retailerretail storeshop
;Hypermarkets A hypermarket (also known as hypermart) provides variety and huge volumes of exclusive merchandise at low margins. The operating cost is comparatively less than other retail formats; may be defined as "a combined supermarket and discount store, at least 200000 sqft or larger, that sells a wide variety of food and general merchandise at a low price." ;Mall A mall has a range of retail shops at a single building or outlet, arranged on a single level or multiple levels. A shopping mall typically includes one or more anchor stores. The retail mix in a mall may include outlets such as food and entertainment, grocery, electronics, furniture, gifts and fashion.

Northland Center

Northland MallNorthland Shopping CenterNorthland
Hudson's—at its Downtown Detroit location on Woodward Avenue—grew to become the second largest department store (next to Macy's of New York City) in the United States. In 1948, architect Victor Gruen convinced Hudson's, then reluctant to build branch stores, to take advantage of suburban growth by constructing a ring of four shopping centers surrounding the city of Detroit. Of the four – Eastland Center, Southland Center, and Westland Center were the others – Northland was the first to be built. These malls encircle Detroit's inner-ring of suburbs. At the time, Northland Center was the world's largest shopping center.


supermarketssupermarket chainGrocery Store
Supermarkets proliferated across Canada and the United States with the growth of automobile ownership and suburban development after World War II. Most North American supermarkets are located in suburban strip shopping centers as an anchor store along. They are generally regional rather than national in their company branding. Kroger is perhaps the most nationally oriented supermarket chain in the United States but it has preserved most of its regional brands, including Ralphs, City Market, King Soopers, Fry's, Smith's, and QFC.

Hempstead (village), New York

HempsteadHempstead, New YorkHempstead, Long Island
Hempstead has developed into the most populous village in the state of New York, with a population in excess of 50,000 people. It is also the seat of government for the town of Hempstead, the largest minor civil division in the nation with over seven hundred thousand people. Hempstead is just as urban (at least with regard to population density and activity) as any major city. In stark contrast to the surrounding villages in the town and county, it is more densely populated than many American cities with exception to New York City, Long Beach, New York, Mount Vernon, New York, Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts, San Francisco, California, and Jersey City and Paterson, New Jersey.

Bergen County, New Jersey

Bergen CountyBergenBergen County, NJ
Westfield Garden State Plaza, Paramus, is one of the largest and highest revenue producing shopping malls in the United States. The Shops at Riverside, shopping mall, Hackensack (formerly known as Riverside Square Mall). Paramus Park, shopping mall, Paramus. The Outlets at Bergen Town Center, shopping mall, Paramus (formerly known as the Bergen Mall). Fashion Center, shopping mall, Paramus. H Mart, Asian shopping plaza and supermarket, Ridgefield. Mitsuwa Marketplace, Japanese shopping plaza and supermarket, Edgewater. American Dream Meadowlands, retail and entertainment complex under construction. The expected opening date will be March 2019. Ramapo Mountain State Forest, Mahwah.

United States

The world's first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City in 1894, using Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope. The next year saw the first commercial screening of a projected film, also in New York, and the United States was in the forefront of sound film's development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, although in the 21st century an increasing number of films are not made there, and film companies have been subject to the forces of globalization. Director D. W.

Urban area

Urbanurban agglomerationagglomeration
The largest urban area in the United States is the New York metropolitan area. The population of New York City, the core of the metropolitan area, exceeds 8.5 million people, its metropolitan statistical area has a population that is over 20 million, and its combined statistical area population is over 23 million. The next six largest urban areas in the U.S. are Los Angeles, Chicago, Miami, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Houston. About 82 percent of the population of the United States lives within the boundaries of an urbanized area as of December, 2010. Combined, these areas occupy about 2 percent of the land area of the United States.


downtown areadown towncommercial area
Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Financial District, New York City. Downtown Brooklyn, New York City. Downtown Minneapolis. Downtown Nashville. Downtown Oakland. Downtown Oklahoma City. Center City, Philadelphia. Downtown Phoenix. Downtown Portland. Downtown Raleigh. Downtown Sacramento. Downtown San Antonio. Downtown San Diego. Downtown San Francisco. Downtown San Jose. Downtown Seattle. Downtown Tucson. Downtown Tulsa. Downtown, Washington, D.C. Downtown Wichita. Downtown Calgary. Downtown Edmonton. Downtown Halifax. Downtown Montreal. Downtown Ottawa. Downtown St. John's. Downtown Toronto. Downtown Vancouver. Downtown Victoria. Downtown Winnipeg.


citiesUrbanCivil (City)
New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1994. ISBN: 0679754113. Levy, John M. (2017). Contemporary Urban Planning. 11th Edition. New York: Routledge (Taylor & Francis). Magnusson, Warren. Politics of Urbanism: Seeing like a city. London & New York: Routledge, 2011. ISBN: 978-0203808894. Marshall, John U. (1989). The Structure of Urban Systems. University of Toronto Press. ISBN: 978-0802067357. Marzluff, John M., Eric Schulenberger, Wilfried Endlicher, Marina Alberti, Gordon Bradley, Clre Ryan, Craig ZumBrunne, & Ute Simon (2008). Urban Ecology: An International Perspective on the Interaction Between Humans and Nature. New York: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN: 978-0387734125.

Big-box store

big boxsuperstorebig-box
Many configurations exist: the hypermarket that sells many kinds of goods under one roof (like French chains Carrefour, Auchan, and E.Leclerc), most of which are integrated within a shopping mall; the supermarket that is a smaller version of a hypermarket; the market located in city centres; the department store, which first appeared in Paris, then opened in other parts of the world; the "category killer" superstore that mainly sells goods in a particular domain (automotive, electronics, home furniture, etc.); and the warehouse store. India is currently going through a retail revolution, following the introduction of Big Bazaar in 2001.

Grid plan

street gridgrid patterngrid
Another well known grid plan is the plan for New York City formulated in the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, a proposal by the state legislature of New York for the development of most of Manhattan above Houston Street. Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, was planned under French-American architect Pierre Charles L'Enfant. Under the L'Enfant plan, the original District of Columbia was developed using a grid plan that is interrupted by diagonal avenues, most famously Pennsylvania Avenue. These diagonals are often connected by traffic circles, such as Dupont Circle and Washington Circle. As the city grew, the plan was duplicated to cover most of the remainder of the capital.

São Paulo

São Paulo, BrazilSao PauloSP
Because of the lack of department stores and multi-brand boutiques, shopping malls as well as the Jardins district, which is more or less the Brazilian's Rodeo Drive version, attract most of the world's luxurious brands. Most of the international luxury brands can be found in the Iguatemi, Cidade Jardim or JK shopping malls or on the streets of Oscar Freire, Lorena or Haddock Lobo in the Jardins district. They are home of brands such as Cartier, Chanel, Dior, Giorgio Armani, Gucci, Louis Vuitton, Marc Jacobs, Tiffany & Co.

List of shopping malls in New Jersey

shopping malls in New Jerseyshopping mall in New Jerseysecond-largest mall in the state
Shopping malls in New Jersey have played a major role in shaping the suburban landscape of the state following World War II. New Jersey, the most densely populated state in the United States, and in the suburban sphere of influence of both New York City and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has a comparatively large number of notable malls throughout the state. Paramus, in Bergen County, is one of the largest shopping meccas in the country, with its four major shopping malls accounting for a significant proportion of the over $5 billion in annual retail sales generated in the borough, more than any other ZIP Code in the United States.

J. C. Penney

Penney stores are located in suburban shopping malls. Before 1966, most of its stores were located in downtown areas. As shopping malls became more popular during the later half of the 20th century, J. C. Penney followed the trend by relocating and developing stores to anchor the malls. In more recent years, the chain has continued to follow consumer traffic, echoing the retailing trend of opening some freestanding stores, including some next door to competitors. Certain stores are located in power centers. The company has been an Internet retailer since 1998. It has streamlined its catalog and distribution while undergoing renovation improvements at store level.

Binghamton, New York

BinghamtonBinghamton, NYcity of Binghamton
New York State Route 17, the Southern Tier Expressway, is in the process of being upgraded to Interstate 86, and spans the southern border of New York, providing access to New York City, as well as to the western Southern Tier and Erie, Pennsylvania. Between 1953 and 1966, the state constructed an arterial system to alleviate traffic, which includes the Brandywine Highway (New York State Route 7), North Shore Drive (New York State Route 363), and the portion of the Vestal Parkway (New York State Route 434) within city limits. Other major thoroughfares in the city include Chenango Street, Main Street (New York State Route 17C), and Court/Front Streets (U.S. Route 11).

Suburban colonization

urban flightbegan moving out for the suburbsincreasing migration to the suburbs
This increases population drain to the suburbs as quality of life drops, but the increased population may then drive more people further out to the hinterlands which increases the political rewards (especially political donations from real estate developers building greenfield developments) for sprawl. In very extreme cases, where cities are unable to recover costs of serving a vast suburban hinterland and are politically controlled by a larger jurisdiction, such as Manhattan within New York State, cities may go bankrupt as New York City in fact did in the 1970s.

Los Angeles

Los Angeles, CaliforniaLos Angeles, CALA
(after New York) with 5,431,140 homes (4.956% of the U.S.), which is served by a wide variety of local AM and FM radio and television stations. Los Angeles and New York City are the only two media markets to have seven VHF allocations assigned to them. As part of the region's aforementioned creative industry, the Big Four major broadcast television networks, ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC, all have production facilities and offices throughout various areas of Los Angeles.

United Kingdom

London is one of the three "command centres" of the global economy (alongside New York City and Tokyo), it is the world's largest financial centre alongside New York, and it has the largest city GDP in Europe. Tourism is very important to the British economy; with over 27 million tourists arriving in 2004, the United Kingdom is ranked as the sixth major tourist destination in the world and London has the most international visitors of any city in the world. The creative industries accounted for 7% GVA in 2005 and grew at an average of 6% per annum between 1997 and 2005.

Marshall Field and Company Building

Marshall Field's State Streetlargest ChicagoMarshall Fields
After 1950, with the booming post-World War II economic/social climate with increasing suburban residential and commercial development, saw the construction of first "strip" shopping centers, followed by regional enclosed shopping malls along major thoroughfares and interstate highways such as the "Magnificent Mile" reduced the role of the "Loop"'s daily significance to many Chicagoans as downtown retail sales slipped and gradually additional business moved outward following first the streetcar lines and then the automobile.

The Chainsmokers

Paris, FranceParisCity of Paris
The Chainsmokers were re-formed as an EDM DJ duo in 2012 under the management of Adam Alpert in New York City. Pall, who had grown up DJing, was introduced to Taggart by Alpert, and had been working at an art gallery in Chelsea, Manhattan at the time. Pall attended New York University for art history and music business. Taggart had been attending Syracuse University and was interning at Interscope Records before the two met. He had taken an interest in DJing and released some original songs on the website SoundCloud.


MNState of MinnesotaMinnesota, USA
In the United States, the Twin Cities' number of theater seats per capita ranks behind only New York City; with some 2.3 million theater tickets sold annually. The Minnesota Fringe Festival is an annual celebration of theatre, dance, improvisation, puppetry, kids' shows, visual art, and musicals. The summer festival consists of over 800 performances over 11 days in Minneapolis, and is the largest non-juried performing arts festival in the United States. The rigors and rewards of pioneer life on the prairie are the subject of Giants in the Earth by Ole Rolvaag and the Little House series of children's books by Laura Ingalls Wilder.

Downtown St. Catharines

Like many downtowns in North America, the area experienced significant decline as shopping malls and power centres in the suburbs took over as major shopping destinations. Citizens of St. Catharines often complained of the lack of parking and inconveniences associated with one-way streets in the core. Today, the downtown is experiencing a modest turnaround thanks to public and private investment in the areas surrounding St. Paul and James Streets, as well as the former Lower Level Parking Lot. On April 3, 2006, St. Catharines City Council voted in favour of returning two-way traffic to the downtown core, at an anticipated cost of $2 million.


Chicago, IllinoisChicago, ILCity of Chicago
The services terminate in San Francisco, Washington, D.C., New York City, Indianapolis, New Orleans, Portland, Seattle, Milwaukee, Quincy, St. Louis, Carbondale, Boston, Grand Rapids, Port Huron, Pontiac, Los Angeles, and San Antonio. An attempt was made in the early 20th century to link Chicago with New York City via the Chicago – New York Electric Air Line Railroad. Parts of this were built, but it was never completed.

James Rouse

Jim Rouse
In 1958, Rouse built Harundale Mall in Glen Burnie, Maryland, the first enclosed shopping center east of the Mississippi River and the first built by a real estate developer. His company used the term "mall" to describe the development, which was an alternative to the more typical strip malls usually built in the suburbs (the "mall" in "strip mall" came into usage later, after the enclosed mall had been popularized by Rouse's company). Although many now attribute the rise of the shopping mall to the decline of the American downtown core, Rouse's focus at the time was on the introduction of malls as a form of town center for the suburbs.

Van Sweringen brothers

MantisOrisVan Sweringen
The station area was converted into a shopping mall known as Tower City Center, which opened in 1990. The fortunes of the Van Sweringens rose in the 1920s. By 1929, their holdings were valued at $3 billion, mostly as a result of the high valuation of stocks on the New York Stock Exchange. Their house of cards tumbled when the Great Depression began, causing the Van Sweringen companies to falter in the 1930s. While Shaker Heights rose to join the ranks of Beverly Hills and Wellesley, Massachusetts, the rail empire suffered financial difficulties. Loans were foreclosed upon and assets were sold to meet interest payments for their debts. M.J.