Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune responses
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity.

CT scan

computed tomographyCTcomputerized tomography
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, and formerly known as a computerized axial tomography scan or CAT scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

Radiation therapy

radiotherapyradiationradiation oncology
Radiation therapy has several applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, acoustic neuromas, severe thyroid eye disease, pterygium, pigmented villonodular synovitis, and prevention of keloid scar growth, vascular restenosis, and heterotopic ossification. The use of radiation therapy in non-malignant conditions is limited partly by worries about the risk of radiation-induced cancers. Different cancers respond to radiation therapy in different ways. The response of a cancer to radiation is described by its radiosensitivity. Highly radiosensitive cancer cells are rapidly killed by modest doses of radiation.

Vascular surgery

vascular surgeonvascularvascular surgeons
The specialty evolved from general and cardiac surgery as well as minimally invasive techniques pioneered by interventional radiology. The vascular surgeon is trained in the diagnosis and management of diseases affecting all parts of the vascular system except those of the heart and brain. Cardiothoracic surgeons and interventional cardiologists treat diseases of the heart vessels. Vascular surgeons treat extracranial cerebrovascular disease while Neurosurgeons and interventional neuroradiologists treat diseases of the vessels in the brain (e.g., intracranial aneurysms).

Carotid artery stenosis

carotid stenosiscarotid artery diseaseCarotid artery
Atherosclerotic aortic aneurysm (AAA). Two or more of the following risk factors:. High blood pressure (hypertension). High cholesterol (hyperlipidemia). Tobacco smoking. Family history – First degree relative diagnosed with atherosclerosis before age 60 or who suffered an ischemic stroke. Medications alone (an antiplatelet drug (or drugs) and control of risk factors for atherosclerosis). Medical management plus carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting, which is preferred in patients at high surgical risk and in younger patients. Control of smoking, high blood pressure, and high levels of lipids in the blood.


bruitsarterial bruitshumming noise
. * American Heart Organization Peripheral vascular disease; femoral artery stenosis. Renal artery stenosis. Stroke, carotid artery stenosis. Aortic aneurysm. Tinnitus – a symptom which may be caused by a cranial artery bruit. Arteriovenous malformation. Coarctation of the aorta. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcoholic hepatitis. Atherosclerosis (atheroma or plaque) (cholesterol deposition in artery wall). Median arcuate ligament syndrome, celiac artery stenosis – external compression. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula – pathologic or surgically created. Graves' disease, goitre. Paget's disease. Polymyalgia rheumatica. Giant cell arteritis. Fibromuscular dysplasia. IgG4-related disease. Carotid bruit.

Intermittent claudication

claudication intermittensvascular claudication
The following signs are general signs of atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries: All the "P"s Most commonly, intermittent (or vascular or arterial) claudication is due to peripheral arterial disease which implies significant atherosclerotic blockages resulting in arterial insufficiency. Other uncommon causes are Trousseau disease, Beurger's disease (Thromboangiitis obliterans), in which vasculitis occurs. Raynaud's phenomenon functional vasospasm. It is distinct from neurogenic claudication, which is associated with lumbar spinal stenosis. It is strongly associated with smoking, hypertension, and diabetes.

Coronary arteries

coronary arterycoronaryarteries
Either or both arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis, can cause one or more of the coronary arteries or their branches to become seriously blocked, leading to angina, heart attack, or both. Percutaneous coronary interventions (such as balloon angioplasty) or coronary artery bypass surgery can be performed to decrease or bypass the blockages (respectively). The coronary arteries can constrict as a response to various stimuli, mostly chemical. This is known as a coronary reflex. There is also a rare condition known as spontaneous coronary artery dissection. The word corona is a Latin word meaning "crown", from the Ancient Greek κορώνη (korōnè, “garland, wreath”).

Doppler ultrasonography

Dopplerduplex ultrasonographyDoppler ultrasound
Applying spectral Doppler to the renal artery and selected interlobular arteries, peak systolic velocities, resistive index and acceleration curves can be estimated (Figure 4), e.g., peak systolic velocity of the renal artery above 180 cm/s is a predictor of renal artery stenosis of more than 60%, and the resistive index, which is a calculated from peak systolic and end systolic velocity, above 0.70 is indicative of abnormal renovascular resistance. Doppler echocardiography is the use of Doppler ultrasonography to examine the heart.

Cardiothoracic surgery

cardiothoracic surgeoncardiac surgeonthoracic surgery
Nazih Zuhdi performed the first total intentional hemodilution open heart surgery on Terry Gene Nix, age 7, on February 25, 1960, at Mercy Hospital, Oklahoma City, OK. The operation was a success; however, Nix died three years later in 1963. In March, 1961, Zuhdi, Carey, and Greer, performed open heart surgery on a child, age 3 1⁄2, using the total intentional hemodilution machine. In 1985 Zuhdi performed Oklahoma's first successful heart transplant on Nancy Rogers at Baptist Hospital. The transplant was successful, but Rogers, a cancer sufferer, died from an infection 54 days after surgery.

Mitral valve repair

mitral-valve heart surgeryrepair a damaged valvesurgically
Cardiac surgery. Mitral valve insufficiency.

Arterial switch operation

arterial switchJatene operation
Approximately 10% of arterial switch recipients develop residual pulmonary stenosis post-operatively, which can lead to right heart failure if left untreated; treatment usually involves endovascular stenting and/or xenograft patching. If the procedure is anticipated far enough in advance (with prenatal diagnosis, for example), and the individual's blood type is known, a family member with a compatible blood type may donate some or all of the blood needed for transfusion during the use of a heart-lung machine (HLM).

Embolic stroke of undetermined source

Absence of extracranial or intracranial atherosclerosis causing 50% luminal stenosis in arteries supplying the area of ischaemia. No other specific cause of stroke identified (e.g., arteritis, dissection, migraine/vasospasm, drug misuse). Subclinical atrial fibrillation: Detectable in ~2.7-30% of ESUS patients, depending on duration and modality of ECG monitoring. Patent foramen ovale (PFO): Deep vein thrombosis may result in paradoxical embolism in patients with PFO. About 40% of patients with cryptogenic stroke have PFO compared with 25% of the general population. However, the actual embolic source can often not be identified.

Elizabeth Nabel

These basic studies were instrumental in designing device therapies, in combination with genes or drugs, to treat the vascular disease restenosis. Nabel’s research focused on the molecular genetics of vascular diseases. She conducted clinical studies to understand the contribution of genetic factors to proliferative and inflammatory diseases in blood vessels, including common diseases like atherosclerosis and the rare, premature aging in Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome. Nabel delineated the mechanisms by which cell cycle and growth factor proteins regulate the proliferation of vascular cells in blood vessels, a process important for the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis.

Vein graft failure

chronic graft occlusionGraft failurevein graft disease
Over time continued SMC migration and proliferation cause extracellular matrix deposition and fibrotic change that lead to development of intimal hyperplasia, which results in luminal loss that makes the graft more susceptible to atherosclerosis. Progressive atherosclerosis is the primarily cause of late vein graft failure. Vein graft atherosclerotic lesions are more diffuse and concentric, yet less calcified, compared to native atherosclerotic lesions, and are more susceptible to thrombosis formation and rupture. Statins and antiplatelets such as aspirin, are the only medications recommended by the ESC guidelines and the ACC/AHA Task Force guidelines for the prevention of VGF.


paraesthesiatinglingpins and needles
Spinal stenosis. Stinging nettles. Syringomyelia. Transverse myelitis. Vitamin B 5 deficiency. Vitamin B 12 deficiency. Withdrawal from certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors) (SSRIs), such as paroxetine or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine.

Cerebral infarction

cerebral infarctbrain infarctionblockage of a blood vessel in the brain
In a systematic review of six uncontrolled, single-center trials, involving a total of 300 patients, of intra-cranial stenting in symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis, the rate of technical success (reduction to stenosis of


Atherectomy is a minimally invasive endovascular surgery technique for removing atherosclerosis from blood vessels within the body. It is an alternative to angioplasty for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, but the studies that exist are not adequate to determine if it is superior to angioplasty. It has also been used to treat coronary artery disease, albeit ineffectively. Atherectomy is used to treat narrowing in arteries caused by peripheral artery disease. Unlike angioplasty and stents, which push plaque into the vessel wall, atherectomy cuts plaque from the wall of the artery.

Subclavian steal syndrome

Atherosclerosis. Cervical rib. Takayasu's arteritis. Doppler ultrasound. CT angiography. Carotid Subclavian Bypass. Stent and balloon angioplasty. Endarterectomy. Vascular access steal syndrome. Peripheral artery disease.


calf pain when walkingclaudication of the leg
The prognosis for patients with peripheral vascular disease due to atherosclerosis is poor; patients with intermittent claudication due to atherosclerosis are at increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease (e.g. heart attack), because the same disease that affects the legs is often present in the arteries of the heart. The prognosis for neurogenic claudication is good if the cause of it can be addressed surgically.