Cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac deathsudden deathcardiopulmonary arrest
The most common non-cardiac causes are trauma, bleeding (such as gastrointestinal bleeding, aortic rupture, or intracranial hemorrhage), overdose, drowning and pulmonary embolism. Cardiac arrest can also be caused by poisoning (for example, by the stings of certain jellyfish), or through electrocution, lightning. "Hs and Ts" is the name for a mnemonic used to aid in remembering the possible treatable or reversible causes of cardiac arrest. In children, the most common cause of cardiopulmonary arrest is shock or respiratory failure that has not been treated, rather than a heart arrhythmia.

Intermittent claudication

claudication intermittensvascular claudication
The following signs are general signs of atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries: All the "P"s Most commonly, intermittent (or vascular or arterial) claudication is due to peripheral arterial disease which implies significant atherosclerotic blockages resulting in arterial insufficiency. Other uncommon causes are Trousseau disease, Beurger's disease (Thromboangiitis obliterans), in which vasculitis occurs. Raynaud's phenomenon functional vasospasm. It is distinct from neurogenic claudication, which is associated with lumbar spinal stenosis. It is strongly associated with smoking, hypertension, and diabetes.

Vascular surgery

vascular surgeonvascularEndovascular surgery
Vascular surgeons can opt into doing additional training in Cardiac surgery as well post residency. Programs of training are slightly different depending on the region of the world one is in. Netherland Vascular Study. MASS Trial – The Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study (MASS) trial, which found reduced mortality after screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms in the UK. UK Small Aneurysm Trial – 1090 patients; AAA 4-5.5 cm; Immediate surgery vs. ultrasound surveillance (and treatment for rapid expansion or AAA >5.5); 30-day mortality after elective AAA repair is 5.8%. No difference in survival.

Shock (circulatory)

shockcirculatory shocktraumatic shock
Aortic stenosis hinders circulation by obstructing the ventricular outflow tract. Hypertrophic sub-aortic stenosis is overly thick ventricular muscle dynamically occludes the ventricular outflow tract. Abdominal compartment syndrome defined as an increase in intra-abdominal pressure to > 20 mmHg with organ dysfunction. Increased intraabdominal pressure can be due to sepsis and severe abdominal trauma. This increased pressure reduced blood flow back to the heart, thereby reducing blood flow to the body and resultign in signs and symptoms of shock. Abnormal heart rhythms, often a fast heart rate. Reduced blood pressure.


blood flowhemodynamichaemodynamic
The shear stress at the wall that is associated with blood flow through an artery depends on the artery size and geometry and can range between 0.5 and 4 Pa. :.Under normal conditions, to avoid atherogenesis, thrombosis, smooth muscle proliferation and endothelial apoptosis, shear stress maintains its magnitude and direction within an acceptable range. In some cases occurring due to blood hammer, shear stress reaches larger values. While the direction of the stress may also change by the reverse flow, depending on the hemodynamic conditions. Therefore, this situation can lead to atherosclerosis disease.


lipoprotein (a)LPAlipoprotein A
Lp(a) contributes to the process of atherogenesis. The structure of apolipoprotein(a) is similar to plasminogen and tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) and it competes with plasminogen for its binding site, leading to reduced fibrinolysis. Also, because Lp(a) stimulates secretion of PAI-1, it leads to thrombogenesis.

Helen B. Taussig

Helen TaussigHelen Brooke TaussigDr. Helen B. Taussig
The procedure, itself, was successful, but Saxon contrived recurrent stenosis, which deteriorated her condition and ultimately lead to her fatality. That year, Taussig became an associate professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine; she was promoted to full professor in 1959. In 1947, Taussig published her magnum opus, Congenital Malformations of the Heart, considered to be the genesis of pediatric cardiology as an independent field. In 1954, she received the Albert Lasker award for outstanding contributions to medicine. Taussig formally retired from Johns Hopkins in 1963, but continued to teach, give lectures, and lobby for various causes.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

lupusSLEsystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Atherosclerosis also occurs more often and advances more rapidly than in the general population. SLE can cause pleuritic pain as well as inflammation of the pleurae known as pleurisy, which can rarely give rise to shrinking lung syndrome involving a reduced lung volume. Other associated lung conditions include pneumonitis, chronic diffuse interstitial lung disease, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary emboli, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Painless passage of blood or protein in the urine may often be the only presenting sign of kidney involvement. Acute or chronic renal impairment may develop with lupus nephritis, leading to acute or end-stage kidney failure.

Radiation therapy

radiotherapyradiation oncologyradiation
Radiation therapy has several applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, acoustic neuromas, severe thyroid eye disease, pterygium, pigmented villonodular synovitis, and prevention of keloid scar growth, vascular restenosis, and heterotopic ossification. The use of radiation therapy in non-malignant conditions is limited partly by worries about the risk of radiation-induced cancers. Different cancers respond to radiation therapy in different ways. The response of a cancer to radiation is described by its radiosensitivity. Highly radiosensitive cancer cells are rapidly killed by modest doses of radiation.

Doppler ultrasonography

Doppler ultrasoundDopplerduplex ultrasonography
Applying spectral Doppler to the renal artery and selected interlobular arteries, peak systolic velocities, resistive index, and acceleration curves can be estimated (Figure 4) (e.g., peak systolic velocity of the renal artery above 180 cm/s is a predictor of renal artery stenosis of more than 60%, and a resistive index, which is a calculated from peak systolic and end systolic velocity, above 0.70 is indicative of abnormal renovascular resistance). Doppler echocardiography is the use of Doppler ultrasonography to examine the heart.

Minimally invasive procedure

minimally invasiveminimally invasive surgerynon-invasive
Some examples of open surgery used, are for herniated disc commonly called a "slipped disc", and most types of cardiac surgery and neurosurgery. • Anesthesia • ASA physical status classification system • Medicine • Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery • Traumatology • Biomedical engineering • Molecular Imaging • Venipuncture • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * Minimally invasive heart surgery. Medical Encyclopedia, MedlinePlus.


hyperlipoproteinemiahyperlipidaemiaPrimary hyperlipoproteinemia
Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are common in the general population and are regarded as modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease due to their influence on atherosclerosis. In addition, some forms may predispose to acute pancreatitis. Hyperlipidemia predisposes a person to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol, calcium, fibrous plaques within the artery walls of the heart. This accumulation narrows the blood vessel and reduce blood flow and oxygen to muscles of the heart. Complete blockage of the artery causes infarction of the myocardial cells, also known as heart attack.

Common carotid artery

carotidcarotid arteriescarotid artery
Carotid stenosis may occur in patients with atherosclerosis. The intima-media thickness of the carotid artery wall is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, it increases with age and with long-term exposure to particulate air pollution. * Blood flow numerical simulations in stenosed carotid Internal relations of organs present inside the carotid sheath. two external relations of carotid sheath. Head and neck anatomy. Carotid sheath. Carotid sinus. Carotid body. Carotid Doppler machine. Carotidynia. Blood flow numerical simulations in stenosed carotid.

Cardiothoracic surgery

cardiothoracic surgeonthoracic surgerycardiac surgeon
During the 1990s, the Canadian cardiac surgery training programs changed to six-year "direct-entry" programs following medical school. The direct-entry format provides residents with experience related to cardiac surgery they would not receive in a general surgery program (e.g. echocardiography, coronary care unit, cardiac pathology, etc.). Typically, this is followed by a fellowship in either Adult Cardiac Surgery, Heart Failure/Transplant, Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery, Aortic Surgery, Thoracic Surgery, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery or Cardiac ICU.

Metabolic syndrome

syndrome XMetabolic syndrome XCardio metabolic risk
In 1947, Vague observed that upper body obesity appeared to predispose to diabetes, atherosclerosis, gout and calculi. In the late 1950s, the term metabolic syndrome was first used. In 1967, Avogadro, Crepaldi and coworkers described six moderately obese people with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and marked hypertriglyceridemia, all of which improved when the affected people were put on a hypocaloric, low-carbohydrate diet. In 1977, Haller used the term "metabolic syndrome" for associations of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, hyperuricemia, and hepatic steatosis when describing the additive effects of risk factors on atherosclerosis.

Acute decompensated heart failure

acute heart failureacute cardiac failureacute decompensated congestive heart failure
Heart failure due to acute aortic regurgitation is a surgical emergency associated with high mortality. Heart failure may occur after rupture of ventricular aneurysm. These can form after myocardial infarction. If it ruptures on the free wall, it will cause cardiac tamponade. If it ruptures on the intraventricular septum, it can create a ventricular septal defect. Other causes of cardiac tamponade may also require surgical intervention, although emergent treatment at the bedside may be adequate.

Mitral valve repair

mitral-valve heart surgeryrepair a damaged valvesurgically
The beating heart mitral valve replacement technique is as safe as the arrested heart technique, and is the recommended alternative to arrested heart technique. * *—Educational tracing the history of valvular heart disease over a five-century period Aortic valve repair. Cardiac surgery. Mitral valve insufficiency.

Arterial switch operation

Jatene procedurearterial switchJatene operation
If the aortic commissure has not previously been marked, the excised coronary arteries will be used to determine the implantation position of the aorta. The aorta is then transplanted onto the pulmonary root, using either absorbable or permanent continuous suture. The aortic clamp is temporarily removed while small sections of the neo-aorta are cut away to accommodate the coronary ostia, and a continuous absorbable suture is then used to anastomose each coronary "button" into the prepared space.

Ed Helms

Pacific Electric Picture CompanyStu PriceThe Bluegrass Situation
Helms had open-heart surgery at age 14 to correct a severe congenital heart defect, which he described as supravalvular aortic and pulmonic stenosis. According to Helms, his surgery lasted nine hours and he was kept in an intensive care unit for one week after. He attended Interlochen Center for the Arts as a youth, and graduated from The Westminster Schools one year after The Office castmate Brian Baumgartner in 1992. Helms entered Oberlin College as a geology major, but ended up graduating in 1996 with his B.A. in film theory and technology. He spent a semester as an exchange student at New York University's Tisch School of the Arts.


This can be caused by diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and aortic stenosis. Angina commonly arises from vasospasm of the coronary arteries. There are multiple mechanisms causing the increased smooth muscle contraction involved in coronary vasospasm, including increased Rho-kinase activity. Increased levels of Rho-kinase inhibit myosin phosphatase activity, leading to increased calcium sensitivity and hypercontraction. Rho-kinase also decreases nitric oxide synthase activity, which reduces nitric oxide concentrations. Lower levels of nitric oxide are present in spastic coronary arteries.

Embolic stroke of undetermined source

Aortic arch atherosclerosis is believed to be a specific cause of ESUS, particularly with plaques >4 mm diameter. Further cardiopathies: the risk of ischaemic stroke is increased by supraventricular tachycardias. This also applies to patients with elevated NT-proBNP levels and patients with atrial enlargement in cardiac ultrasound. Other causes: Arterial dissections, infection-related vasculopathies (esp. Varicella zoster virus), thrombophilia, cancer-related thrombosis, migraine, Fabry disease and other genetic, autoimmune or rheumatic causes. 58% were male. the mean age was 65 years. the average annualized rate of stroke recurrence was 4.5%. mean NIHSS at stroke onset was 5.

Fractional flow reserve

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a technique used in coronary catheterization to measure pressure differences across a coronary artery stenosis (narrowing, usually due to atherosclerosis) to determine the likelihood that the stenosis impedes oxygen delivery to the heart muscle (myocardial ischemia). FFR is a novel and potentially clinically useful mathematical model for estimation of stenotic coronary artery atherosclerosis. Reliability/collaborative (easily reproducible) measurement between competing laboratories in measuring this essential metric remains muddled in a proprietary race to claim cardiac mathematics dedicated to risk in ischemic cardiac disease.


Spinal stenosis. Stinging nettles. Syringomyelia. Transverse myelitis. Vitamin B 5 deficiency. Vitamin B 12 deficiency. Withdrawal from certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors) (SSRIs), such as paroxetine or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine.

Vein graft failure

chronic graft occlusionGraft failurevein graft disease
Over time continued SMC migration and proliferation cause extracellular matrix deposition and fibrotic change that lead to development of intimal hyperplasia, which results in luminal loss that makes the graft more susceptible to atherosclerosis. Progressive atherosclerosis is the primarily cause of late vein graft failure. Vein graft atherosclerotic lesions are more diffuse and concentric, yet less calcified, compared to native atherosclerotic lesions, and are more susceptible to thrombosis formation and rupture. Statins and antiplatelets such as aspirin, are the only medications recommended by the ESC guidelines and the ACC/AHA Task Force guidelines for the prevention of VGF.

Okamoto syndrome

Au–Kline syndrome
Individuals with Okamoto syndrome are born with hydronephrosis, or urine build-up in the kidneys, due to narrowing (stenosis) of the passage between the kidneys and the ureters (the ureteropelvic junction). There is also often vesicoureteral reflux, in which urine passes backwards from the bladder to the ureters, and frequent urinary tract infections. Individuals with Okamoto syndrome are typically born with heart defects which can include aortic valve stenosis, atrial or ventricular septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve or patent ductus arteriosus.