Humans are, by nature, a forward-minded species pursuing greater avenues of happiness and satisfaction, but we are all too frequently willing to grasp at unrealistic promises of a better life. Psychology has much to discuss about pseudoscience thinking, as it is the illusory perceptions of causality and effectiveness of numerous individuals that needs to be illuminated. Research suggests that illusionary thinking happens in most people when exposed to certain circumstances such as reading a book, an advertisement or the testimony of others are the basis of pseudoscience beliefs.


Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain. The mind–body problem, i.e. the relationship of the mind to the body, is commonly seen as the central issue in philosophy of mind, although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not involve its relation to the physical body. The mind–body problem concerns the explanation of the relationship that exists between minds, or mental processes, and bodily states or processes.


HinduHindusHindu religion
According to the Hindu text Skanda Purana, Tirtha are of three kinds: Jangam Tirtha is to a place movable of a sadhu, a rishi, a guru; Sthawar Tirtha is to a place immovable, like Benaras, Hardwar, Mount Kailash, holy rivers; while Manas Tirtha is to a place of mind of truth, charity, patience, compassion, soft speech, soul. Tīrtha-yatra is, states Knut A. Jacobsen, anything that has a salvific value to a Hindu, and includes pilgrimage sites such as mountains or forests or seashore or rivers or ponds, as well as virtues, actions, studies or state of mind. Pilgrimage sites of Hinduism are mentioned in the epic Mahabharata and the Puranas.

Western world

WesternWestthe West
. • Americanization • Anglicisation • Anglophone • Atlanticism • Christendom • Eastern world • East-West dichotomy • Europeanisation • Far West • Francophonie • Free world • Golden billion • Hispanophone • Mid-Atlantic English • Orient • Three-world model • Western esotericism • Western philosophy • Westernization • Western civilization • Western culture • ;Organisations: • European Council • European Union • European Economic Area • Group of Seven (G7) • North Atlantic Treaty Organization • ;Representation in the United Nations: • Eastern European Group • Western European and Others Group a Biblical Christian cultural influence in spiritual thinking, customs and either ethic or moral traditions

Physical body

objectbodyphysical object
Abstractly, an object is a construction of our mind consistent with the information provided by our senses, using Occam's razor. In common usage an object is the material inside the boundary of an object, in 3-dimensional space. The boundary of an object is a contiguous surface which may be used to determine what is inside, and what is outside an object. An object is a single piece of material, whose extent is determined by a description based on the properties of the material. An imaginary sphere of granite within a larger block of granite would not be considered an identifiable object, in common usage.


The Chinese Mind: Essentials of Chinese Philosophy and Culture (University of Hawaii Press, 1967). ISBN: 0-8248-0075-3. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects (Doubleday, 1994). ISBN: 0-385-42564-3. Pas, Julian F. & Leung, Man Kam. Historical Dictionary of Taoism (Scarecrow Press, 1998). ISBN: 0-8108-3369-7. Prebish, Charles. Buddhism: A Modern Perspective (Penn State Press, 1975). ISBN: 0-271-01195-5. Robinet, Isabelle. Taoist Meditation: The Mao-shan Tradition of Great Purity (Albany: SUNY Press, 1993 [original French 1989]). Robinet, Isabelle. Taoism: Growth of a Religion (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997 [original French 1992]). ISBN: 0-8047-2839-9. Segal, Robert Alan.


It is a practice in which the attention of the mind is first narrowed to the focus on one specific object, such as the breath, a concrete object, or a specific thought, mental image or mantra. After this initial focussing of the mind, the focus is coupled to mindfulness, maintaining a calm mind while being aware of one's surroundings. The practice of dhyana aids in maintaining a calm mind, and avoiding disturbance of this calm mind by mindfulness of disturbing thoughts and feelings. The earliest evidence of yogis and their meditative tradition, states Karel Werner, is found in the Keśin hymn 10.136 of the Rigveda.

Celestial spheres

celestial sphereplanetary spherescelestial
The celestial spheres, or celestial orbs, were the fundamental entities of the cosmological models developed by Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, and others. In these celestial models, the apparent motions of the fixed stars and planets are accounted for by treating them as embedded in rotating spheres made of an aetherial, transparent fifth element (quintessence), like jewels set in orbs. Since it was believed that the fixed stars did not change their positions relative to one another, it was argued that they must be on the surface of a single starry sphere.


The Secularization of the European mind in the nineteenth century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978-0-521-39829-9. Cox, Harvey (1965). The Secular City: Secularization and Urbanization in Theological Perspective. Edition from 1990: ISBN: 978-0-02-031155-3. Domingo, Rafael (2016). "God and the Secular Legal System". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ISBN: 1-316-60127-7. Kosmin, Barry A. and Ariela Keysar (2007). Secularism and Secularity: Contemporary International Perspectives. Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture. ISBN: 978-0-9794816-0-4. Martin, David (1978). A General Theory of Secularization. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN: 0-631-18960-2. Martin, David (2005).

Macrocosm and microcosm

It is a feature "present in all esoteric schools of thinking", according to scholar Pierre A. Riffard. It is closely associated with Hermeticism and underlies practices such as astrology, alchemy and sacred geometry with its premise of "As Above, So Below". Today, the concept of microcosm has been dominated by sociology to mean a small group of individuals whose behavior is typical of a larger social body encompassing it. A microcosm can be seen as a special kind of epitome. Conversely, a macrocosm is a social body made of smaller compounds.

Physical plane

Physical WorldbhoologamBhuloka
The physical plane (also known as a hyperplane), physical world, or physical universe, in emanationist metaphysics such as are found in Neoplatonism, Hermeticism, Hinduism and Theosophy, refers to the visible reality of space and time, energy and matter: the physical universe in Occultism and esoteric cosmology is the lowest or densest of a series of planes of existence (hyperplanes that are said to be nested). * Heindel, Max, The Rosicrucian Mysteries (Chapter III: The Visible and the Invisible Worlds), 1911, ISBN: 0-911274-86-3


the Renaissanceearly RenaissanceRenaissance Europe
Above all, humanists asserted "the genius of man ... the unique and extraordinary ability of the human mind". Humanist scholars shaped the intellectual landscape throughout the early modern period. Political philosophers such as Niccolò Machiavelli and Thomas More revived the ideas of Greek and Roman thinkers and applied them in critiques of contemporary government. Pico della Mirandola wrote the "manifesto" of the Renaissance, the Oration on the Dignity of Man, a vibrant defence of thinking.

Taittiriya Upanishad

AnnamayaTaitriyamTaittariya Upanishad
The next inner, deeper layer of nature and knowledge-seeking relates to Manas (mind, thought, will, wish), or Manomaya kosha. Manas, asserts the fourth anuvaka of Ananda Valli, exists only in individual forms of beings. It is characterized by the power to will, the ability to wish, and the striving for prosperity through actions on the empirical nature, knowledge and beings. The verse of fourth anuvaka add that this knowledge is essential yet incomplete, that it the knowledge of Brahman that truly liberates, and one who knows Atman-Brahman "dreads nothing, now and never" and "lives contently, in bliss".


The Oxford Companion to the Mind. Oxford University Press. pp. 200–201. Todd, J; Dewhurst, K. (1962). The Significance of the Doppelgänger (Hallucinatory Double) in Folklore and Neuropsychiatry. Practitioner 188: 377-382. Todd, J; Dewhurst, K. (1955). The Double: Its Psycho-Pathology and Psycho-Physiology. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 122: 47-55. Hill, David A. How I Met Myself. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN: 9780521750189. Grimm's Saga No. 260 in which a Doppelgaenger appears as Married Woman. Prometheus Unbound: Text at Finding My Twin Stranger documentary.


is Brahman limited by the mind. Matter and its limitations are considered real, not a manifestation of ignorance. Bhaskara advocated bhakti as dhyana (meditation) directed toward the transcendental Brahman. He refuted the idea of Maya and denied the possibility of liberation in bodily existence. Nimbārka propounded Dvaitādvaita, based upon Bhedābheda as was taught by Bhāskara. Brahman (God), souls (chit) and matter or the universe (achit) are considered as three equally real and co-eternal realities. Brahman is the controller (niyantr), the soul is the enjoyer (bhoktr), and the material universe is the object enjoyed (bhogya).

Dante Alighieri

The Esoterism of Dante, trans. by C.B. Berhill, in the Perennial Wisdom Series. Ghent, NY: Sophia Perennis et Universalis, 1996. viii, 72 p. N.B.: Originally published in French, entitled L'Esoterisme de Danté, in 1925. ISBN: 0-900588-02-0 * Works by Dante Alighieri at The Virtual Library (Works in English, Italian, Latin, Arabic, German, French and Spanish) The Dante Museum in Florence: his life, his books and a history & literature blog about Dante. The World of Dante multimedia, texts, maps, gallery, searchable database, music, teacher resources, timeline. The Princeton Dante Project texts and multimedia. The Dartmouth Dante Project searchable database of commentary.

Luminiferous aether

aetherluminiferous etherether
The New Student's Reference Work/Ether.


Pretending to be a spiritual guide, he had won over as devotees many simple-minded Indians and even some ignorant, stupid Muslims by broadcasting his claims to be a saint. [...] When Khusraw stopped at his residence, [Arjan] came out and had an interview with [Khusraw]. Giving him some elementary spiritual precepts picked up here and there, he made a mark with saffron on his forehead, which is called qashqa in the idiom of the Hindus and which they consider lucky. [...]" - Emperor Jahangir During the colonial era, the term Hindu had connotations of native religions of India, that is religions other than Christianity and Islam.


Jon Kabat-Zinn, who founded the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program in 1979, has defined mindfulness as 'moment to moment non-judgmental awareness.' Several methods are used during time set aside specifically for mindfulness meditation, such as body scan techniques or letting thought arise and pass, and also during our daily lives, such as being aware of the taste and texture of the food that we eat. Some studies offer evidence that mindfulness practices are beneficial for the brain's self-regulation by increasing activity in the anterior cingulate cortex.


imaginativeimaginaryimaginative faculty
The concept of "the mind's eye" first appeared in English in Chaucer's (c.1387) Man of Law's Tale in his Canterbury Tales, where he tells us that one of the three men dwelling in a castle was blind, and could only see with "the eyes of his mind"; namely, those eyes "with which all men see after they have become blind". The common use of the term is for the process of forming new images in the mind that have not been previously experienced with the help of what has been seen, heard, or felt before, or at least only partially or in different combinations.


Brooks around 1912 in a book called Neo Theosophy Exposed, the second part of an earlier book called The Theosophical Society and its Esoteric Bogeydom. Around 1924, Margaret Thomas published a book called Theosophy Versus Neo-Theosophy. This book, now available online, presents a detailed critical comparison of Blavatskyian Theosophy and Neo-Theosophy. G. R. S. Mead who was also highly critical of the clairvoyant researches of Besant and Leadbeater, remaining loyal to Blavatskyian Theosophy, also used the term Neo-Theosophy to refer to Besant's movement. For him "Theosophy" meant the wisdom element in the great world religions and philosophies.

Meher Baba

AvatarAvatar Meher BabaAvatar Meher Baba Perpetual Public Charitable Trust
Meher Baba (born Merwan Sheriar Irani; 25 February 1894 – 31 January 1969) was an Indian spiritual master who said he was the Avatar, God in human form.

Walter John Kilner

Kilner screensWalter Kilner
These findings did not prevent the marketing of Kilner goggles, advertisements for which appeared in Esoteric periodicals as late as the 1970s." Skeptical investigator Joe Nickell has described Kilner's research as pseudoscience, noting that he "uncritically accepted the validity of non-existent N-rays and clairvoyant powers." * The Human Atmosphere (1911) Aura (paranormal). L-field of Harold Saxton Burr. Kirlian Photography. Morphogenetic field of biologist Rupert Sheldrake. Orgone energy of Wilhelm Reich. Prana in Ayurveda and Yoga. Qi or ch'i or ki in several Asian cultures, especially Chinese. Vitalism.


The word "hallucination" itself was introduced into the English language by the 17th-century physician Sir Thomas Browne in 1646 from the derivation of the Latin word alucinari meaning to wander in the mind. For Browne, hallucination means a sort of vision that is "depraved and receive[s] its objects erroneously". Hallucinations may be manifested in a variety of forms. Various forms of hallucinations affect different senses, sometimes occurring simultaneously, creating multiple sensory hallucinations for those experiencing them. A visual hallucination is "the perception of an external visual stimulus where none exists".


Skt.classical SanskritSanskrit language
"True Words") sect of esoteric Buddhism has been relying on Sanskrit and original Sanskrit mantras and writings, as a means of realizing Buddhahood. According to the 2001 census of India, 14,135 people who had said Sanskrit was their mother tongue.It increased to 24,821 people in the 2011 census of India.Sanskrit has experienced a recorded a growth of over 70 per cent in one decade.However, Sanskrit speakers still accounts for just 0.00198 per cent of India's total population. Acvording to the 2011 census of Nepal,there are 1,699 Sanskrit speakers in Nepal.