Vivien Thomas

Thomas, VivienVivien T. Thomas
Without any education past high school, Thomas rose above poverty and racism to become a cardiac surgery pioneer and a teacher of operative techniques to many of the country's most prominent surgeons. A PBS documentary Partners of the Heart, was broadcast in 2003 on PBS's American Experience. In the 2004 HBO movie, Something the Lord Made, Vivien Thomas was portrayed by Mos Def. Thomas was born in New Iberia, Louisiana, and was the son of Mary (Eaton) and William Marco Thomas. The grandson of a slave, he attended Pearl High School in Nashville in the 1920s. Thomas had hoped to attend college and become a doctor, but the Great Depression derailed his plans.


human bloodhematologicalblood-forming
Atherosclerosis reduces the flow of blood through arteries, because atheroma lines arteries and narrows them. Atheroma tends to increase with age, and its progression can be compounded by many causes including smoking, high blood pressure, excess circulating lipids (hyperlipidemia), and diabetes mellitus. Coagulation can form a thrombosis, which can obstruct vessels. Problems with blood composition, the pumping action of the heart, or narrowing of blood vessels can have many consequences including hypoxia (lack of oxygen) of the tissues supplied.

Birth defect

congenitalcongenital disorderbirth defects
Congenital anomalies of the gastrointestinal system include numerous forms of stenosis and atresia, and perforation, such as gastroschisis. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include renal parenchyma, kidneys, and urinary collecting system. Defects can be bilateral or unilateral, and different defects often coexist in an individual child. A congenital metabolic disease is also referred to as an inborn error of metabolism. Most of these are single gene defects, usually heritable. Many affect the structure of body parts but some simply affect the function.

Cardiac stress test

stress testexercise stress testcardiac stress tests
Over the past two decades, better methods have been developed to identify atherosclerotic disease before it becomes symptomatic. These detection methods include anatomical and physiological methods. The anatomic methods directly measure some aspects of the actual process of atherosclerosis itself and therefore offer the possibility of early diagnosis but are often more expensive and may be invasive (in the case of IVUS, for example). The physiological methods are often less expensive and safer but are not able to quantify the current status of the disease or directly track progression.

Tetralogy of Fallot

Fallot's TetralogyFallot’s Tetralogytetralogy/pentalogy of Fallot
The open-heart surgery is designed to relieve the right ventricular outflow tract stenosis by careful resection of muscle and to repair the VSD with a Gore-Tex patch or a homograft. Additional reparative or reconstructive surgery may be done on patients as required by their particular cardiac anatomy. Tetralogy of Fallot occurs approximately 400 times per million live births and accounts for 7 to 10% of all congenital heart abnormalities. Untreated, tetralogy of Fallot rapidly results in progressive right ventricular hypertrophy due to the increased resistance caused by narrowing of the pulmonary trunk.

C. Walton Lillehei

Walt LilleheiC. Walton LilliheiLillehei
The Collaboration Between Surgeons and Engineers in the Rise of Cardiac Surgery". In: Pisano R. (eds) A Bridge between Conceptual Frameworks. History of Mechanism and Machine Science, vol 27. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 53-68. Cooper, David (2010) Open Heart: The Radical Surgeons who Revolutionized Medicine (Kaplan Publishing) ISBN: 978-1607144908. Goor, Daniel A. (2007) The Genius of C. Walton Lillehei and The True History of Open Heart Surgery (Vantage Press) ISBN: 9780533155576. Miller, G. Wayne (2000) King of Hearts, The true story of the maverick who pioneered the open heart surgery (Times Books) ISBN: 9780307557247. The C. Walton and Richard C. Lillehei Surgical Society.

Periodontal disease

periodontitisgum diseaseperiodontal diseases
It is associated with an increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and hypertension. It also linked in those over 60 years of age to impairments in delayed memory and calculation abilities. Individuals with impaired fasting glucose and diabetes mellitus have higher degrees of periodontal inflammation, and often have difficulties with balancing their blood glucose level owing to the constant systemic inflammatory state, caused by the periodontal inflammation. Although no causal association was proven, a 2009 study showed correlation between chronic periodontitis and erectile dysfunction.


statinsdrug interactionsHMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitor
The lipid hypothesis is that low-density lipoprotein carriers of cholesterol play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Statins are effective in lowering LDL cholesterol and statins are therefore widely used for primary prevention in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as in secondary prevention for those who have developed cardiovascular disease. . Side effects of statins include muscle pain, increased risk of diabetes mellitus, and abnormalities in liver enzyme tests. Additionally, they have rare but severe adverse effects, particularly muscle damage.

Cardiopulmonary bypass

heart-lung machineheart-lung machinesheart–lung machine
Nelson (Current President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints), who performed the first open heart surgery in Utah. The first successful mechanical support of left ventricular function was performed in July 3, 1952 by Forest Dewey Dodrill using a machine, the Dodrill-GMR co-developed with General Motors. The machine was later used to support right ventricular function. The first successful open heart procedure on a human utilizing the heart lung machine was performed by John Gibbon on May 6, 1953 at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia. He repaired an atrial septal defect in an 18-year-old woman.

Dwight Harken

Harken discovered a way similar to how he operated on soldiers to correct mitral stenosis. A small hole would be cut in the heart and a finger would be used to widen the valve. This technique became known as blind surgery or closed heart surgery. At first, the majority of patients died, however as the method was refined, the fatality rate dropped and became safe. Harken's concept of intensive care has been adopted worldwide and has improved the chance of survival for patients. He opened the first intensive care unit in 1951. In the 1960s, he developed the first device to help the heart pump. He also implanted artificial aortic and mitral valves.

Axel Cappelen

Axel Hermansen Cappelen
Axel Hermansen Cappelen (20 July 1858 – 13 November 1919) was a Norwegian surgeon.

Foam cell

foam cellsfoamy macrophages
The link between atherosclerosis and autoimmunity is plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). PDCs contribute to the early stages of the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in the blood vessels by releasing large quantities of type 1 interferons (INF). Stimulation of pDCs leads to an increase of macrophages present in plaques. However, during later stages of lesion progression, pDCs have been shown to have a protective effect by activating T cells and Treg function; leading to disease suppression. Foamy macrophages are also found in diseases caused by pathogens that persist in the body, such as Chlamydia, Toxoplasma, or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Air pollution

air qualityemissionsair
Associations are believed to be causal and effects may be mediated by vasoconstriction, low-grade inflammation and atherosclerosis Other mechanisms such as autonomic nervous system imbalance have also been suggested. Research has demonstrated increased risk of developing asthma and COPD from increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Additionally, air pollution has been associated with increased hospitalization and mortality from asthma and COPD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes diseases such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

John Heysham Gibbon

John Gibbon
., AB, MD, (September 29, 1903 – February 5, 1973) was an American surgeon best known for inventing the heart–lung machine and performing subsequent open heart surgeries which revolutionized heart surgery in the twentieth century. He was the son of Dr. John Heysham Gibbon Sr., and Marjorie Young Gibbon (daughter of General Samuel Young), and came from a long line of medical doctors including his father, grandfather Robert, great-grandfather John and great-great grandfather. Gibbon was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on September 29, 1903.


subacute bacterial endocarditisa bacterial infection of his heartendocarditis, bacterial
Occasionally heart surgery is required. The number of people affected is about 5 per 100,000 per year. Rates, however, vary between regions of the world. Males are affected more often than females. The risk of death among those infected is about 25%. Without treatment it is almost universally fatal. Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is most commonly found on previously undamaged valves. As opposed to infective endocarditis, the vegetations in NBTE are small, sterile, and tend to aggregate along the edges of the valve or the cusps. Also unlike infective endocarditis, NBTE does not cause an inflammation response from the body.

High-density lipoprotein

HDLHDL cholesterolhigh density lipoprotein
Increasing concentrations of HDL particles are strongly associated with decreasing accumulation of atherosclerosis within the walls of arteries. This is important because atherosclerosis eventually results in sudden plaque ruptures, cardiovascular disease, stroke and other vascular diseases. HDL particles are sometimes referred to as "good cholesterol" because they can transport fat molecules out of artery walls, reduce macrophage accumulation, and thus help prevent or even regress atherosclerosis, but studies have shown that HDL-lacking mice still have the ability to transport cholesterol to bile, suggesting that there are alternative mechanisms for cholesterol removal.

University of Minnesota

MinnesotaUniversity of Minnesota, Twin CitiesMinnesota Golden Gophers
Cardiac surgery – C. Walton Lillehei pioneered open-heart surgery, as well as numerous techniques, equipment and prostheses for cardiothoracic surgery. POPmail – Mark P. McCahill led the development of the Gopher protocol, the effective predecessor of the World Wide Web, was involved in creating and codifying the standard for Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and led the development of POPmail, one of the first e-mail clients which had a foundational influence on later e-mail clients and the popularization of graphical user interfaces in Internet technologies more broadly. MMPI – Starke R. Hathaway and J. C.


In the human body, high levels of triglycerides in the bloodstream have been linked to atherosclerosis and, by extension, the risk of heart disease and stroke. However, the relative negative impact of raised levels of triglycerides compared to that of LDL:HDL ratios is as yet unknown. The risk can be partly accounted for by a strong inverse relationship between triglyceride level and HDL-cholesterol level. But the risk is also due to high triglyceride levels increasing the quantity of small, dense LDL particles. The National Cholesterol Education Program has set guidelines for triglyceride levels: These levels are tested after fasting 8 to 12 hours.


Deletions and mutations in this gene are associated with supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) and the autosomal dominant cutis laxa. Other associated defects in elastin include Marfan syndrome, emphysema caused by α 1 -antitrypsin deficiency, atherosclerosis, Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome, Menkes syndrome, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, and Williams syndrome. In the body, elastin is usually associated with other proteins in connective tissues. Elastic fiber in the body is a mixture of amorphous elastin and fibrous fibrillin. Both components are primarily made of smaller amino acids such as glycine, valine, alanine, and proline.


Williams suggested the following example: Perhaps a gene codes for calcium deposition in bones, which promotes juvenile survival and will therefore be favored by natural selection; however, this same gene promotes calcium deposition in the arteries, causing negative atherosclerotic effects in old age. Thus, harmful biological changes in old age may result from selection for pleiotropic genes that are beneficial early in life but harmful later on. In this case, selection pressure is relatively high when Fisher's reproductive value is high and relatively low when Fisher's reproductive value is low.