Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint STARS

The Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS) is a United States Air Force airborne ground surveillance, battle management and command and control aircraft. It tracks ground vehicles and some aircraft, collects imagery, and relays tactical pictures to ground and air theater commanders. The aircraft is operated by both active duty Air Force and Air National Guard units and also carries specially trained U.S. Army personnel as additional flight crew. Joint STARS evolved from separate United States Army and Air Force programs to develop technology to detect, locate and attack enemy armor at ranges beyond the forward area of troops.

Raytheon Sentinel

Sentinel R1ASTORRaytheon Sentinel R.1
In 2010 the UK government's Strategic Defence and Security Review announced its intention to "withdraw the Sentinel airborne ground surveillance aircraft once it is no longer required to support operations in Afghanistan." Sentinel has supported the British Army in Afghanistan. Its role above Libya in 2011 was described as "pivotal" by the head of the RAF. In February 2012 it was announced that Sentinel would be offered as the UK contribution to NATO's Alliance Ground Surveillance (AGS) collaboration, complementing NATO RQ-4 Global Hawks and French Heron TPs.

Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk

RQ-4 Global HawkGlobal HawkRQ-4
Air Combat Command. 319th Reconnaissance Wing – Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. 319th Operations Group. 12th Reconnaissance Squadron - Beale Air Force Base, California. 348th Reconnaissance Squadron - Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. 7th Reconnaissance Squadron - Naval Air Station Sigonella, Italy. 319th OG Detachment 1 - Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. 53d Wing. 53d Test and Evaluation Group. 31st Test and Evaluation Squadron – Edwards Air Force Base, California.

Airborne early warning and control

AWACSairborne early warningAEW&C
AEW&C units are also used to carry out surveillance, including over ground targets and frequently perform C2BM (command and control, battle management) functions similar to an Air Traffic Controller given military command over other forces. When used at altitude, the radar on the aircraft allows the operators to detect and track targets and distinguish between friendly and hostile aircraft much farther away than a similar ground-based radar. Like a ground-based radar, it can be detected by opposing forces, but because of its mobility, it is much less vulnerable to counter-attack.


scoutscoutsreconnaissance in force
Force-oriented reconnaissance focuses on the enemy forces (number, equipment, activities, disposition etc.) and may include target acquisition. Civil-oriented reconnaissance focuses on the civil dimension of the battlespace (areas, structures, capabilities, organizations, people and events abbreviated ASCOPE). 1) mission. 2) enemy. 3) terrain. 4) troops and support available. 5) time available, and. 6) civil considerations. Special Reconnaissance. Espionage. Intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance. List of reconnaissance units. Pathfinder (military)—airborne pathfinders. Surveillance aircraft. U.S. military doctrine for reconnaissance.


electronic surveillancestakeoutmonitoring
Aerial surveillance is the gathering of surveillance, usually visual imagery or video, from an airborne vehicle—such as an unmanned aerial vehicle, helicopter, or spy plane. Military surveillance aircraft use a range of sensors (e.g. radar) to monitor the battlefield. Digital imaging technology, miniaturized computers, and numerous other technological advances over the past decade have contributed to rapid advances in aerial surveillance hardware such as micro-aerial vehicles, forward-looking infrared, and high-resolution imagery capable of identifying objects at extremely long distances.

Tethered Aerostat Radar System

tethered aerostat balloon radarFat AlbertTARS
The Tethered Aerostat Radar System (TARS) is an American low-level airborne ground surveillance system that uses aerostats (moored balloons) as radar platforms. Similar systems include the EL/M-2083 and JLENS. The aerostats are large fabric envelopes filled with helium, and can rise up to an altitude of 15000 ft while tethered by a single cable. The largest lifts a 1000 kg payload to an operating altitude providing low-level, downward-looking radar coverage.

Alliance Ground Surveillance

Alliance Ground Surveillance (AGS)
Initial operational capability was expected in the first half of 2020. * NATO Alliance Ground Surveillance Unmanned aerial vehicle. 12th Reconnaissance Squadron. 348th Reconnaissance Squadron.

Unmanned aerial vehicle

Aerial surveillance, filmmaking, journalism, scientific research, surveying, cargo transport, mining, Transmission and Distribution, Forestry and agriculture. Military:. Reconnaissance, attack, demining, and target practice. Eligible owners must register their UAVs prior to flight. Non-commercial flights are no longer subject to registration. If the owner is less than 13 years old, a parent or other responsible person must do the FAA registration. UAVs must be marked with the FAA-issued registration number. The registration fee is $5. The registration is good for 3 years and can be renewed for an additional 3 years at the $5 rate.

Bréguet 1150 Atlantic

Breguet AtlanticBreguet AtlantiqueAtlantique 2
During the deployment, the Atlantiques also served as Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms, being able to provide a sustained presence unlike alternatives such as the EADS Harfang unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In 2015, Atlantique-2s was deployed to Iraq at the beginning of Opération Chammal against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) forces, initially performing ISTAR and forward air control missions. On 19 August 2015, an Atlantique-2 flew a mission with two Mirage 2000s and dropped a GBU-12 on a command and control building, its first strike mission of the operation.

Target acquisition

acquiringre-acquisitiontarget acquisition and designation
Reconnaissance. Missile lock-on.


heavier-than-airheavier-than-air flightheavier-than-air aircraft
The fastest military airplane ever built: Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, a U.S. reconnaissance jet fixed-wing aircraft, known to fly beyond Mach 3.3 (about 2,200 mph at cruising altitude). On 28 July 1976, an SR-71 set the record for the fastest and highest-flying operational aircraft with an absolute speed record of 2,193 mph and an absolute altitude record of 85,068 feet. At its retirement in the January 1990, it was the fastest air-breathing aircraft / fastest jet aircraft in the world, a record still standing. Note: Some sources refer to the above-mentioned X-15 as the "fastest military airplane" because it was partly a project of the U.S.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
Fixed-wing aircraft were first used militarily by the Italians in Libya on 23 October 1911 during the Italo-Turkish War for reconnaissance, soon followed by the dropping of grenades and aerial photography the next year. By 1914, their military utility was obvious. They were initially used for reconnaissance and ground attack. To shoot down enemy planes, anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft were developed. Strategic bombers were created, principally by the Germans and British, though the former used Zeppelins as well.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
Aircraft were used for reconnaissance, as fighters, bombers, and ground-support, and each role was advanced considerably. Innovation included airlift (the capability to quickly move limited high-priority supplies, equipment, and personnel); and of strategic bombing (the bombing of enemy industrial and population centres to destroy the enemy's ability to wage war). Anti-aircraft weaponry also advanced, including defences such as radar and surface-to-air artillery. The use of the jet aircraft was pioneered and, though late introduction meant it had little impact, it led to jets becoming standard in air forces worldwide.

General Atomics MQ-1 Predator

MQ-1 PredatorPredatorPredator drone
Texas Air National Guard. 147th Reconnaissance Wing—Ellington Field. 111th Reconnaissance Squadron. California Air National Guard. 163d Reconnaissance Wing—March Joint Air Reserve Base. 196th Reconnaissance Squadron. North Dakota Air National Guard. 119th Fighter Wing—Hector International Airport. 178th Reconnaissance Squadron. Arizona Air National Guard. 214th Reconnaissance Group—Davis-Monthan Air Force Base. 214th Reconnaissance Squadron. Air Force Reserve Command. 919th Special Operations Wing—Duke Field. 2d Special Operations Squadron-GSU at Hurlburt Field. Central Intelligence Agency. Special Operations Group in Langley, VA.

Military intelligence

intelligenceNaval Intelligenceintelligence officer
. • Admiralty code • Aesopian language • Battlespace • Classified information • Company Level Intelligence Cell • Counterintelligence • Cultural intelligence • Cryptography • Disinformation • Edmund Charaszkiewicz • Electronic warfare • Espionage • Fog of war • Intelligence (information gathering) • Intelligence gathering network • Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, and Reconnaissance • Intelligence outsourcing • Interrogation • Medical intelligence • Meteorological intelligence • Military secrets • Reconnaissance • Scenario planning • Spy satellite • Strategic intelligence • Tactical Ground Intercept Facility • Technical intelligence * Creating Intelligence, Neil Garra.

Signals intelligence

SIGINTELINTelectronic intelligence
Radio Reconnaissance Platoon. RAF Intelligence. Signals intelligence by alliances, nations and industries. Signals intelligence operational platforms by nation for current collection systems. TEMPEST. US signals intelligence in the Cold War. Venona. Zircon satellite. Bamford, James, Body of Secrets: How America's NSA and Britain's GCHQ eavesdrop on the world (Century, London, 2001) ISBN: 978-0-7126-7598-7. West, Nigel, The SIGINT Secrets: The Signals Intelligence War, 1900 to Today (William Morrow, New York, 1988). West, Nigel, The SIGINT Secrets: The Signals Intelligence War, 1900 to Today (William Morrow, New York, 1988).

United States Army

U.S. ArmyUS ArmyArmy
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed (14 June 1775) to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army.

Royal Air Force

No. 1 Group (Air Combat): controls the fast-jet force and the RAF's intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance (ISTAR) capabilities, as well as the following stations: RAF Coningsby, RAF Lossiemouth, RAF Marham, and RAF Waddington. No. 2 Group (Air Combat Support): controls the Air Mobility aircraft and the RAF's Force Protection assets as well as the following stations: RAF Benson, RAF Brize Norton, RAF Odiham and RAF Northolt. No. 11 Group (Multi-domain operations group): will lead air and space operations and command of the following air stations: RAF Boulmer, RAF Fylingdales, RAF Scampton, RAF Spadeadam.

Border guard

border patrolborder guardsborder police
The Border Patrol Police is Thailand's police force responsible for border security and counter-insurgency, and operates as the law-enforcement arm in conjunction with Thahan Phran, the ranger paramilitary arm of the Royal Thai Army. Border guard services are provided by the Border Force. The agency is responsible for visa controls, passport checks and customs enforcement at ports of entry into the UK, criminal cases. The UK's only land border, that with the Republic of Ireland, is not regularly patrolled by the UKBA, but is the responsibility of the Police Service of Northern Ireland. In the United States, border control is the responsibility of the Department of Homeland Security.


State of IsraelIsraeliISR
Since the Yom Kippur War, Israel has developed a network of reconnaissance satellites. The success of the Ofeq program has made Israel one of seven countries capable of launching such satellites. Israel is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons as well as chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. Israel has not signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and maintains a policy of deliberate ambiguity toward its nuclear capabilities. The Israeli Navy's Dolphin submarines are believed to be armed with nuclear Popeye Turbo missiles, offering second-strike capability.

Beechcraft C-12 Huron

C-12 HuronC-12MC-12W
For that variant, Beechcraft built the basic plane and then sent it to Greenville, Texas where sophisticated intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) equipment was installed by L-3 Communications Missions Integration. As of 2013 the Liberty program had exceeded 300,000 combat flying hours. The MC-12W was rushed into combat as a supplemental surveillance and signals intelligence asset; since its first combat mission on 10 June 2009, the aircraft flew 400,000 combat hours in 79,000 combat sorties, aiding in the kill or capture of "more than 8,000 terrorists" and uncovering 650 weapons caches.


Erieye radarSaab 2000 ErieyeErieye Ground Interface Segment
. 🇹🇭 Thailand. Royal Thai Air Force — Saab 340. United Arab Emirates Air Force — Saab 340, Global 6000. Royal Thai Air Force — Saab 340. United Arab Emirates Air Force — Saab 340, Global 6000. Embraer E-99 (EMB-145). Globaleye, AEW&C solution on the Bombardier Global 6000. Saab 340 AEW&C. Saab 2000. Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner (trials).

Beechcraft Super King Air

Super King AirBeechcraft King Air 200Beechcraft Super King Air 200
Mk 1 in RAF service) equipped for intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance (ISTAR) missions over Afghanistan were originally were ordered for the RAF and later increased to six in July 2013. Four more King Air 350s replaced the Royal Navy's Jetstream T2 observer trainers in 2011 and were designated Avenger T. Mk1. On October 3, 2018 the US State Department approved the possible Foreign Military Sale of three King Air 350ERs to the Government of Canada for an estimated cost of US$300 million.

L3 Technologies

L-3 CommunicationsL3 CommunicationsL-3
L3 Technologies, formerly L-3 Communications Holdings, was an American company that supplied command and control, communications, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C3ISR) systems and products, avionics, ocean products, training devices and services, instrumentation, aerospace, and navigation products. Its customers included the Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security, United States Intelligence Community, NASA, aerospace contractors, and commercial telecommunications and wireless customers. In 2019, it merged with Harris Corporation and was renamed to L3Harris Technologies. L3 was headquartered in Murray Hill, Manhattan, New York City.