Abdominal aortic aneurysm

abdominal aneurysmabdominal aortic aneurysmsabdominal aneurism
Both relapsing polychondritis and pseudoxanthoma elasticum may cause abdominal aortic aneurysm. Atherosclerosis: The AAA was long considered to be caused by atherosclerosis, because the walls of the AAA frequently carry an atherosclerotic burden. However, this hypothesis cannot be used to explain the initial defect and the development of occlusion, which is observed in the process. Other causes of the development of AAA include: infection, trauma, arteritis, and cystic medial necrosis. Smoking cessation. Treatment of hypertension.

Subclavian steal syndrome

Atherosclerosis. Cervical rib. Takayasu's arteritis. Doppler ultrasound. CT angiography. Carotid Subclavian Bypass. Stent and balloon angioplasty. Endarterectomy. Vascular access steal syndrome. Peripheral artery disease.

Pulse pressure

arterial Pulse Pressure
Aortic dissection. Atherosclerosis. Arteriovenous fistula. Chronic aortic regurgitation. Aortic root aneurysm. Aortic root dilation. Beri beri. Distributive shock. Endocarditis. Fever. Heart block. Hyperkinetic heart syndrome. Increased intracranial pressure. Patent ductus arteriosus. Pregnancy. Thyrotoxicosis. Mean arterial pressure. Cold pressor test. Hypertension. Prehypertension. Antihypertensive. Patent ductus arteriosus.


calf pain when walkingclaudication of the leg
The prognosis for patients with peripheral vascular disease due to atherosclerosis is poor; patients with intermittent claudication due to atherosclerosis are at increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease (e.g. heart attack), because the same disease that affects the legs is often present in the arteries of the heart. The prognosis for neurogenic claudication is good if the cause of it can be addressed surgically.

Cardiac allograft vasculopathy

cardiac transplant allograft vasculopathychronic allograft vasculopathy
As well as the same risk factors for coronary artery disease due to atherosclerosis, CAV risk factors also include older donors, cytomegalovirus infection and explosive brain death in the donor. Its pathogenesis involves immunological (innate and adaptive) and nonimmunological factors, with distinct features on histological samples of coronary arteries. Diagnosis is by regular follow-up and monitoring of the transplanted heart for early signs of disease.

Rastelli procedure

The Rastelli procedure is an open heart surgical procedure developed by Italian physician and cardiac surgery researcher, Giancarlo Rastelli in 1967 at the Mayo Clinic and involves using a pulmonary or aortic homograft conduit to relieve pulmonary obstruction in double outlet right ventricle with pulmonary stenosis. It is used to correct certain combinations of congenital heart defects (CHDs): The Rastelli procedure is typically performed between one and two years of age. Since d-TGA, overriding aorta, and DORV are cyanotic heart defects, the child is palliated with a Blalock-Taussig shunt in the meantime.


CDH13T-cadherin - CDH13
T-cadherin is highly expressed in the heart, aortic wall, neurons of the brain cortex and spinal cord and also in the small blood vessels in spleen and other organs. Expression of T-cadherin is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions and post-angioplasty restenosis —conditions associated with pathological angiogenesis. T-cadherin expression is upregulated in ECs, pericytes and VSMC of atherosclerotic lesions. T-cadherin expression in arterial wall after balloon angioplasty correlates with late stages of neointima formation and coincidentally with the peak in proliferation and differentiation of vascular cells.

Turner syndrome

45,Xmonosomy XTurner
Aortic valve stenosis. Coarctation of the aorta. Bicuspid aortic valve (most common cardiac problem). Horseshoe kidney. Visual impairments – sclera, cornea, glaucoma, etc. Ear infections and hearing loss. High waist-to-hip ratio (the hips are not much bigger than the waist). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (problems with concentration, memory, attention with hyperactivity seen mostly in childhood and adolescence). Nonverbal learning disability (problems with maths, social skills, and spatial relations).

External support

In cardiac surgery and vascular surgery, external support (or external stent) is a type of scaffold made of metal or plastic material that is inserted over the outside of the vein graft in order to decrease the intermediate and late vein graft failure after bypass surgery (e.g. CABG). An external support (external stent) should be differentiated from a stent. An external support is placed on the outside of the vessel whereas a stent is inserted into the lumen of a vessel. Veins are adapted to an environment of low pressure and low flow.

Timeline of cardiovascular disease

This is a timeline of cardiovascular disease (CVD), focusing on scientific development and major worldwide organizations and events concerning CVD.


In macroangiopathy, atherosclerosis and a resultant blood clot forms on the large blood vessels, sticks to the vessel walls, and blocks the flow of blood. Macroangiopathy may cause other complications, such as ischemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease which contributes to the diabetic foot ulcers and the risk of amputation. In microangiopathy, the walls of the smaller blood vessels become so thick and weak that they bleed, leak protein, and slow the flow of blood through the body.

List of ICD-9 codes 390–459: diseases of the circulatory system

List of ICDdiseases of the circulatory system
Atherosclerosis. Stenosis of renal artery. Peripheral Arterial Disease. Peripheral Arterial Disease with Intermittent Claudication (Also Claudication). Peripheral Arterial Disease w/ ulceration. Aortic aneurysm and dissection. Aortic Dissection. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, ruptured. Abdominal aortic Aneurysm, w/o rupture. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, unspecified. Other aneurysm. Other peripheral vascular disease. Raynaud's syndrome. Thromboangiitis obliterans [Buerger's disease]. Other arterial dissection. Dissection of carotid artery. Dissection of iliac artery. Dissection of renal artery. Dissection of vertebral artery. Dissection of other artery.

Atrial fibrillation

paroxysmal atrial fibrillationatrial fibrilationatrial arrhythmia
Cardiovascular factors known to be associated with the development of AF include high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, mitral valve stenosis (e.g., due to rheumatic heart disease or mitral valve prolapse), mitral regurgitation, left atrial enlargement, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), pericarditis, congenital heart disease, and previous heart surgery. Additionally, lung diseases (such as pneumonia, lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, and sarcoidosis) are thought to play a role in certain people. Disorders of breathing during sleep such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are also associated with AF. Obesity is a risk factor for AF.

Acute coronary syndrome

acute coronary syndromesacute coronary syndrome (ACS)cardiac dysfunction
Chest pain with features characteric of cardiac origin (angina) can also be precipitated by profound anemia, brady- or tachycardia (excessively slow or rapid heart rate), low or high blood pressure, severe aortic valve stenosis (narrowing of the valve at the beginning of the aorta), pulmonary artery hypertension and a number of other conditions. In those who have ACS, atheroma rupture is most commonly found 60% when compared to atheroma erosion (30%), thus causes the formation of thrombus which block the coronary arteries.

List of ICD-9 codes 740–759: congenital anomalies

Tricuspid atresia and stenosis congenital. Ebstein's anomaly. Congenital stenosis of aortic valve. Congenital insufficiency of aortic valve. Congenital mitral stenosis. Congenital mitral insufficiency. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Other specified congenital anomalies of heart. Subaortic stenosis congenital. Cor triatriatum. Infundibular pulmonic stenosis congenital. Congenital obstructive anomalies of heart not elsewhere classified. Coronary artery anomaly congenital. Congenital heart block. Malposition of heart and cardiac apex. Other specified congenital anomalies of heart. Brugada syndrome. Other congenital anomalies of circulatory system. Coarctation of aorta.

Gaseous signaling molecules

gaseous signaling moleculegasotransmittergasotransmitters
Smooth muscle cell proliferation is one of important mechanisms of hypertensive remodeling of blood vessels and their stenosis, so it is an important pathogenetic mechanism in arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Endogenous sulfur dioxide in low concentrations causes endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In higher concentrations it causes endothelium-independent vasodilation and has a negative inotropic effect on cardiac output function, thus effectively lowering blood pressure and myocardial oxygen consumption. The vasodilating effects of sulfur dioxide are mediated via ATP-dependent calcium channels and L-type ("dihydropyridine") calcium channels.

Magnetic resonance angiography

magnetic resonance angiogramMRAmagnetic resonance
Magnetic resonance angiography is used to generate images of arteries (and less commonly veins) in order to evaluate them for stenosis (abnormal narrowing), occlusions, aneurysms (vessel wall dilatations, at risk of rupture) or other abnormalities. MRA is often used to evaluate the arteries of the neck and brain, the thoracic and abdominal aorta, the renal arteries, and the legs (the latter exam is often referred to as a "run-off"). A variety of techniques can be used to generate the pictures of blood vessels, both arteries and veins, based on flow effects or on contrast (inherent or pharmacologically generated).

Degenerative disease

degenerativedegenerative diseasesdegenerative disorder
Some cardiovascular diseases (e.g. atherosclerotic ones like coronary artery disease, aortic stenosis etc.). Huntington's disease. Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Keratoconus (KC). Keratoglobus. Leukodystrophies. Macular degeneration (AMD). Marfan's syndrome (MFS). Some mitochondrial myopathies. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome. Multiple sclerosis (MS). Multiple system atrophy. Muscular dystrophies (MD). Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Niemann–Pick diseases. Osteoarthritis. Osteoporosis. Parkinson's disease. Pulmonary arterial hypertension. All prion diseases (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia etc.). Progressive supranuclear palsy. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP).

Endothelial dysfunction

cell damage
Sirolimus eluting stents were previously used because they showed low rates of in-stent restenosis, but further investigation showed that they often impair endothelial function in humans and worsen conditions. One drug used to inhibit restenosis is iopromide-paclitaxel. Treatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia may improve endothelial function in people taking statins (HMGCoA-reductase inhibitor), and renin angiotensin system inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

Chest pain

chestchest painschest tightness
Aortic stenosis - This condition happens when the person has underlying congenital bicuspid valve, aortic sclerosis, or history of rheumatic fever. Chest pain usually happens during physical activity. Syncope is a late symptom. Signs and symptoms of heart failure may also present. On auscultation, loud ejection systolic murmur can be best heard at the right second intercostal space and radiates to the carotid artery in the neck. Splitting of second heart sound is heard in severe stenosis. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - It is the hypertrophy of interventricular septum that causes outflow obstruction of left ventricle. Dyspnea and chest pain commonly occurs during daily activities.

List of Autopsy: The Last Hours of... episodes

* Lists of people by cause of death * List of deaths from drug overdose and intoxication

Ankle–brachial pressure index

ankle brachial pressure indexankle-brachial indexABPI
Studies have shown the sensitivity of ABPI is 90% with a corresponding 98% specificity for detecting hemodynamically significant (Serious) stenosis >50% in major leg arteries, defined by angiogram. However, ABPI has known issues: When performed in an accredited diagnostic laboratory, the ABI is a fast, accurate, and painless exam, however these issues have rendered ABI unpopular in primary care offices and symptomatic patients are often referred to specialty clinics due to the perceived difficulties.

MTOR inhibitors

mTOR inhibitorability to inhibit mTORinhibitors
Since then, rapamycin has also shown to be effective for preventing coronary artery re-stenosis and for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The development of rapamycin as an anticancer agent began again in the 1990s with the discovery of temsirolimus (CCI-779). This was a novel soluble rapamycin derivative that had a favorable toxicological profile in animals. More rapamycin derivatives with improved pharmacokinetics and reduced immunosuppressive effects have since then been developed for the treatment of cancer. These rapalogs include temsirolimus (CCI-779), everolimus (RAD001), and ridaforolimus (AP-23573) which are being evaluated in cancer clinical trials.


Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61
CYR61 is overexpressed in vascular smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic lesions and in the neointima of restenosis after balloon angioplasty, both in rodent models and in humans. Suppression of CYR61 expression results in reduced neointimal hyperplasia after balloon angioplasty, an effect that is reversed by delivery of CYR61 via gene transfer In a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, expression of CYR61 in the vitreous humor produced significant beneficial effects in repairing damaged vasculature. Angiogenesis is essential for the supply of oxygen and nutrients to nourish the growing tumor.

Ostial disease

Ostial disease, namely coronary ostial stenosis, is the occlusion of coronary ostium. Causing factors include atherosclerosis, syphilis, Kawasaki disease, and Takayasu's arteritis, etc.