Cerebral infarction

cerebral infarctbrain infarctionstroke
In a systematic review of six uncontrolled, single-center trials, involving a total of 300 patients, of intra-cranial stenting in symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis, the rate of technical success (reduction to stenosis of

List of circulatory system conditions

Aortic insufficiency. Mitral stenosis. Tricuspid valve stenosis. Pulmonary valve stenosis. Mitral insufficiency/regurgitation. Tricuspid insufficiency/regurgitation. Pulmonary insufficiency/regurgitation.


Atherectomy is a minimally invasive endovascular surgery technique for removing atherosclerosis from blood vessels within the body. It is an alternative to angioplasty for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, but the studies that exist are not adequate to determine if it is superior to angioplasty. It has also been used to treat coronary artery disease, albeit ineffectively. Atherectomy is used to treat narrowing in arteries caused by peripheral artery disease. Unlike angioplasty and stents, which push plaque into the vessel wall, atherectomy cuts plaque from the wall of the artery.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

abdominal aneurysmabdominal aortic aneurysmsabdominal
Both relapsing polychondritis and pseudoxanthoma elasticum may cause abdominal aortic aneurysm. Atherosclerosis: The AAA was long considered to be caused by atherosclerosis, because the walls of the AAA frequently carry an atherosclerotic burden. However, this hypothesis cannot be used to explain the initial defect and the development of occlusion, which is observed in the process. Other causes of the development of AAA include: infection, trauma, arteritis, and cystic medial necrosis. Smoking cessation. Treatment of hypertension.

Subclavian steal syndrome

Atherosclerosis. Cervical rib. Takayasu's arteritis. Doppler ultrasound. CT angiography. Carotid Subclavian Bypass. Stent and balloon angioplasty. Endarterectomy. Vascular access steal syndrome. Peripheral artery disease.

Pulse pressure

arterial Pulse Pressure
Aortic dissection. Atherosclerosis. Arteriovenous fistula. Chronic aortic regurgitation. Aortic root aneurysm. Aortic root dilation. Beri beri. Distributive shock. Endocarditis. Fever. Heart block. Hyperkinetic heart syndrome. Increased intracranial pressure. Patent ductus arteriosus. Pregnancy. Thyrotoxicosis. Mean arterial pressure. Cold pressor test. Hypertension. Prehypertension. Antihypertensive. Patent ductus arteriosus.


calf pain when walkingclaudication of the leg
The prognosis for patients with peripheral vascular disease due to atherosclerosis is poor; patients with intermittent claudication due to atherosclerosis are at increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease (e.g. heart attack), because the same disease that affects the legs is often present in the arteries of the heart. The prognosis for neurogenic claudication is good if the cause of it can be addressed surgically.

Cardiac allograft vasculopathy

cardiac transplant allograft vasculopathychronic allograft vasculopathy
As well as the same risk factors for coronary artery disease due to atherosclerosis, CAV risk factors also include older donors, cytomegalovirus infection and explosive brain death in the donor. Its pathogenesis involves immunological (innate and adaptive) and nonimmunological factors, with distinct features on histological samples of coronary arteries. Diagnosis is by regular follow-up and monitoring of the transplanted heart for early signs of disease.

Rastelli procedure

The Rastelli procedure is an open heart surgical procedure developed by Italian physician and cardiac surgery researcher, Giancarlo Rastelli in 1967 at the Mayo Clinic and involves using a pulmonary or aortic homograft conduit to relieve pulmonary obstruction in double outlet right ventricle with pulmonary stenosis. It is used to correct certain combinations of congenital heart defects (CHDs): The Rastelli procedure is typically performed between one and two years of age. Since d-TGA, overriding aorta, and DORV are cyanotic heart defects, the child is palliated with a Blalock-Taussig shunt in the meantime.


CDH13T-cadherin - CDH13
T-cadherin is highly expressed in the heart, aortic wall, neurons of the brain cortex and spinal cord and also in the small blood vessels in spleen and other organs. Expression of T-cadherin is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions and post-angioplasty restenosis —conditions associated with pathological angiogenesis. T-cadherin expression is upregulated in ECs, pericytes and VSMC of atherosclerotic lesions. T-cadherin expression in arterial wall after balloon angioplasty correlates with late stages of neointima formation and coincidentally with the peak in proliferation and differentiation of vascular cells.

Turner syndrome

Turner's syndrome45,Xmonosomy X
Aortic valve stenosis. Coarctation of the aorta. Bicuspid aortic valve (most common cardiac problem). Horseshoe kidney. Visual impairments – sclera, cornea, glaucoma, etc. Ear infections and hearing loss. High waist-to-hip ratio (the hips are not much bigger than the waist). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (problems with concentration, memory, attention with hyperactivity seen mostly in childhood and adolescence). Nonverbal learning disability (problems with maths, social skills, and spatial relations).

External support

In cardiac surgery and vascular surgery, external support (or external stent) is a type of scaffold made of metal or plastic material that is inserted over the outside of the vein graft in order to decrease the intermediate and late vein graft failure after bypass surgery (e.g. CABG). An external support (external stent) should be differentiated from a stent. An external support is placed on the outside of the vessel whereas a stent is inserted into the lumen of a vessel. Veins are adapted to an environment of low pressure and low flow.

Timeline of cardiovascular disease

This is a timeline of cardiovascular disease (CVD), focusing on scientific development and major worldwide organizations and events concerning CVD.


In macroangiopathy, atherosclerosis and a resultant blood clot forms on the large blood vessels, sticks to the vessel walls, and blocks the flow of blood. Macroangiopathy may cause other complications, such as ischemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease which contributes to the diabetic foot ulcers and the risk of amputation. In microangiopathy, the walls of the smaller blood vessels become so thick and weak that they bleed, leak protein, and slow the flow of blood through the body.

Cardiac catheterization

heart catheterizationcardiac catheterisationcardiac catheter
These comorbidity conditions include aortic aneurysm, aortic stenosis, extensive three-vessel coronary artery disease, diabetes, uncontrolled hypertension, obesity, chronic kidney disease, and unstable angina. Left heart catheterization (LHC) is an ambiguous term and sometime clarification is required: Coronary angiography allows for direct intervention in cases of coronary artery occlusion. This technique is also used to assess the amount of occlusion (or blockage) in a coronary artery, often described as a percentage of occlusion. A thin, flexible wire is inserted into either the femoral artery or the radial artery and threaded toward the heart until it is in the ascending aorta.

Atrial fibrillation

atrial fibrilationparoxysmal atrial fibrillationAtrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response
People with AF often undergo cardiac surgery for other underlying reasons and are frequently offered concomitant AF surgery to reduce the frequency of short- and long-term AF. Concomitant AF surgery are more likely to be free from atrial fibrillation and off medications three months after surgery, but these same people are more likely to need a pacemaker following the procedure. AF often occurs after cardiac surgery and is usually self-limiting. It is strongly associated with age, preoperative hypertension, and the number of vessels grafted. Measures should be taken to control hypertension preoperatively to reduce the risk of AF.

List of Autopsy: The Last Hours of... episodes

The following is a list of celebrities who have been profiled on the Channel 5 (UK) and Reelz (USA) documentary series Autopsy: The Last Hours of..., which delves into how they may have suddenly died.

Acute coronary syndrome

acute coronary syndromesheart attack. Acute Coronary Syndrome
Chest pain with features characteristic of cardiac origin (angina) can also be precipitated by profound anemia, brady- or tachycardia (excessively slow or rapid heart rate), low or high blood pressure, severe aortic valve stenosis (narrowing of the valve at the beginning of the aorta), pulmonary artery hypertension and a number of other conditions. In those who have ACS, atheroma rupture is most commonly found 60% when compared to atheroma erosion (30%), thus causes the formation of thrombus which block the coronary arteries.

Gaseous signaling molecules

gasotransmittergaseous signaling moleculegaseous compounds
Smooth muscle cell proliferation is one of important mechanisms of hypertensive remodeling of blood vessels and their stenosis, so it is an important pathogenetic mechanism in arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Endogenous sulfur dioxide in low concentrations causes endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In higher concentrations it causes endothelium-independent vasodilation and has a negative inotropic effect on cardiac output function, thus effectively lowering blood pressure and myocardial oxygen consumption. The vasodilating effects of sulfur dioxide are mediated via ATP-dependent calcium channels and L-type ("dihydropyridine") calcium channels.

Magnetic resonance angiography

MR angiographyMRAmagnetic resonance angiogram
Magnetic resonance angiography is used to generate images of arteries (and less commonly veins) in order to evaluate them for stenosis (abnormal narrowing), occlusions, aneurysms (vessel wall dilatations, at risk of rupture) or other abnormalities. MRA is often used to evaluate the arteries of the neck and brain, the thoracic and abdominal aorta, the renal arteries, and the legs (the latter exam is often referred to as a "run-off"). A variety of techniques can be used to generate the pictures of blood vessels, both arteries and veins, based on flow effects or on contrast (inherent or pharmacologically generated).

List of ICD-9 codes 740–759: congenital anomalies

List of ICD-9 codes 740-759: Congenital anomalies
Tricuspid atresia and stenosis congenital. Ebstein's anomaly. Congenital stenosis of aortic valve. Congenital insufficiency of aortic valve. Congenital mitral stenosis. Congenital mitral insufficiency. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Other specified congenital anomalies of heart. Subaortic stenosis congenital. Cor triatriatum. Infundibular pulmonic stenosis congenital. Congenital obstructive anomalies of heart not elsewhere classified. Coronary artery anomaly congenital. Congenital heart block. Malposition of heart and cardiac apex. Other specified congenital anomalies of heart. Brugada syndrome. Other congenital anomalies of circulatory system. Coarctation of aorta.

Glossary of medicine

*Cardiac surgery – or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons. It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, with coronary artery bypass grafting); to correct congenital heart disease; or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis. It also includes heart transplantation. *Cardiology – is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

Degenerative disease

degenerativedegenerative diseasesdegenerative disorder
Some cardiovascular diseases (e.g. atherosclerotic ones like coronary artery disease, aortic stenosis etc.). Huntington's disease. Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Keratoconus (KC). Keratoglobus. Leukodystrophies. Macular degeneration (AMD). Marfan's syndrome (MFS). Some mitochondrial myopathies. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome. Multiple sclerosis (MS). Multiple system atrophy. Muscular dystrophies (MD). Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Niemann–Pick diseases. Osteoarthritis. Osteoporosis. Parkinson's disease. Pulmonary arterial hypertension. All prion diseases (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia etc.). Progressive supranuclear palsy. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP).

Endothelial dysfunction

cell damage
Sirolimus eluting stents were previously used because they showed low rates of in-stent restenosis, but further investigation showed that they often impair endothelial function in humans and worsen conditions. One drug used to inhibit restenosis is iopromide-paclitaxel. Treatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia may improve endothelial function in people taking statins (HMGCoA-reductase inhibitor), and renin angiotensin system inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Atherosclerosis. Endothelial activation. Nitric oxide. endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Prostacyclin. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Endothelin. Integrin network.

Popliteal bypass surgery

Femoral Popliteal Bypass surgery
The cause of thrombosis is commonly due to technical errors of the surgery, other causes may include stenosis, narrow vein grafts, a low cardiac output and the compression of the graft. In such cases, heparin (anticoagulant) and thrombectomy can be used to treat graft thrombosis. The surgery is generally performed under general anaesthesia. The surgeon makes an incision in the upper leg, and a graft either man-made or the patient's vein is sewn to both ends of the artery. The graft reroutes the blood flow around the blocked artery, allowing for adequate supply back to the parts of the leg.