Baking

bakedbaked goodsbake
Eggs can also be used in baking to produce savoury or sweet dishes. In combination with dairy products especially cheese, they are often prepared as a dessert. For example, although a baked custard can be made using starch (in the form of flour, cornflour, arrowroot, or potato flour), the flavor of the dish is much more delicate if eggs are used as the thickening agent. Baked custards, such as crème caramel, are among the items that need protection from an oven's direct heat, and the bain-marie method serves this purpose. The cooking container is half submerged in water in another, larger one, so that the heat in the oven is more gently applied during the baking process.

Fermentation in food processing

fermentationfermentedferment
When studying the fermentation of sugar to alcohol by yeast, Pasteur concluded that the fermentation was catalyzed by a vital force, called "ferments", within the yeast cells. The "ferments" were thought to function only within living organisms. "Alcoholic fermentation is an act correlated with the life and organization of the yeast cells, not with the death or putrefaction of the cells", he wrote. Nevertheless, it was known that yeast extracts can ferment sugar even in the absence of living yeast cells.

Waffle

wafflesgaufreBrussels waffle
For the first time, partial measurements were given, sugar was used, and spices were added directly to the batter: ''Take grated white bread. Take with that the yolk of an egg and a spoonful of pot sugar or powdered sugar. Take with that half water and half wine, and ginger and cinnamon.'' Alternately attributed to the 16th and 17th centuries, Groote Wafelen from the Belgian Een Antwerps kookboek was published as the first recipe to use leavening (beer yeast): ''Take white flour, warm cream, fresh melted butter, yeast, and mix together until the flour is no longer visible. Then add ten or twelve egg yolks.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
It is abundant in cereals (wheat, maize, rice), potatoes, and processed food based on cereal flour, such as bread, pizza or pasta. Sugars appear in human diet mainly as table sugar (sucrose, extracted from sugarcane or sugar beets), lactose (abundant in milk), glucose and fructose, both of which occur naturally in honey, many fruits, and some vegetables. Table sugar, milk, or honey are often added to drinks and many prepared foods such as jam, biscuits and cakes. Cellulose, a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of all plants, is one of the main components of insoluble dietary fiber.

List of How It's Made episodes

How It's Made is a documentary television series that premiered on January 6, 2001 on the Discovery Channel (now known as Discovery Science in Canada, and Science in the UK and US.) The program is produced in the Canadian province of Quebec by Productions MAJ, Inc. and Productions MAJ 2. In the UK, it is broadcast on Discovery Channel, Quest, and DMAX.

Wacky cake

It is unique in that unlike most pastries and desserts, no eggs, butter or milk are used to make the cake batter. Wacky Cake may have been created as the result of rationing during World War II, when milk and eggs were scarce. Active ingredients in wacky cake include flour, sugar, cocoa powder, baking soda, vegetable oil, white vinegar, salt and vanilla extract. The eggless batter means that the structure of the cake is entirely supported by gluten, which is strengthened by the acidic vinegar and salt. Some recipes add brewed coffee as an additional ingredient. The cake may be topped with icing or confectioner's sugar, or even served plain.

Pastry

pastriespastry doughcrust
Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened. Sweetened pastries are often described as bakers' confectionery. The word "pastries" suggests many kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, sugar, milk, butter, shortening, baking powder, and eggs. Small tarts and other sweet baked products are called pastries. Common pastry dishes include pies, tarts, quiches, croissants, and pasties. The French word pâtisserie is also used in English (with or without the accent) for the same foods.

Pudding

puddingsBudyńbutterscotch pudding
The original pudding was formed by mixing various ingredients with a grain product or other binder such as butter, flour, cereal, eggs, and/or suet, resulting in a solid mass. These puddings are baked, steamed, or boiled. Depending on its ingredients, such a pudding may be served as a part of the main course or as a dessert. Steamed pies consisting of a filling completely enclosed by suet pastry are also known as puddings.

Dough

Unleavened doughYeast doughaiysh
Leavened or fermented doughs (generally made from grain cereals or legumes that are ground to produce flour, mixed with water and yeast) are used all over the world to make various breads. Salt, oils or fats, sugars or honey and sometimes milk or eggs are also common ingredients in bread dough. Commercial bread doughs may also include dough conditioners, a class of ingredients that aid in dough consistency and final product. Flatbreads such as pita, lafa, lavash, matzah or matzo, naan, roti, sangak, tortilla, and yufka are eaten around the world and are also made from dough. Some flatbreads, such as naan, use leavening agents; others, such as matzo, do not.

Staple food

staplestaplesstaple crop
Staple foods are derived either from vegetables or animal products, and common staples include cereals (such as rice, wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum), starchy tubers or root vegetables (such as potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, or taro), meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. Other staple foods include pulses (dried legumes), sago (derived from the pith of the sago palm tree), and fruits (such as breadfruit and plantains). Staple foods may also include (depending on the region): olive oil, coconut oil and sugar (e.g. from plantains).

Food

foodsfoodstufffood products
Artificial sweeteners such as sucralose are used to mimic the sugar molecule, creating the sensation of sweet, without the calories. Other types of sugar include raw sugar, which is known for its amber color, as it is unprocessed. As sugar is vital for energy and survival, the taste of sugar is pleasant. The stevia plant contains a compound known as steviol which, when extracted, has 300 times the sweetness of sugar while having minimal impact on blood sugar. Sourness is caused by the taste of acids, such as vinegar in alcoholic beverages. Sour foods include citrus, specifically lemons, limes, and to a lesser degree oranges.

Saturated fat

saturated fatty acidsaturatedsaturated fats
This also means that only single bonds (sigma bonds) will be present between adjacent carbon atoms of the tail. * Butyric acid with 4 carbon atoms (contained in butter). Lauric acid with 12 carbon atoms (contained in coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and breast milk). Myristic acid with 14 carbon atoms (contained in cow's milk and dairy products). Palmitic acid with 16 carbon atoms (contained in palm oil and meat). Stearic acid with 18 carbon atoms (also contained in meat and cocoa butter). List of saturated fatty acids. List of vegetable oils. Trans fat. Food groups. Food guide pyramid. Healthy diet. Diet and heart disease. Fast food. Junk food. Advanced glycation endproduct. ANGPTL4.

List of desserts

desserts
Modern cake, especially layer cakes, normally contain a combination of flour, sugar, eggs, and butter or oil, with some varieties also requiring liquid (typically milk or water) and leavening agents (such as yeast or baking powder). A'B'C'D'E'F'G'H'I'J'K'L'M'O'P'R'S'T'U* Upside-down cake WY* Yule log Z Confectionery is related to the food items that are rich in sugar and often referred to as a confection. Candy is a confection made from a concentrated solution of sugar in water, to which flavorings and colorants may be added.

Paska (bread)

PaskapascăPasca
Paska is made with milk, butter, eggs, flour, and sugar, except in Romania, where the recipe most commonly includes sweet cream, cottage cheese, and/or sour cream along with eggs, sugar, raisins, and rum. An egg and water mixture is used as a glaze. In Ukraine it is tradition to fill your easter basket (koshyk) with easter eggs (pysanky), easter bread (paska), sausage (kovbasa), butter, salt and other ceremonial foods on Easter Saturday. On Easter morning, after the liturgy and the blessing of the paska and other staples, everyone returns home to feast on the eggs, cold meats, and other goods that were blessed at church.

Vegetarian cuisine

vegetarianvegetarian foodvegetarian dish
For lacto-ovo vegetarianism (the most common type of vegetarianism in the Western world), eggs and dairy products, such as milk and cheese, are permitted. For lacto vegetarianism, the earliest known type of vegetarianism (recorded in India), dairy products, such as milk and cheese, are permitted. The strictest forms of vegetarianism are veganism and fruitarianism, which exclude all animal products, including dairy, honey, and some refined sugars if filtered and whitened with bone char. There are also partial vegetarians who do not eat meat but may eat fish.

List of snack foods

List of seed-based snacksList of seeds, nuts and fruit for snack
Confectionery is related to food items that are rich in sugar and often referred to as confections. Confectionery refers to the art of creating sugar based dessert forms, or subtleties (subtlety or sotelty), often with pastillage. * Tull, Anita (2012). Food Technology: An Introduction. Oxford University Press. Pages 40–41. ISBN: 0198328192 Apple. Banana. Banana boats – a traditional campfire treat consisting of a banana cut lengthwise and stuffed with marshmallow and chocolate, then wrapped in aluminium foil and cooked in the embers left over from a campfire. Carrot. Celery. Cherries. Crudités – platters of chopped vegetables usually served with dips. Dried apple – Czech snack "křížaly".

Allerheiligenstriezel

AllerseelenzopfStriezel
Its name means "All Saints' braid" in English and it consists of flour, eggs, yeast, shortening or butter, raisins, milk, salt, and decorating sugar or poppy seeds. Some regional variations also include rum or lemon juice. The word Strietzel is derived from Middle High German strutzel, strützel, in turn from Old High German struzzil. Its further origin is unclear. In Austria and Bavaria it is given to godchildren by their godfathers for All Saints' Day. This tradition has its origin in the ancient funeral cults in which mourning was expressed by a woman's cutting off her braided hair.

Danish pastry

DanishDanish pastriesFacturas
Danish pastry is made of yeast-leavened dough of wheat flour, milk, eggs, sugar, and large amounts of butter or margarine. A yeast dough is rolled out thinly, covered with thin slices of butter between the layers of dough, and then the dough is folded and rolled several times, creating 27 layers. If necessary, the dough is chilled between foldings to ease handling. The process of rolling, buttering, folding, and chilling is repeated multiple times to create a multilayered dough that becomes airy and crispy on the outside, but also rich and buttery.

Bread pudding

Black bread puddingBrødpuddingChocolate bread pudding
In Belgium, particularly Brussels, it is baked with brown sugar, cinnamon, old bread, and raisins or apple. In Canada, bread pudding is sometimes made with maple syrup. In Hong Kong, bread pudding is usually served with vanilla cream dressing. In Hungary, it is called 'Máglyarakás' which is baked with whipped egg whites on top of it. In Malaysia, bread pudding is eaten with custard sauce. In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, black bread is used to make "black bread pudding" (Schwarzbrotpudding). In Puerto Rico, bread pudding is soaked over night in coconut milk and served with a guava rum sauce.

Rice pudding

Arroz con lecheArroz docearroz con dulce
Arroz con leche (Mexican) with milk, cinnamon, sugar, egg yolk, vanilla, orange peel, raisins (soaked in sherry, rum or tequila); chocolate, butter, nutmeg, or lime zest may also be added. Arroz en leche (Guatemala) with milk, cinnamon, sugar, and vanilla; raisins may also be added. Rice pudding (Jamaican) with milk, egg yolk, allspice, sugar, raisins (soaked in rum), vanilla, butter, sometimes crushed meringue, toasted coconut flakes, cornstarch, and crushed pineapple can be added. Arroz con leche (Colombian) with milk, cream, sugar, coffee, raisins (soaked in rum or red wine), butter, vanilla, cinnamon, and cloves.

Dutch baby pancake

David Eyre's pancakeDutch BabyGerman pancake
It is made with eggs, flour, sugar and milk, and usually seasoned with vanilla and cinnamon, although occasionally fruit or another flavoring is also added. A basic batter incorporates a third of a cup of flour and a third of a cup of milk per egg. It is baked in a hot cast iron or metal pan and falls (deflates) soon after being removed from the oven. It is generally served with fresh squeezed lemon, butter, and powdered sugar, fruit toppings or syrup. It can be served for breakfast, brunch, lunch or dessert. Dutch baby pancakes are generally served immediately upon removal from the oven.

Shortcake

strawberry shortcakeStrawberry shortcake (dessert)strawberry shortcakes
Shortcake is typically made with flour, sugar, baking powder or soda, salt, butter, milk or cream, and sometimes eggs. The dry ingredients are blended, and then the butter is cut in until the mixture resembles cornmeal. The liquid ingredients are then mixed in just until moistened, resulting in a shortened dough. The dough is then dropped in spoonfuls onto a baking sheet, rolled and cut like baking powder biscuits, or poured into a cake pan, depending on how wet the dough is and the baker's preferences. Then it is baked at a relatively high temperature until set. Strawberry shortcake is a widely known dessert made with shortcake.

Nun's puffs

The dessert is made from butter, milk, flour, sugar, eggs, and sometimes honey. Recipes call for pan frying (traditionally in lard), re-frying and then baking, or baking straight away. The best-established recipes suggest cooking the butter, milk, and flour in a pan then adding the eggs (whites last) and sprinkling sugar on the mixture before baking. Choux paste is also cooked twice, to prepare the paste and to "transform it into puffs". It dates to medieval times and is a cross between a batter and a dough. A cream filling can also be inserted. The dessert has been described as "light tender morsels" that are "heavenly".

List of pastries

pastries
The classical period of ancient Greece and Rome had pastries made with almonds, flour, honey and seeds. The introduction of sugar into European cookery resulted in a large variety of new pastry recipes in France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. The greatest innovator was Marie-Antoine Carême who perfected puff pastry and developed elaborate designs of pâtisserie. Apfelküchle. Carolina. Chebakia. Coventry Godcakes. Gukhwappang. Osmanthus cake. Shorgoghal. Chinese bakery products. Cuisine. Global cuisine. List of baked goods. List of bread rolls. List of breads. List of buns. List of cakes. List of choux pastry dishes. List of desserts. List of doughnut varieties. List of hors d'oeuvre.

List of cakes

Erotic cakeQueen cakecake
The majority of the cakes contain some kind of flour, egg, and sugar, and these ingredients are not listed. Bustrengo. Cassava cake. Countess (cake). Krantz cake. Mango cake. Vanilla slice. Ube cake. Ul boov (Mongolia). Yema cake. List of baked goods. List of breads. List of buns. List of desserts. List of pancakes. List of pastries. Pop out cake.