Fibromuscular dysplasia

Arterial fibromuscular dysplasiaFibromuscular dysplasia of arteries
In cases of renal artery stenosis and indications for intervention, percutaneous balloon angioplasty may be recommended. Many studies have assessed the success rate of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in these cases, and have found relief of hypertensive symptoms. Duplex ultrasonography should be performed soon after this procedure to ensure adequate renal velocities. Stents have a restenosis rate of 10-20%, and may make surgical revascularization more difficult. Surgical revascularization may be necessary if aneurysms develop within the affected artery or if PTA does not resolve the issue.


blood clottingblood coagulationclotting
Coagulation, also known as clotting, is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion and aggregation of platelets, as well as deposition and maturation of fibrin.

Congenital heart defect

congenital heart diseasecongenital heart defectsheart defect
Common defects include pulmonic stenosis, aortic stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta, with other types such as bicuspid aortic valve stenosis and subaortic stenosis being comparatively rare. Any narrowing or blockage can cause heart enlargement or hypertension. The septum is a wall of tissue which separates the left heart from the right heart. Defects in the interatrial septum or the interventricular septum allow blood to flow from the right side of the heart to the left, reducing the heart's efficiency. Ventricular septal defects are collectively the most common type of CHD, although approximately 30% of adults have a type of atrial septal defect called probe patent foramen ovale.


cardiologistcardiologistscardiovascular medicine
This procedure can also be done proactively, when areas of the vascular system become occluded from Atherosclerosis. The Cardiologist will thread this sheath through the vascular system to access the heart. This sheath has a balloon and a tiny wire mesh tube wrapped around it, and if the cardiologist finds a blockage or Stenosis, they can inflate the balloon at the occlusion site in the vascular system to flatten or compress the plaque against the vascular wall. Once that is complete a Stent is placed as a type of scaffold to hold the vasculature open permanently.

Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
Atherosclerosis, the formation of lipid lumps (atheromas) in the blood vessel wall, is the most common cardiovascular disease, the main cause of death in the Western world. Blood vessel permeability is increased in inflammation. Damage, due to trauma or spontaneously, may lead to hemorrhage due to mechanical damage to the vessel endothelium. In contrast, occlusion of the blood vessel by atherosclerotic plaque, by an embolised blood clot or a foreign body leads to downstream ischemia (insufficient blood supply) and possibly necrosis. Vessel occlusion tends to be a positive feedback system; an occluded vessel creates eddies in the normally laminar flow or plug flow blood currents.

Coronary arteries

coronary arterycoronaryarteries
Narrowing of the arteries can be caused by a process known as atherosclerosis (most common), arteriosclerosis, or arteriolosclerosis. This occurs when plaques (made up of deposits of cholesterol and other substances) build up over time in the walls of the arteries. Coronary artery disease (CAD) or ischemic heart disease (IHD) are the terms used to describe narrowing of the coronary arteries. As the disease progresses, plaque buildup can partially block blood flow to the heart muscle. Without enough blood supply (ischemia), the heart is unable to work properly, especially under increased stress. Stable angina is chest pain on exertion that improves with rest.

Artificial heart valve

prosthetic heart valveartificial heart valvesmechanical heart valve
Aortic valve replacement.


blood clotsthromboticblood clot
In thrombotic stroke, a thrombus (blood clot) usually forms around atherosclerotic plaques. Since blockage of the artery is gradual, onset of symptomatic thrombotic strokes is slower. Thrombotic stroke can be divided into two categories—large vessel disease and small vessel disease. The former affects vessels such as the internal carotids, vertebral and the circle of Willis. The latter can affect smaller vessels such as the branches of the circle of Willis. Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack, is caused by ischemia, (restriction in the blood supply), often due to the obstruction of a coronary artery by a thrombus.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
In a study of people with heart valve regurgitation that compared measurements 2 weeks apart for each person, there was an increased severity of aortic and mitral regurgitation when diastolic blood pressure increased, whereas when diastolic blood pressure decreased, there was a decreased severity. Blood pressure that is too low is known as hypotension. This is a medical concern if it causes signs or symptoms, such as dizziness, fainting, or in extreme cases, circulatory shock.

Peripheral vascular system

peripheral veinperipheral arteriesperipheral vessel
Atherosclerosis. Peripheral artery disease. Peripheral vascular disease. Stenosis. Systemic circulation. Thrombosis.

Heart valve repair

Valvuloplastyballoon valvuloplastyvalve repair
Cardiac surgery. Bentall procedure. Open aortic surgery.

Intra-aortic balloon pump

intra-aortic balloon pump managementBalloon Pump management and transportIABP
Preoperative use is suggested for high-risk patients such as those with unstable angina with stenosis greater than 70% of main coronary artery, in ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction less than 35%. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty. In high risk coronary artery bypass graft surgery where cardiopulmonary bypass time was shortened, as well as during intubation period and hospital stay. Thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction. Severe aortic valve insufficiency. Aortic dissection. Severe aortoiliac occlusive disease and bilateral carotid stenosis. Prosthetic vascular grafts in the aorta. Aortic aneurysm. Aortofemoral grafts. Sepsis. Cardiogenic shock.

Coronary catheterization

coronary angiographycoronary angiogramcardiac catheterization
Specifically, coronary catheterization is a visually interpreted test performed to recognize occlusion, stenosis, restenosis, thrombosis or aneurysmal enlargement of the coronary artery lumens; heart chamber size; heart muscle contraction performance; and some aspects of heart valve function. Important internal heart and lung blood pressures, not measurable from outside the body, can be accurately measured during the test. The relevant problems that the test deals with most commonly occur as a result of advanced atherosclerosis – atheroma activity within the wall of the coronary arteries. Less frequently, valvular, heart muscle, or arrhythmia issues are the primary focus of the test.

ICD-10 Chapter XVII: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities

ICD-10 Chapter Q: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalitiesICD-10 Chapter QICD-10 Chapter XICD-10 code
Aortic septal defect. Aortopulmonary window. Other congenital malformations of cardiac septa. Eisenmenger's syndrome. Congenital malformations of pulmonary and tricuspid valves. Pulmonary valve atresia. Congenital pulmonary valve stenosis. Congenital pulmonary valve insufficiency. Other congenital malformations of pulmonary valve. Congenital tricuspid stenosis. Tricuspid atresia. Ebstein's anomaly. Hypoplastic right heart syndrome. Other congenital malformations of tricuspid valve. Congenital malformation of tricuspid valve, unspecified. Congenital malformations of aortic and mitral valves. Congenital stenosis of aortic valve. Congenital insufficiency of aortic valve.

List of ICD-9 codes 390–459: diseases of the circulatory system

List of ICDdiseases of the circulatory system
Mitral stenosis. Rheumatic mitral insufficiency. Mitral stenosis with insufficiency. Other and unspecified. Diseases of aortic valve. Rheumatic aortic stenosis. Rheumatic aortic insufficiency. Rheumatic aortic stenosis with insufficiency. Other and unspecified. Diseases of mitral and aortic valves. Diseases of other endocardial structures. Diseases of tricuspid valve. Rheumatic diseases of pulmonary valve. Rheumatic diseases of endocardium, valve unspecified. Other rheumatic heart disease. Rheumatic myocarditis. Other and unspecified. Essential hypertension. Hypertension, malignant. Hypertension, benign. Hypertension, unspecified. Hypertensive heart disease. Hypertensive renal disease.

Secondary hypertension

Kidney disease / renal artery stenosis – the normal physiological response to low blood pressure in the renal arteries is to increase cardiac output (CO) to maintain the pressure needed for glomerular filtration. Here, however, increased CO cannot solve the structural problems causing renal artery hypotension, with the result that CO remains chronically elevated. Renal segmental hypoplasia (Ask-Upmark kidney). Neurogenic hypertension – excessive secretion of norepinephrine and epinephrine which promotes vasoconstriction resulting from chronic high activity of the sympathoadrenal system, the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal gland.

Takayasu's arteritis

Takayasu arteritisAortic arch syndromeTakayasu
The "pulseless phase" is characterized by vascular insufficiency from intimal narrowing of the vessels manifesting as arm or leg claudication, renal artery stenosis causing hypertension, and neurological manifestations due to decreased blood flow to the brain. Of note is the function of renal artery stenosis in the causation of high blood pressure: Normally perfused kidneys produce a proportionate amount of a substance called renin.

ICD-10 Chapter IX: Diseases of the circulatory system

Diseases of the Circulatory systemChapter IX
Nonrheumatic mitral (valve) stenosis. Nonrheumatic aortic valve disorders. Aortic (valve) stenosis. Aortic (valve) insufficiency. Aortic (valve) stenosis with insufficiency. Nonrheumatic tricuspid valve disorders. Nonrheumatic tricuspid (valve) stenosis. Nonrheumatic tricuspid (valve) insufficiency. Nonrheumatic tricuspid (valve) stenosis with insufficiency. Pulmonary valve disorders. Pulmonary valve stenosis. Pulmonary valve insufficiency. Pulmonary valve stenosis with insufficiency. Endocarditis, valve unspecified. Endocarditis and heart valve disorders in diseases classified elsewhere. Acute myocarditis. Myocarditis in diseases classified elsewhere. Cardiomyopathy.

Aortic dissection

dissecting aortic aneurysmdissectionthoracic aortic dissection
Turner syndrome also increases the risk of aortic dissection, by aortic root dilatation. Chest trauma leading to aortic dissection can be divided into two groups based on cause: blunt chest trauma (commonly seen in car accidents) and iatrogenic. Iatrogenic causes include trauma during cardiac catheterization or due to an intra-aortic balloon pump. Aortic dissection may be a late sequela of heart surgery. About 18% of individuals who present with an acute aortic dissection have a history of open-heart surgery.

List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes

This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymologies. Most of them are combining forms in New Latin and hence international scientific vocabulary. There are a few general rules about how they combine. First, prefixes and suffixes, most of which are derived from ancient Greek or classical Latin, have a droppable -o-. As a general rule, this -o- almost always acts as a joint-stem to connect two consonantal roots (e.g. + -o- + -logy = arthrology), but generally, the -o- is dropped when connecting to a vowel-stem (e.g. arthr- + -itis = arthritis, instead of ).

Cardiac stress test

exercise stress teststress testcardiac stress tests
Severe symptomatic aortic stenosis, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, and pericarditis. Multivessel coronary artery diseases that have a high risk of producing an acute myocardial infarction. Decompensated or inadequately controlled congestive heart failure. Uncontrolled hypertension (blood pressure>200/110mm Hg). Severe pulmonary hypertension. Acute aortic dissection. Acutely ill for any reason. Systolic blood pressure decreases by more than 10 mmHg with increase in work rate, or drops below baseline in the same position, with other evidence of ischemia. Increase in nervous system symptoms: Dizziness, ataxia or near syncope.


aorticaortic archaortic root
The function of the aorta has been documented in the Talmud, where it is noted as one of three major vessels entering or leaving the heart, and where perforation is linked to death. * Aortic aneurysm – mycotic, bacterial (e.g. syphilis), senile, genetic, associated with valvular heart disease. Aortic coarctation – pre-ductal, post-ductal. Aortic dissection. Aortic stenosis. Aortitis, inflammation of the aorta that can be seen in trauma, infections, and autoimmune disease. Atherosclerosis. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Marfan syndrome. Trauma, such as traumatic aortic rupture, most often thoracic and distal to the left subclavian artery and often quickly fatal.

Valvular heart disease

heart valve diseaseCardiac Valve Diseasevalve disease
Both asymptomatic severe and symptomatic aortic stenosis are treated with aortic valve replacement (AVR) surgery. Trans-catheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) is an alternative to AVR and is recommended in high risk patients who may not be suitable for surgical AVR. Aortic regurgitation is treated with aortic valve replacement, which is recommended in patients with symptomatic severe aortic regurgitation. Aortic valve replacement is also recommended in patients that are asymptomatic but have chronic severe aortic regurgitaiton and left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%.


statinsHMG-CoA reductase inhibitorHMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
The European Society of Cardiology and the European Atherosclerosis Society recommend the use of statins for primary prevention, depending on baseline estimated cardiovascular score and LDL thresholds. Statins are effective in decreasing mortality in people with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Pre-existing disease can have many manifestations. Defining illnesses include a prior heart attack, stroke, stable or unstable angina, aortic aneurysm, or other arterial ischemic disease, in the presence of atherosclerosis. They are also advocated for use in people at high risk of developing coronary heart disease.

Low-density lipoprotein

LDLLDL cholesterollow density lipoprotein
Oxidized LDL is known to associate with the development of atherosclerosis, and it is therefore widely studied as a potential risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. Atherogenicity of oxidized LDL has been explained by lack of recognition of oxidation-modified LDL structures by the LDL receptors, preventing the normal metabolism of LDL particles and leading eventually to development of atherosclerotic plaques. Of the lipid material contained in LDL, various lipid oxidation products are known as the ultimate atherogenic species. Acting as a transporter of these injurious molecules is another mechanism by which LDL can increase the risk of atherosclerosis.