Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes

Southern CheyenneSouthern ArapahoCheyenne-Arapaho
Suzan Shown Harjo, Cheyenne-Muscogee Creek Activist, policymaker, journalist, and poet. Viola Hatch, activist, policymaker, tribal elder, past tribal chairperson. Edgar Heap of Birds (Southern Cheyenne), artist and educator. Lance Henson, poet. Yvonne Kauger, Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice. Merlin Little Thunder, Southern Cheyenne artist, noted for development of miniature paintings. Chief Niwot, traditional Arapaho chief. Chief Little Raven, historic Arapaho chief and signer of 1867 Medicine Lodge Treaty. St. David Pendleton Oakerhater (Southern Cheyenne), Episcopal saint, deacon, warrior, and artist. Harvey Pratt (Cheyenne-Arapaho), artist, peace chief.

Beggs, Oklahoma

Suzan Shown Harjo, advocate for Native Americans. Don Owen, Louisiana broadcast journalist and politician was born in Beggs in 1930. Dan Rowan, best known for playing the straight man to Dick Martin on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In. Alvin "Pooh" Williamson (born September 5, 1973) is a former college basketball player who is currently an assistant coach at the University of Miami. Rodney Tate (born February 14, 1959) - NFL RB 1982-1984 for Cincinnati Bengals and Atlanta Falcons. ( He played college Football for University of Texas and was part of the Beggs State Championship team in 1975.

Muscogee (Creek) Nation

Creek NationMuscogee Creek NationCreek
Suzan Shown Harjo, activist, poet, writer, helped gain legislation for religious freedom, repatriation of American Indian remains and artifacts, and authorization for the National Museum of the American Indian. Joan Hill (b. 1930), painter. Isparhecher (1829-1902), political activist, traditionalist leader. Jack Jacobs (1919-1974), football player. William Harjo LoneFight (b. 1966), author, President of Native American Services, languages and cultural activist. Alexander McGillivray (Hoboi-Hili-Miko 1750-1793), principal chief of the Upper Creek towns. William McIntosh (1775-1825), Creek chief prior to removing to Indian Territory after the Creek War.

Ward Churchill

Churchill, WardPacifism as Pathology: Notes on an American Pseudopraxisa controversy
Some of Churchill's Native American critics, such as Vernon Bellecourt (White Earth Ojibwe) and Suzan Shown Harjo (Southern Cheyenne-Muscogee Creek), argue that his assertion of Native American ancestry without the ability to prove it might constitute misrepresentation and grounds for termination. The University has said that it does not hire on the basis of ethnicity. The University of Colorado's Research Misconduct Committee conducted a preliminary investigation into whether Churchill misrepresented his ethnicity to "add credibility and public acceptance to his scholarship."

Native American studies

American Indian StudiesNative StudiesFirst Nations Studies
Wíčazo Ša Review. Taiaiake Alfred (Kanien’kehaka/Kahnawake Mohawk). Paula Gunn Allen (Laguna Pueblo-Sioux). Greg Cajete (Santa Clara Pueblo). Dean Chavers (Lumbee). Allison Hedge Coke (Huron-Muscogee Creek-Cherokee). Elizabeth Cook-Lynn (Crow Creek Sioux). Philip Deloria (Standing Rock Sioux). Vine Deloria, Jr. (Standing Rock Sioux). Raymond DeMallie. Jack D. Forbes (Powhatan-Renape-Lenape). Daniel Heath Justice (Cherokee Nation). Trudie Lamb-Richmond (Schaghticoke). Stacy Leeds (Cherokee Nation). Devon A. Mihesuah (Choctaw). Lorin Morgan-Richards. Simon J. Ortiz (Acoma Pueblo). Luana Ross (Flathead Nation). Greg Sarris (Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria). James Thomas Stevens (Mohawk).

National Congress of American Indians

NCAINational Congress of American Indian’The National Congress of American Indians
Susan Shown Harjo, Executive Director (1984–1989). J. B. Milam: founding member. Ira Hayes: American hero during the battle of Iwo Jima, and also made a speech in the congress. Nipo T. Strongheart performer-lecture and technical advisor on several Hollywood films involving Native Americans and a cofounder. Napoleon B. Johnson, Cherokee (1944–1952). Joseph R. Garry, Coeur D'Alene (1953–1959). Walter Wetzel, Blackfeet (1960–1964). Clarence Wesley, San Carlos Apache (1965–1966). Wendell Chino, Mescalero Apache (1967–1968). Earl Old Person, Blackfeet (1969–1970). Leon F. Cook, Red Lake Chippewa (1971–1972). Mel Tonasket, Colville (1973–1976). Veronica Homer Murdock, Mohave (1977–1978).

El Reno, Oklahoma

El RenoSouthern El RenoDarlington
Suzan Shown Harjo, advocate for American Indian rights (b. 1945). National Register of Historic Places. Carnegie Library. El Reno High School. Mennoville Mennonite Church. City of El Reno. El Reno Tribune. Legends of America. "El Reno", Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture.

Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Ass'n

Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective AssociationLying v. Northwest Indian CPALyng v Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association
Suzan Shown Harjo, a Cheyenne-Muskogee writer and activist who influenced the drafting of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA) of 1978, called Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association a "stunning defeat" for the Native American cause. In a twenty-five-year retrospective of AIRFA, published in 2004, she described how the Lyng decision galvanized Native American activists to press for other claims, for example in fishing rights, and how it helped to inspire efforts towards the "repatriation" of Native American cultural materials while contributing to the establishment of the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian. * Canby, William C. Jr. (2004).

Elizabeth Cook-Lynn

Elizabeth Cook-Lynn co-founded Wíčazo Ša Review ("Red Pencil"), an academic journal devoted to the development of Native American studies as an academic discipline, in 1985. The other founding editors were Beatrice Medicine, Roger Buffalohead, and William Willard. Cook-Lynn's career also included teaching and writing. She taught at multiple high schools in New Mexico and South Dakota, and has been a visiting professor at UC Davis. Most notably, Cook-Lynn served as a professor of English and Native Studies at Eastern Washington University. She retired from this position in 1971, and became Professor Emerita in 1990.

Pro-Football, Inc. v. Harjo

Harjo et al v. Pro Football, Inc.
In 1992, activist Suzan Harjo led seven Native Americans in petitioning the TTAB to cancel six trademark registrations owned by Pro-Football, Inc., the corporate entity that operates the Washington Redskins. The TTAB granted the petition, and the owner appealed to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, which overturned the cancellation on two grounds.

National Museum of the American Indian

Smithsonian National Museum of the American IndianMuseum of the American IndianMuseum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation
In 2014 NMAI opened a new exhibition Nation to Nation: Treaties, curated by Indian rights activist Suzan Shown Harjo. The exhibit is built around the Two Row Wampum Treaty, known from both Indian oral tradition and a written document that some believe is a modern forgery. Museum reviewer Diana Muir Appelbaum has said that "There is no evidence that there ever was a 1613 treaty" and describes NMAI as "a museum that peddles fairy tales." The National Museum of the American Indian has been criticized occasionally for a perceived disjointedness of its exhibits. Two Washington Post reviews on the museum were hostile at the representation of the American Indian.


CheyennesCheyenne IndiansCheyenne people
Suzan Shown Harjo, Southern Cheyenne and Muscogee (Creek), Founding Trustee, Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian; President, Morning Star Institute (a Native rights advocacy organization based in Washington DC). Eugene Little Coyote, Northern Cheyenne, former president of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation. St. David Pendleton Oakerhater, Okuhhatuh or "Making Medicine," Southern Cheyenne (1847–1931), veteran of the Red River War, Fort Marion prisoner of war, ledger artist, deacon of Whirlwind Mission, sun dancer, canonized saint in the Episcopal Church.

University of Minnesota Press

University of Minnesota Press (US)University of MN Press
Wíčazo Ša Review. Partner Presses, Oxford Scholarship Online. Theory and History of Literature.

First American Art Magazine

Suzan Shown Harjo, Hon.DFA (Cheyenne/Muscogee). Thollem McDonas. Mary Jo Watson, PhD (Seminole). "FIRST AMERICAN ART Celebrates Indigenous Art and Artists", by Dawn Karima, "CN citizen launches ‘First American Art Magazine’", ''Cherokee Phoenix]]. "Bringing Fresh Art and Native History to the People", by Jason Asenap, Indian Country Today Media Network.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii and territories of the United States. More than 570 federally recognized tribes live within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaskan Natives, while "Native Americans" (as defined by the US Census) are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. The US Census does not include Native Hawaiians or Chamorro, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".

Jimmy Carter

CarterPresident CarterPresident Jimmy Carter
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as a Georgia State Senator from 1963 to 1967 and as the 76th Governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975. Since leaving the presidency, Carter has remained active in the private sector; in 2002, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in co-founding the Carter Center.

Lakota language

LakotaLakhotaStandard Lakota Orthography
Lakota (Lakȟótiyapi), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes. Though generally taught and considered by speakers as a separate language, Lakota is mutually intelligible with the other two languages (such as Dakota language), and is considered by most linguists as one of the three major varieties of the Sioux language. Speakers of the Lakota language make up one of the largest Native American language speech communities in the United States, with approximately 2,000 speakers, who live mostly in the northern plains states of North Dakota and South Dakota.

National Council of American Indians

The National Council of American Indians was established in February 1926. The beginnings of inquiry about this council began with Zitkála-Šá (also known as Gertrude Bonnin) and Theodora Cunningham on March 1, 1926. This organization's purpose was to advocate for Native American rights and representation before the United States government. The National Council of American Indians focused on the Legislative Branch and their Congressional bills. The council's initial concerns included the H.R. 7826; a bill that would give Congress the power to jail any Indian for six months without trial or any court review.

United States Patent and Trademark Office

U.S. Patent and Trademark OfficeUSPTOU.S. Patent Office
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.

Washington Redskins

Boston RedskinsRedskinsWashington
The Washington Redskins are a professional American football team based in the Washington metropolitan area. They compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member of the National Football Conference (NFC) East division. The team plays its home games at FedExField in Landover, Maryland; its headquarters and training facility are at Inova Sports Performance Center at Redskins Park in Ashburn, Virginia and the Redskins Complex in Richmond, Virginia, respectively.

Presidential Medal of Freedom

Medal of FreedomCongressional Medal of FreedomUnited States Medal of Freedom
The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the president of the United States. The Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal are the highest civilian awards of the United States. The presidential medal seeks to recognize those people who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors". The award is not limited to U.S. citizens and, while it is a civilian award, it can also be awarded to military personnel and worn on the uniform.

Peer review

peer-reviewedpeer-reviewpeer reviewed
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competences as the producers of the work (peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are used to maintain quality standards, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is often used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, e.g., medical peer review.


Naples, ItalyNapoliNeapolitan
Naples (Napoli ; Napule ) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents. Its continuously built-up metropolitan area (that stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Naples) is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe.

United States Army

U.S. ArmyUS ArmyArmy
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed (14 June 1775) to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army.