Big-box store

big boxsuperstorebig-box
Many configurations exist: the hypermarket that sells many kinds of goods under one roof (like French chains Carrefour, Auchan, and E.Leclerc), most of which are integrated within a shopping mall; the supermarket that is a smaller version of a hypermarket; the market located in city centres; the department store, which first appeared in Paris, then opened in other parts of the world; the "category killer" superstore that mainly sells goods in a particular domain (automotive, electronics, home furniture, etc.); and the warehouse store. India is currently going through a retail revolution, following the introduction of Big Bazaar in 2001.


retailerretail storeshop
;Hypermarkets A hypermarket (also known as hypermart) provides variety and huge volumes of exclusive merchandise at low margins. The operating cost is comparatively less than other retail formats; may be defined as "a combined supermarket and discount store, at least 200000 sqft or larger, that sells a wide variety of food and general merchandise at a low price." ;Mall A mall has a range of retail shops at a single building or outlet, arranged on a single level or multiple levels. A shopping mall typically includes one or more anchor stores. The retail mix in a mall may include outlets such as food and entertainment, grocery, electronics, furniture, gifts and fashion.

Merry Hill Shopping Centre

Merry HillMerry Hill CentreWestfield Merry Hill
In November of that year, the Richardson twins announced plans to expand Merry Hill into a large indoor shopping centre to rival the recently completed developments at Telford in Shropshire and Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire, with a view to completing the development by 1990. The building contract for the shopping malls was let to Tarmac Construction. The first shopping centre and a second phase of the retail park (including Halfords and B&Q which is now Toys R Us) opened in April 1986 (incorporating the Carrefour hypermarket which opened on 1 July that year).

Northland Center

Northland MallNorthland Shopping CenterNorthland
In 1948, architect Victor Gruen convinced Hudson's, then reluctant to build branch stores, to take advantage of suburban growth by constructing a ring of four shopping centers surrounding the city of Detroit. Of the four – Eastland Center, Southland Center, and Westland Center were the others – Northland was the first to be built. These malls encircle Detroit's inner-ring of suburbs. At the time, Northland Center was the world's largest shopping center. Northland Center became the first major postwar development in suburban Detroit and was the first of many forays into the suburbs by Hudson's. Some $30,000,000 was invested in constructing the facility.

Bellevue, Washington

BellevueBellevue, WACity of Bellevue
Reflective of Bellevue's growth over the years is Bellevue Square, now one of the largest shopping centers in the region. Opened in 1946, the mall underwent a significant expansion in the 1980s. More recently, an expansion along Bellevue Way called "The Lodge" and the new One Lincoln Tower promise to strengthen downtown Bellevue's role as the largest Seattle Eastside shopping and dining destination. The city's long-term plans include the Bel-Red Corridor Project, a large-scale planning effort to encourage the redevelopment of a large northern section of the city bordering the adjacent town of Redmond which is a major employment area in the city.


supermarketssupermarket chainGrocery Store
Supermarkets proliferated across Canada and the United States with the growth of automobile ownership and suburban development after World War II. Most North American supermarkets are located in suburban strip shopping centers as an anchor store along. They are generally regional rather than national in their company branding. Kroger is perhaps the most nationally oriented supermarket chain in the United States but it has preserved most of its regional brands, including Ralphs, City Market, King Soopers, Fry's, Smith's, and QFC.

Valley Fair Shopping Center

The Valley Fair Shopping Center, Valley Fair Mall, or Valley Fair Center was a shopping mall in Appleton, in the U.S. state of Wisconsin that opened on March 10, 1955. The mall billed itself as the first enclosed mall in the United States. Demolition of parts of the shopping center began on August 8, 2007. Construction on Valley Fair began on July 1, 1953. It was located in the town of Menasha, Wisconsin until the land on which it stood was annexed to Appleton.

Grocery store

List of hypermarkets. List of online grocers. List of supermarket chains. List of superstores. Self-service. Vegetable box scheme.

Department store

department storesdepartment-storedepartment
It was the largest suburban shopping center in the world, and quickly became the main shopping destination for northern and western Detroit, and for much of the suburbs. By 1961 the downtown skyscraper accounted for only half of Hudson's sales; it closed in 1983. The Northland Center Hudson's, rebranded Macy's in 2006 following acquisition by Federated Department Stores, was closed along with the remaining stores in the center in March 2015 due to the center's high storefront vacancy, decaying infrastructure, and financial mismanagement. In 1969 Hudson's merged with the Dayton's to create Dayton-Hudson Corporation headquartered in Minneapolis.

List of hypermarkets

List of hypermarkets in MalaysiaList of hypermarkets in the United StatesList of hypermarkets in the Netherlands
Kaufland are planning to open two hypermarkets in 2019 one in forestville south Australia and one in Dandenong in Victoria. Pick 'n Pay Hypermarket (changed to a separate Coles and a Kmart supermarket; in the Aspley Hypermarket Shopping Centre). Carrefour. Coto. Dia. Hipermercados Jumbo. Walmart. Bompreço. Carrefour. CompreBem. Extra Hipermercados. Pão de açúcar. Sendas. Wal-Mart. Jumbo. Líder. Tottus. Éxito. Jumbo. Carrefour. Géant Casino. Plaza Vea (Intercorp). Tottus (Falabella). Vivanda (Intercorp). Wong (Metro). Big-box store. List of superstores. List of supermarket chains.

Automobile dependency

car dependencycar dependenceautomobile dependence
Open air shopping streets are replaced by enclosed shopping malls. Walk-in banks and fast-food stores are replaced by drive-in versions of themselves that are inconveniently located for pedestrians. Town centres with a mixture of commercial, retail and entertainment functions are replaced by single-function business parks, 'category-killer' retail boxes and 'multiplex' entertainment complexes, each surrounded by large tracts of parking. These kinds of environments require automobiles to access them, thus inducing even more traffic onto the increased roadspace. This results in congestion, and the cycle above continues.

Main Street

main shopping streetMain Street Programmain drag
Individual city governments also may engage in revitalisation or historic preservation efforts to support a downtown core, either to make a community appear more attractive for tourism or to stem a flow of commerce out of the city into suburbs with shopping malls and cookie-cutter big box stores. In the United States federal funds are allocated specifically for restoration of historic properties on the former U.S. Route 66, the main street of many roadside towns; this funding is administered by the US National Park Service. *Davies, Richard et al., eds.

Strip mall

strip mallsshopping centershopping centers
A strip mall (also called a shopping plaza, shopping center, or mini-mall) is an open-air shopping mall where the stores are arranged in a row, with a sidewalk in front. Strip malls are typically developed as a unit and have large parking lots in front. They face major traffic arterials and tend to be self-contained with few pedestrian connections to surrounding neighborhoods. In the United States and Canada, strip malls usually range in size from 5000 sqft to over 100000 sqft. The smaller variety is more common and often located at the intersection of major streets in residential areas; it caters to a small residential area.


downtown areadown towncommercial area
This has been attributed to reasons such as slum clearance, construction of the Interstate Highway System, and white flight from urban cores to rapidly expanding suburbs. Due to well-intended but ineptly executed urban revitalization projects, downtowns eventually came to be dominated by high-rise office buildings in which commuters from the suburbs filled white-collar jobs, while the remaining residential populations sank further into unemployment, poverty, and homelessness. By the 1990s, many office-oriented businesses began to abandon the tired old downtowns for the suburbs, resulting in what are now known as "edge cities".

Salt Lake City

Salt Lake City, UtahSalt Lake City, UTSalt Lake
Salt Lake City is also home to a few major shopping centers. Trolley Square is an indoor and outdoor mall with many independent art boutiques, restaurants, and national retailers. The buildings housing the shops are renovated trolley barns with cobblestone streets. The Gateway, an outdoor shopping mall, has many national restaurants, clothing retailers, a movie theater, the Clark Planetarium, the Discovery Gateway (formerly The Children's Museum of Utah), a music venue called The Depot, and the Olympic Legacy Plaza. City Creek Center is the city's newest major shopping center and features many high-end retailers not found anywhere else in Utah.

New York City

New YorkNew York, New YorkNew York City, New York
Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs. The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the city and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.


Suburb. The Sprawl. Transborder agglomeration. Urban area. Urban sprawl. Patrick Geddes – |"Cities In Evolution". Edward Soja – "Postmetropolis".

List of shopping malls in New Jersey

shopping malls in New Jerseyshopping mall in New Jerseysecond-largest mall in the state
Shopping malls in New Jersey have played a major role in shaping the suburban landscape of the state following World War II. New Jersey, the most densely populated state in the United States, and in the suburban sphere of influence of both New York City and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has a comparatively large number of notable malls throughout the state. Paramus, in Bergen County, is one of the largest shopping meccas in the country, with its four major shopping malls accounting for a significant proportion of the over $5 billion in annual retail sales generated in the borough, more than any other ZIP Code in the United States.

Old Chicago

Old Chicago was a combination shopping mall and indoor amusement park that existed in the Chicago suburb of Bolingbrook, Illinois, from 1975 until 1980. It was billed as "The world's first indoor amusement park", and it was intended to draw visitors all year round, rain or shine. It opened to great fanfare and over 15,000 visitors on June 17, 1975, with an enormous building that housed major rides, such as two roller coasters and a Ferris wheel, as well as a turn-of-the-century themed shopping mall. However, only six months after opening, the complex ran into financial troubles due to construction cost overruns.

Compass One

Compass One Shopping CentreCompass Point
The shopping centre was the first major mall to open on the North East Line. Before the renovation works, the mall was Singapore's first thematic suburban shopping mall based on the theme of learning. Educational panels and informative posters are mounted on railings and walls, which feature interesting trivia based on particular themes updated periodically. After getting feedback from the public and commissioning a survey of residents in the area, conducted by international property adviser DTZ Debenham Tie Leung Limited, the mall's developer, Centrepoint Properties, proposed the learning theme for the shopping mall to cater to the predominantly young families of Sengkang New Town.

Lakehurst Mall

Lakehurst Mall was the first regional shopping complex in the northern Chicago suburb of Waukegan. The mall officially opened in 1971. It was built to service the growing town of Waukegan, the Great Lakes Naval Training Center, and the northern suburban sprawl of Chicago. After several years of decline, Lakehurst closed in 2001, and was demolished in 2004. In December 1968, 200 acre of farmland close to the busy Tri-State Tollway was purchased from Thomas E. Wilson/Edellyn Farms for $2 million, and annexed into Waukegan, Illinois. Construction on the mall began about one year later, in September 1969.

Memorial Mall

Memorial Mall is a former indoor shopping mall located in Sheboygan, Wisconsin currently being redeveloped into a new form to be anchored by a new Meijer hypermarket. Opened in 1969, it currently features Kohl's, along with Bed Bath & Beyond and four other smaller stores. Originally a development of Melvin Simon & Associates (now Simon Property Group), the groundwork for Sheboygan County's first and only enclosed mall was laid in August 1968 with the construction of its first store, large 160,000 sq ft, two-floor J.C. Penney with an auto center as an out-parcel; when J.C.

J. C. Penney

Penney stores are located in suburban shopping malls. Before 1966, most of its stores were located in downtown areas. As shopping malls became more popular during the later half of the 20th century, J. C. Penney followed the trend by relocating and developing stores to anchor the malls. In more recent years, the chain has continued to follow consumer traffic, echoing the retailing trend of opening some freestanding stores, including some next door to competitors. Certain stores are located in power centers. The company has been an Internet retailer since 1998. It has streamlined its catalog and distribution while undergoing renovation improvements at store level.

Norgate shopping centre

Norgate shopping centre (French: Galeries Norgate) is a strip mall built in 1949, in the then-suburb of Saint-Laurent, Quebec, now the Saint-Laurent borough of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Norgate was the first shopping mall in Canada. The first covered mall, the Park Royal Shopping Centre, was built a year later in 1950 in West Vancouver. Norgate was built by the developer Maxwell Cummings. It is believed that the mall was financed and owned by the Lupovich family of Montreal. The late Moe and Sam Lupovich were successful owners of the Ideal Dress Company in Montreal. They were leaders in Canada's garment industry. The mall continues to be owned by the family to this day.