Ramtin Cardiovascular Research and Treatment Center

Professor Alireza Esmat, cardiovascular and cardiothoracic surgeon, has been performing open heart surgery at Ramtin since the hospital opened in 1995. With 80 beds, including 15 ICU beds and three operating theatres, the private hospital also runs a transplant research unit. Owner and lead heart surgeon at Ramtin Hospital, Alireza Esmat is known for having performed the first tracheal stenosis operation in Iran, saving the life of the patient, a 27-year-old female, and the only survivor of a car accident.

Vascular remodelling in the embryo

vascular remodeling
Cardiovascular disease remains one of the most common causes of death globally and is often associated with the blockage or stenosis of blood vessels, which can have dramatic biomechanical effects. In acute and chronic remodelling, the increase in shear stress due to the decreased diameter of a blocked vessel can cause vasodilation, thereby restoring typical shear stress levels. However, dilation also leads to increased blood flow through the vessel, which can result in hyperaemia, affect physiological regulatory actions downstream of the afflicted vessel, and place increased pressure on atherosclerotic plaques which may lead to rupture.

2013 in science

Benjamin Milstein, British cardiothoracic surgeon and heart surgery pioneer (born 1918). 3 May – David Morris Kern, American pharmacist (born 1909). 4 May – Christian de Duve, English-born Belgian biologist and biochemist, co-recipient of the 1974 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (born 1917). 10 May – Boicho Kokinov, Bulgarian cognitive scientist (born 1960). 11 May – Joe Farman, British geophysicist who worked for the British Antarctic Survey (born 1930). 12 May – George William Gray, Scottish chemist who discovered stable liquid crystal materials leading to the development of liquid crystal displays (born 1926). 16 May.

AAMP (gene)

For example, in the smooth muscle cells, if AAMP is overexpressed, it activates RhoA, which activates Rho-kinase (this one generates GTP) and it finally leads to increased smooth muscle cell migration and division, causing atherosclerosis and restenosis. Note : In all these diseases we can observe the expression of the AAMP gene. This one can either remain stable, increase or decrease depending on the disease.

Cardiac fibroma

The removal of cardiac tumors require an open heart surgery. During the surgery, the surgeon removes the tumor and tissues around it to reduce the risk of the tumor returning. A heart-lung machine is used to take over the work of the heart and lungs because surgery is complicated and requires a still heart. The recovery is usually between 4–5 days in the hospital and 6 weeks in total. An echocardiogram is taken every year to make sure the tumor has not returned or formed any new growth. If surgery is too difficult, a heart transplantation is a second option. Continuous observations and checkups are recommended to monitor the condition.

Cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures

cardiac diagnosisCardiologic testing labcardiology diagnostic tests
Achieving a high enough heart rate at the end of exercise is critical to improving the sensitivity of the test to detect high grade heart artery stenosis. High frequency analysis of the QRS complex may be useful for detection of coronary artery disease during an exercise stress test. The electrophysiology study or EP study is the end all of electrophysiological tests of the heart. It involves a catheter with electrodes probing the endocardium, the inside of the heart, and testing the conduction pathways and electrical activity of individual areas of the heart.

Sulfur dioxide

sulphur dioxideSO 2 SO2
Smooth muscle cell proliferation is one of important mechanisms of hypertensive remodeling of blood vessels and their stenosis, so it is an important pathogenetic mechanism in arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Endogenous sulfur dioxide in low concentrations causes endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In higher concentrations it causes endothelium-independent vasodilation and has a negative inotropic effect on cardiac output function, thus effectively lowering blood pressure and myocardial oxygen consumption. The vasodilating and bronchodilating effects of sulfur dioxide are mediated via ATP-dependent calcium channels and L-type ("dihydropyridine") calcium channels.

Intra-aortic balloon pump

intra-aortic balloon pump managementBalloon Pump management and transportintra-aortic balloon pumping
Preoperative use is suggested for high-risk patients such as those with unstable angina with stenosis greater than 70% of main coronary artery, in ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction less than 35%. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty. In high risk coronary artery bypass graft surgery where cardiopulmonary bypass time was shortened, as well as during intubation period and hospital stay. Thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction. Severe aortic valve insufficiency. Aortic dissection. Severe aortoiliac occlusive disease and bilateral carotid stenosis. Prosthetic vascular grafts in the aorta. Aortic aneurysm. Aortofemoral grafts. Sepsis. Cardiogenic shock.

George Truskey

His current research also includes point-of-care endothelial cell seeding of nitinol stents and titanium devices to reduce restenosis complications. His lab is also examining the effect of cell aging on endothelial permeability and mechanotransduction. BMES Distinguished Service Award, 2012. BMES president, 2008–2010. Capers and Marion McDonald Award for Excellence in Mentoring, 2007. BMES fellow, 2006. Chair of Department of Biomedical Engineering at Duke University, 2003–2011. AHA fellow, 1999. AIMBE fellow, 1999. Tau Beta Pi North Carolina Gamma Chapter Excellence in Teaching Award, 1998.

Type I and type II errors

type I errorfalse positivefalse-positive
A common example is relying on cardiac stress tests to detect coronary atherosclerosis, even though cardiac stress tests are known to only detect limitations of coronary artery blood flow due to advanced stenosis. False negatives produce serious and counter-intuitive problems, especially when the condition being searched for is common. If a test with a false negative rate of only 10%, is used to test a population with a true occurrence rate of 70%, many of the negatives detected by the test will be false. False positives can also produce serious and counter-intuitive problems when the condition being searched for is rare, as in screening.


PDE1A2 has a potential role in neurodegenerative diseases, including: PDE1C could have a role in the regulation of insulin release and may target proliferating smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic lesions or during restenosis. PDE1A most likely serves to regulate vascular smooth muscle concentration and has been found to be up-regulated in rat aorta in response to chronic nitroglycerin treatment. It is also possible that it plays a role in sperm function. PDE1B knockout mice have increased locomotor activity and in some paradigms decreased memory and learning abilities. PDE1B is also involved in dopaminergic signalling and is induced in several types of activated immune cells.

Superior epigastric artery

superior epigastricsuperior epigastric arteriessuperior
If the abdominal aorta develops a significant stenosis and/or blockage (as may be caused by atherosclerosis), this collateral pathway may develop sufficiently, over time, to supply blood to the lower limbs. A congenitally narrowed aorta, due to coarctation, is often associated with a significant enlargement of the internal thoracic and epigastric arteries. *Terms for anatomical location - "Thoracic wall: Branches of the Internal Thoracic Artery". - "Incisions and the contents of the rectus sheath. ". - External iliac artery.

John David Morley

John Morley
His numerous close calls include a 1973 skiing accident (in which he broke both legs, suffered an embolism and was on life-support for a week), a 1995 bout of malaria tropica in Burma and Thailand, a near-drowning in a local lake in Munich in 2001 on account of a stenosis of the aorta, and two subsequent experiences of open heart surgery, the latter an emergency operation conducted by a doctor who declared his patient to be "a medical miracle". "When I sit down and get seriously into a book, my pulse rate rises considerably," Morley has said. "You cannot live a safe life and an interesting one in this profession. Writing is a frightening business." Pictures from the Water Trade (1985).

Interventional cardiology

interventional cardiologistinterventional cardiologistsinterventional cardiac catheterization
Percutaneous valve replacement: An alternative to open heart surgery, percutaneous valve replacement is the replacement of a heart valve using percutaneous methods. This is performed on the aortic valve (percutaneous aortic valve replacement/TAVI procedure), pulmonary valve and recently the mitral valve. Percutaneous valve repair: An alternative to open heart surgery, percutaneous valve repair is performed on the mitral valve using the MONARC system or MitraClip system. Coronary thrombectomy: Coronary thrombectomy involves the removal of a thrombus (blood clot) from the coronary arteries. Undergraduate degree (4 years). Medical degree (4 years). Internal Medicine residency (3 years).


In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), ADAMTS7 mediates VSMC migration, which plays an essential role during the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Adamts7 deficiency in both the Ldlr −/− and Apoe −/− hyperlipidemic mouse models markedly attenuates formation of atherosclerotic lesions; furthermore, wire-injury experiments in the Adamts7 −/− mouse show reduced neointima formation. The association of ADAMTS7 with atherosclerosis suggests that inhibition of ADAMTS7 should be atheroprotective in humans.


cerebral arteriosclerosishardening of the arteriesarteriosclerotic
Thrombolytic therapy: This is a treatment used to break up masses of plaque inside the arteries via intravenous clot-dissolving medicine. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/arteriosclerosis-atherosclerosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20350569.

Fatty streak

fatty streaksa thin layer of white-yellowish streaks
A fatty streak is the first grossly visible (visible to the naked eye) lesion in the development of atherosclerosis. It appears as an irregular yellow-white discoloration on the luminal surface of an artery. It consists of aggregates of foam cells, which are lipoprotein-loaded macrophages, located in the intima, the innermost layer of the artery, beneath the endothelial cells that layer the lumina through which blood flows. Fatty streaks may also include T cells, aggregated platelets, and smooth muscle cells. It is the precursor lesion of atheromas that may become atheromatous plaques.

Low-density lipoprotein

LDLlow density lipoproteinLDL cholesterol
In clinical context, mathematically calculated estimates of LDL-C are commonly used as an estimate of how much low density lipoproteins are driving progression of atherosclerosis. The problem with this approach is that LDL-C values are commonly discordant with both direct measurements of LDL particles and actual rates of atherosclerosis progression. Direct LDL measurements are also available and better reveal individual issues but are less often promoted or done due to slightly higher costs and being available from only a couple of laboratories in the United States.


Alfred Blalock (first modern day successful open heart surgery in 1944). C. Walton Lillehei (labeled "Father of modern day open heart surgery"). Christiaan Barnard (cardiac surgery, first heart transplantation). Victor Chang Australian pioneer of heart transplantation. John Hunter (Scottish, viewed as the father of modern surgery, performed hundreds of dissections, served as the model for Dr. Jekyll.). Sir Victor Horsley (neurosurgery). Lars Leksell (neurosurgery, inventor of radiosurgery). Joseph Lister (discoverer of surgical sepsis, Listerine named in his honour). Harvey Cushing (pioneer, and often considered the father of, modern neurosurgery).


Arterial hyalinehyaline arteriolosclerosisHyaline type
Atherosclerosis is a hardening of an artery specifically due to an atheromatous plaque. The term atherogenic is used for substances or processes that cause atherosclerosis.