25%. Without treatment it is almost universally fatal. Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is most commonly found on previously undamaged valves. As opposed to infective endocarditis, the vegetations in NBTE are small, sterile, and tend to aggregate along the edges of the valve or the cusps. Also unlike infective endocarditis, NBTE does not cause an inflammation response from the body.


statinsdrug interactionsHMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitor
The lipid hypothesis is that low-density lipoprotein carriers of cholesterol play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Statins are effective in lowering LDL cholesterol and statins are therefore widely used for primary prevention in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as in secondary prevention for those who have developed cardiovascular disease. . Side effects of statins include muscle pain, increased risk of diabetes mellitus, and abnormalities in liver enzyme tests. Additionally, they have rare but severe adverse effects, particularly muscle damage.