Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathyAsymmetric septal hypertrophyFeline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
In normal individuals, during ventricular systole, the pressure in the ascending aorta and the left ventricle will equalize, and the aortic valve is open. In individuals with aortic stenosis or with HCM with an outflow tract gradient, there will be a pressure gradient (difference) between the left ventricle and the aorta, with the left ventricular pressure higher than the aortic pressure. This gradient represents the degree of obstruction that has to be overcome in order to eject blood from the left ventricle. The Brockenbrough–Braunwald–Morrow sign is observed in individuals with HCM with outflow tract gradient. This sign can be used to differentiate HCM from aortic stenosis.

Vascular smooth muscle

vascular smooth muscle cellssmooth musclevascular
Excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells contributes to the progression of pathological conditions, such as vascular inflammation, plaque formation, atherosclerosis, restenosis, and pulmonary hypertension. * Mural cell \alpha_1 receptors. Under NE binding \alpha_1 receptors cause vasoconstriction (i.e. contraction of the vascular smooth muscle cells decreasing the diameter of the vessels). \alpha_1 receptors are activated in response to shock or low blood pressure as a defensive reaction trying to restore the normal blood pressure.

Organ (anatomy)

An organ' is a group of Tissues with similar functions. Plant and animal life rely on many organs that coexist in organ systems.

Tobacco smoking

smokingcigarette smokingsmoker
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases). A broader definition may include simply taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars. The practice is believed to have begun as early as 5000–3000 BC in Mesoamerica and South America. Tobacco was introduced to Eurasia in the late 17th century by European colonists, where it followed common trade routes.

Developed country

developed countriesdeveloped worlddeveloped

Aortic valve

aorticaortic valvesaortic semilunar valve
The choice between SAVR and TAVR often relies on the open-heart surgical risk and indications for other open heart surgeries (etc, coronary bypass, other valve dysfunction). The Bentall procedure is a type of surgical procedure when the aortic valve, aortic root, and ascending aorta are replaced in a single operation. There are two basic types of artificial heart valve: mechanical and tissue. There are alternatives to animal tissue valves. In some cases, a human aortic valve can be implanted. These are called homografts. Homograft valves are donated by patients and recovered after the patient expires. The durability of homograft valves is probably the same as for porcine tissue valves.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources.

Mitral valve

mitralbicuspid valvemitral annulus
Microscopically, there is no evidence of an annular structure anteriorly, where the mitral valve leaflet is contiguous with the posterior aortic root. During left ventricular diastole, after the pressure drops in the left ventricle due to relaxation of the ventricular myocardium, the mitral valve opens, and blood travels from the left atrium to the left ventricle. About 70 to 80% of the blood that travels across the mitral valve occurs during the early filling phase of the left ventricle. This early filling phase is due to active relaxation of the ventricular myocardium, causing a pressure gradient that allows a rapid flow of blood from the left atrium, across the mitral valve.

Pulmonary valve

pulmonic valvepulmonaryPulmonary/Pulmonic
Similar to the aortic valve, the pulmonary valve opens in ventricular systole, when the pressure in the right ventricle rises above the pressure in the pulmonary artery. At the end of ventricular systole, when the pressure in the right ventricle falls rapidly, the pressure in the pulmonary artery will close the pulmonary valve. The closure of the pulmonary valve contributes the P2 component of the second heart sound (S2). The right heart is a low-pressure system, so the P2 component of the second heart sound is usually softer than the A2 component of the second heart sound. However, it is physiologically normal in some young people to hear both components separated during inhalation.


Electrocardiography is the process of producing an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), a recording – a graph of voltage versus time – of the electrical activity of the heart using electrodes placed on the skin. These electrodes detect the small electrical changes that are a consequence of cardiac muscle depolarization followed by repolarization during each cardiac cycle (heartbeat).

American Heart Association

American Stroke AssociationAHAAmerican Heart Association (AHA)
Increase intake of polyunsaturated fat, (4) Men with a strong family history of atherosclerosis should pay particular attention to diet modification, and (5) Dietary changes should be carried out under medical supervision. These recommendations continued to become more precise from 1957 to 1980, but maintained "a general coherence among them". In 1994, the Chronicle of Philanthropy, an industry publication, released the results of the largest study of charitable and non-profit organization popularity and credibility.

Rheumatic fever

rheumatic heart diseaseAcute rheumatic feverrheumatic
RHD-induced mitral valve stenosis has been associated with MBL2 alleles encoding for high production of MBL. Aortic valve regurgitation in RHD patients has been associated with different MBL2 alleles that encode for low production of MBL. Other genes are also being investigated to better understand the complexity of autoimmune reactions that occur in RHD. Modified Jones criteria were first published in 1944 by T. Duckett Jones, MD. They have been periodically revised by the American Heart Association in collaboration with other groups.

Chronic condition

chronicchronic diseasechronic diseases
A Chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time. The term chronic is often applied when the course of the disease lasts for more than three months. Common chronic diseases include arthritis, asthma, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and some viral diseases such as hepatitis C and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. An illness which is lifelong because it ends in death is a terminal illness. It is possible and not unexpected for an illness to change in definition from terminal to chronic.


The Doppler auscultation presented a sensitivity of 84% for the detection of aortic regurgitations, while classic stethoscope auscultation presented a sensitivity of 58%. Moreover, Doppler auscultation was superior in the detection of impaired ventricular relaxation. Since the physics of Doppler auscultation and classic auscultation are different, it has been suggested that both methods could complement each other. Breath sounds. Heart sounds. Intestinal sound. Palpation, the practice of examining a patient through the use of hands. Percussion (medicine). Pericardial friction rub. Triangle of auscultation.


blood clotblood clotsclot
Arterial thrombosis resulting from hypertension or atherosclerosis can become mobile and the resulting emboli can occlude any artery or arteriole downstream of the thrombus formation. This means that cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction, or any other organ can be affected. 3) Dissolution occurs when the fibrinolytic mechanisms break up the thrombus and blood flow is restored to the vessel. This may be aided by fibrinolytic drugs such as Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) in instances of coronary artery occlusion.


plateletsplatelet aggregationplatelet count
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot. Platelets have no cell nucleus: they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes of the bone marrow, and then enter the circulation. Circulating unactivated platelets are biconvex discoid (lens-shaped) structures, 2–3 µm in greatest diameter. Activated platelets have cell membrane projections covering their surface.


Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue. It normally occurs in the formation of bone, but calcium can be deposited abnormally in soft tissue, causing it to harden. Calcifications may be classified on whether there is mineral balance or not, and the location of the calcification. Calcification may also refer to the processes of normal mineral deposition in biological systems, such as the formation of stromatolites or mollusc shells (see Mineralization (biology) or Biomineralization).


infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. In many species, there are two major subsystems of the immune system: the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system. Both subsystems use humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity to perform their functions.


stethoscopesbell of the stethoscopeelectronic stethoscope
The Doppler auscultation presented a sensitivity of 84% for the detection of aortic regurgitations while classic stethoscope auscultation presented a sensitivity of 58%. Moreover, Doppler auscultation was superior in the detection of impaired ventricular relaxation. Since the physics of Doppler auscultation and classic auscultation are different, it has been suggested that both methods could complement each other. A military noise-immune Doppler based stethoscope has recently been developed for auscultation of patients in loud sound environments (up to 110 dB). A 3D-printed stethoscope is an open-source medical device meant for auscultation and manufactured via means of 3D printing.

CT scan

computed tomographyCTCT scans
A CT scan or computed tomography scan (formerly computerized axial tomography scan or CAT scan) makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting. The 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield "for the development of computer assisted tomography."


diureticsdiuretic medicationsdiuretic use
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine. This includes forced diuresis. There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics increase the excretion of water from bodies, although each class does so in a distinct way. Alternatively, an antidiuretic, such as vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of water in urine.

Antihypertensive drug

antihypertensiveantihypertensivesantihypertensive agent
Therefore, the use of hypertensive medications may be started in individuals with apparent normal blood pressures but who show evidence of hypertension-related nephropathy, proteinuria, atherosclerotic vascular disease, as well as other evidence of hypertension-related organ damage. If lifestyle changes are ineffective, then drug therapy is initiated, often requiring more than one agent to effectively lower hypertension. Which type of many medications should be used initially for hypertension has been the subject of several large studies and various national guidelines. Considerations include factors such as age, race, and other medical conditions.

Variant angina

Prinzmetal's anginaPrinzmetal anginaangina pectoris, variant
Unlike cases of atherosclerosis-related stable angina, these symptoms are often unrelated to exertion and occur in night or early morning hours. (However, individuals with atherosclerosis-related unstable angina may similarly exhibit night to early morning hour symptoms that are unrelated to exertion. ) Cardiac examination of individuals with variant angina is usually normal in the absence of current symptoms. Two-thirds of these individuals do have concurrent atherosclerosis of a major coronary artery, but this is often mild or not in proportion to the degree of their symptoms.

Carotid artery stenosis

carotid stenosiscarotid artery diseaseCarotid artery
Atherosclerotic aortic aneurysm (AAA). Two or more of the following risk factors:. High blood pressure (hypertension). High cholesterol (hyperlipidemia). Tobacco smoking. Family history – First degree relative diagnosed with atherosclerosis before age 60 or who suffered an ischemic stroke. Lifestyle modifications including smoking cessation, eating a healthy diet and reducing sodium intake, losing weight, and exercising regularly. Medications to control high blood pressure and high levels of lipids in the blood. Surgical intervention for carotid artery revascularization.