Taboo

taboossexual tabooimpolite
Tabu itself has been derived from alleged Tongan morphemes ta ("mark") and bu ("especially"), but this may be a folk etymology (Tongan does not actually have a phoneme /b/), and tapu is usually treated as a unitary, non-compound word inherited from Proto-Polynesian *tapu, in turn inherited from Proto-Oceanic *tabu, with the reconstructed meaning "sacred, forbidden." In its current use on Tonga, the word tapu means "sacred" or "holy", often in the sense of being restricted or protected by custom or law. On the main island, the word is often appended to the end of "Tonga" as Tongatapu, here meaning "Sacred South" rather than "Forbidden South".

Hawaii

State of HawaiiHIHawaiian Islands
Some archaeologists and historians think it was a later wave of immigrants from Tahiti around 1000 CE who introduced a new line of high chiefs, the kapu system, the practice of human sacrifice, and the building of heiau. This later immigration is detailed in Hawaiian mythology (moolelo) about Paao. Other authors say there is no archaeological or linguistic evidence for a later influx of Tahitian settlers and that Paao must be regarded as a myth. The history of the islands is marked by a slow, steady growth in population and the size of the chiefdoms, which grew to encompass whole islands.

Polynesia

South SeasSouth PacificSouth Sea Islands
Polynesia (, ; from polys "many" and nēsos "island"; Polynésie, Polenisia, Poronēhia or Poronihia) is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The indigenous people who inhabit the islands of Polynesia are termed Polynesians, and share many similar traits including language family, culture, and beliefs. Historically, they had a strong tradition of sailing and using stars to navigate at night. The largest country in Polynesia is New Zealand.

Tapu

Tapu may refer to: Țapu, a village in Micăsasa Commune, Sibiu County, Romania. Tapu (Ottoman law), a form of land tenure in the Ottoman Empire. Tapu (Polynesian culture), a concept of sacredness from which the word taboo is derived. Tapu, New Zealand, a settlement on the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. Land registration in the Ottoman Empire, subject to the tapu resmi tax. The "guardian deities," a group of Pokémon species introduced in Pokémon Sun and Moon (Tapu Koko, Tapu Lele, Tapu Bulu, Tapu Fini). Dapu (disambiguation). Ko Tapu or James Bond Island, an island in the Phang Nga Bay, Thailand.

Lono

ancient Hawaiian godLono after one god
During this period (from October through February), war and unnecessary work was kapu (forbidden). In Hawaiian weather terminology, the winter Kona storms that bring rain to leeward areas are associated with Lono. Lono brings on the rains and dispenses fertility, and as such was sometimes referred to as Lono-makua (Lono the Provider). Ceremonies went through a monthly and yearly cycle. For 8 months of the year, the luakini (temple) was dedicated to Ku-with strict kapus. Four periods (kapu pule) each month required strict ceremonies. Violators could have their property seized by priests or overlord chiefs, or be sentenced to death for serious breaches.

Māori culture

MāoriMaoriculture
Tapu is similar to mana. Together, they keep the harmony of things. Tapu sustains structure and social order. It can be seen as a legal or religious concept, that is centered on the idea of being "forbidden" and "sacred." When a person, place, or thing is considered to be "tapu," it is often distinguished as something in high value and importance, being set aside by the gods. Kaumātua (or sometimes Kuia for women) are respected tribal elders of either gender in a Māori community who have been involved with their whānau for a number of years. They are appointed by their people who believe the chosen elders have the capacity to teach and guide both current and future generations.

Kamehameha II

LiholihoKing Kamehameha IIyoung king
His birth name was Liholiho and full name was Kalaninui kua Liholiho i ke kapu ʻIolani. It was lengthened to Kalani Kaleiʻaimoku o Kaiwikapu o Laʻamea i Kauikawekiu Ahilapalapa Kealiʻi Kauinamoku o Kahekili Kalaninui i Mamao ʻIolani i Ka Liholiho when he took the throne. He was born circa 1797 in Hilo, on the island of Hawaiʻi, the first born son of Kamehameha I with his highest-ranking wife Keōpuolani. It was originally planned that he would be born at the Kūkaniloko birth site on the island of Oʻahu but the Queen's sickness prevented travel.

Wākea

In her seclusion, it was kapu or restricted for her to eat certain foods; a tradition known as ʻaikapu, which was a sacred eating arrangement established by Wākea. The purpose of the ʻaikapu was to separate the women from the men. In traditional Hawaiian society, men were responsible for cooking. Examples of some foods that Hawaiian women could not eat: Pigs. Coconuts. Bananas. Red colored fish. Certain seafood. Atea, Marquesan god of light. Vatea, a god from Mangaia in the Cook Islands. Rangi and Papa, primordial parents in Māori tradition. Prince Kalaninuiamamao and his daughter-granddaughter Alapaiwahine (case similar to Wākea and his daughter). Wakea. E.R.

Rāhui

rahui
In Māori culture, a rāhui is a form of tapu restricting access to, or use of, an area or resource by unauthorised persons. With the passing of the 1996 Fisheries Act, a rāhui can also be imposed by the New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries. In the Cook Islands, Raui (rahui) have been put in place by the National Environment Service. Rāhui may be imposed for many reasons, including a perceived need for conservation of food resources or because the area concerned is in a state of 'tapu', due, for example, to a recent death in the area, out of respect for the dead and to prevent the gathering of food there for a specified period.

Kaʻahumanu

Queen KaahumanuQueen KaʻahumanuKaahumanu
In what became known as the 'Ai Noa (free eating), Kaahumanu conspired with Keōpūolani, another of her late husband's wives who was also a Queen Regent during the reign of Kamehameha II, to eat at the same table with the young king, breaking a major kapu which should have resulted in her death, and changing the rules of Hawaiian society when her son refused to kill her. The island of Kauai and its subject island Niihau had never been forcibly conquered by Kamehameha. After years of resistance they negotiated a bloodless surrender in the face of Kamehameha's armada. In 1810 the island's King, Kaumualii, became a vassal to Kamehameha.

Tohunga

Māori healerstohungaism
Tapu was one of the most deeply ingrained beliefs and religious customs of the Māori. The word tapu may be translated as sacred or forbidden, but the Māori tapu has a host of variations. There was a personal tapu and local tapu; tapu of one kind or another faced the Māori everywhere. It often served a purpose similar to some of the Jewish laws of prohibition and quarantine. Tohunga were imbued with the mysterious essences of the tapu because of their knowledge of ancient and potent karakia, religious ceremonies and their office as mediums of communication with the dread atua.

Keōpūolani

Queen KeōpūolaniKalanikauikaʻalaneo (later named Keōpūolani)Keōpuolani
Keōpūolani played an instrumental role in the ʻAi Noa, the overthrow of the Hawaiian kapu system. She collaborated with Queen Kaahumanu and shared a meal of forbidden foods. At the time, men were forbidden to eat with women according to the kapu. Since they were not punished by the gods, the kapu was broken. The breaking of the kapu came at an instrumental time for the missionaries who came in 1820. She was among the first of the alii to convert to Christianity. She adopted western clothing and learned to read and write. In March, 1823, Hoapili, now royal governor of Maui, asked to be supplied with books for Keōpūolani to pursue her studies.

Cetacean stranding

beachedbeached whalestrandings
Sites of whale strandings and any whale carcasses from strandings are treated as tapu sites, that is, they are regarded as sacred ground. A beached whale carcass should not be consumed. In 2002, fourteen Alaskans ate muktuk (whale blubber) from a beached whale, resulting in eight of them developing botulism, with two of the affected requiring mechanical ventilation. This is a possibility for any meat taken from an unpreserved carcass. In 1918, approximately 1000 pilot whales were stranded on the Chatham Islands, the largest whale stranding ever recorded. In 1985 about 450 pilot whales were stranded in Auckland, New Zealand.

Marae

ahusliving" ''maraemalae
Nevertheless, the place where the marae were built are still considered as tapu in most islands. The word has been reconstructed by linguists to Eastern Oceanic *malaqe with the meaning "open, cleared space used as meeting-place or ceremonial place". In Māori society, the marae is a place where the culture can be celebrated, where the Māori language can be spoken, where intertribal obligations can be met, where customs can be explored and debated, where family occasions such as birthdays can be held, and where important ceremonies, such as welcoming visitors or farewelling the dead (tangihanga), can be performed.

Prostration

prostrateprostratedprostrating
In ancient Hawaii, a form of prostration known as kapu moe required all to prostrate in the presence of a nīʻaupiʻo or a piʻo chief on the pain of death. The only people exempt from this were chiefs of the next grade the naha and wohi chiefs who were required to sit in their presence. Other Polynesian groups are known to practice this. In Imperial China, a form of prostration known as a kowtow or kētou was used as a sign of respect and reverence. In Japan, a common form of prostration is called dogeza, which was used as a sign of deep respect and submission for the elders of a family, guests, samurai, daimyōs and the Emperor.

Code of conduct

codes of conductcodesdiscipline and honour
A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the social norms, religious rules and responsibilities of, and or proper practices for, an individual. In its 2007 International Good Practice Guidance, "Defining and Developing an Effective Code of Conduct for Organizations", the International Federation of Accountants provided the following working definition:

Spirituality

spiritualspirituallyspiritual life
The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other.

Mana

mana whenua manaimunu
According to the New Zealand Ministry of Justice: "Mana and tapu are concepts which have both been attributed single-worded definitions by contemporary writers. As concepts, especially Maori concepts they can not easily be translated into a single English definition. Both mana and tapu take on a whole range of related meanings depending on their association and the context in which they are being used." In contemporary New Zealand English, the word "mana", taken from the Māori, refers to a person or organisation of people of great personal prestige and character.

Moral

rulesactive readingethical
A moral (from Latin morālis) is a message that is conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event. The moral may be left to the hearer, reader, or viewer to determine for themselves, or may be explicitly encapsulated in a maxim. A moral is a lesson in a story or in real life.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that would later take their name, England, both names ultimately deriving from the Anglia peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic language), and to a greater extent Latin and French.

James Cook

Captain CookCaptain James CookCook
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728 – 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

Hawaiian language

HawaiianHawaiian forHawaii
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii, ) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaii, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. Hawaiian, along with English, is an official language of the State of Hawaii. King Kamehameha III established the first Hawaiian-language constitution in 1839 and 1840.

Tonga

🇹🇴Kingdom of TongaTongan
Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian country and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited. The total surface area is about 750 km2 scattered over 700000 km2 of the southern Pacific Ocean. The sovereign state has a population of 100,651 people, of whom 70% reside on the main island of Tongatapu.

KūkailimokuKūkaʻilimokuKū-ka-ili-moku
In Hawaiian mythology, Kū or Kūkailimoku is one of the four great gods. The other three are Kanaloa, Kāne, and Lono. Feathered god images or aumakua hulu manu are considered to represent Kū. Kū is worshipped under many names, including Kū-ka-ili-moku (also written Kūkailimoku), the "Snatcher of Land". Kūkailimoku rituals included human sacrifice, which was not part of the worship of other gods.

Fiji

🇫🇯Fiji IslandsRepublic of Fiji
Fiji (Viti ; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1100 nmi northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, and Tuvalu to the north. Fiji consists of an archipelago of more than 330 islands—of which 110 are permanently inhabited—and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18300 km2. The most outlying island is Ono-i-Lau.