Regressive tax

regressiveregressive taxationburdening the poor
Non-uniform excise taxation based on everyday essentials like food (fat tax, salt tax), transport (fuel tax, fare hikes for public transport), energy (carbon tax) and housing (council tax, window tax) is frequently regressive on income. The income elasticity of demand of food, for example, is usually less than 1 (inelastic) (see Engel's law) and therefore as a household's income rises, the tax collected on the food remains almost the same. Therefore, as a proportion of available expenditure, the relative tax burden falls more heavily on households with lower incomes.

Sales tax

salessales taxesnational sales tax
Periodic review of recordkeeping procedures related to sales and use tax. Proper supporting detail, including exemption and resale certificates, invoices and other records must be available to defend the company in the event of a sales and use tax audit. Without proper documentation, a seller may be held liable for tax not collected from a buyer. Consumption tax. Excise tax. Goods and Services Tax (Australia). Sales Tax Audit. Sales and use taxes in California. Sales taxes in Canada. Sales taxes in the United States. Streamlined Sales Tax Project.


petrolgasunleaded gasoline
In the United States, most consumer goods bear pre-tax prices, but gasoline prices are posted with taxes included. Taxes are added by federal, state, and local governments. As of 2009, the federal tax is 18.4¢ per gallon for gasoline and 24.4¢ per gallon for diesel (excluding red diesel). Among individual states, the highest gasoline tax rates, including the federal taxes as of October 2018, are found in Pennsylvania (77.1¢/gal), California (73.93¢/gal), and Washington (67.8¢/gal). About 9 percent of all gasoline sold in the U.S. in May 2009 was premium grade, according to the Energy Information Administration.

List of taxes

Use tax, a tax charged on an item purchased in an area without a sales tax when brought to areas that has one. Alcoholic Tax is a tax that levies alcohol. Carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels, as a measure to income the impact of global warming. Fat tax is a tax levied on unhealthy foods. Financial transaction tax is a tax on certain financial transactions, such as the sale of stocks. Fuel excise is a tax levied on fuels, especially for motor vehicles. Luxury tax is a tax on luxury goods. Soda tax is a tax on soda. Sin tax is a tax levied against any undesired activity. This includes taxes on alcohol and cigarettes. Stamp Duty is a tax levied on official documents.


green tax shiftgreen taxenvironmental taxes
. • Carbon tax • Electronic Waste Recycling Fee • Energy Tax Act • Environmental crime • Environmental tariff • Feebate • Free-market environmentalism • Geolibertarianism • Georgism • Green politics • Land value tax • Market governance mechanism • Pigovian tax • Severance tax Payroll, income, and, to a lesser extent, sales taxes. Corporate taxes (taxes on investment and entrepreneurship). Property taxes on buildings and other infrastructure. Carbon taxes on the use of fossil fuels by greenhouse gases produced. Old hydrocarbon taxes don't penalize green house gas (GHG) production.

State Board of Equalization (California)

State Board of EqualizationBoard of EqualizationCalifornia State Board of Equalization
Insurance Tax. Integrated Waste Management Fee. Natural Gas Surcharge. Fuel Taxes. Aircraft Jet Fuel Tax. Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Fee. Diesel Fuel Tax. International Fuel Tax Agreement (IFTA). Interstate User Diesel Fuel Tax. Motor Vehicle Fuel Tax. Oil Spill Response, Prevention, and Administration Fees. Underground Storage Tank Maintenance Fee. Use Fuel Tax. County Assessed Properties Division. Private Railroad Car Tax. State-Assessed Property Program. Timber Yield Tax. Bank and Corporation Tax Law. Personal Income Tax. Homeowner and Renter Property Tax Assistance Law. Publicly Owned Property Assessment Review Program. Taxpayers' Bill of Rights Law.

Indirect tax

indirect taxationindirect taxesindirect
Under this definition, even income taxes may be indirect. The term indirect tax has a different meaning in the context of American Constitutional law: see direct tax and excise tax in the United States. In the United States, the federal income tax has been, since its inception on July 1, 1862, an indirect tax (more specifically an excise ) even though during the 1940s, its application grew from a historical average of about 8% of the population paying it to around 90% of the population paying it as a measure to support the war effort. The concept of Value Added Tax (VAT) as an indirect tax was the brainchild of a German industrialist, Dr.

Value-added tax

value added taxVATGoods and Services Tax
The state of Michigan used a form of VAT known as the "Single Business Tax" (SBT) as its form of general business taxation. It is the only state in the United States to have used a VAT. When it was adopted in 1975, it replaced seven business taxes, including a corporate income tax. On 9 August 2006, the Michigan Legislature approved voter-initiated legislation to repeal the Single Business Tax, which was replaced by the Michigan Business Tax on 1 January 2008. The state of Hawaii has a 4% General Excise Tax (GET) that is charged on the gross income of any business entity generating income within the State of Hawaii.

Vehicle Excise Duty

tax discSORNroad tax
Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) (also known as "vehicle tax", "car tax" or "road tax", and formerly as a "tax disc") is an annual tax that is levied as an excise duty and which must be paid for most types of vehicles which are to be used (or parked) on public roads in the United Kingdom. Registered vehicles that are not being used or parked on public roads and which has been taxed since 31 January 1998, must be covered by a Statutory Off Road Notification (SORN) to avoid VED. In 2016, VED generated approximately £6 billion for the Exchequer. A vehicle tax was first introduced in Britain in 1888.

Direct tax

direct taxationdirect taxesdirect
Regarding direct taxation for individuals, the policies cover taxation of savings income, dividend taxation of individuals and tackling tax obstacles to the cross-border provision of occupational pensions. Indirect tax. United Kingdom Corporation Tax. Income tax in the United States.

Diesel fuel

dieseldiesel oilgas oil
In India, taxes on diesel fuel are lower than on petrol, as the majority of the transportation for grain and other essential commodities across the country runs on diesel. Taxes on biodiesel in the US vary between states; some states (Texas, for example) have no tax on biodiesel and a reduced tax on biodiesel blends equivalent to the amount of biodiesel in the blend, so that B20 fuel is taxed 20% less than pure petrodiesel. Other states, such as North Carolina, tax biodiesel (in any blended configuration) the same as petrodiesel, although they have introduced new incentives to producers and users of all biofuels.

Tax resistance

tax resistertax revoltrefuse to pay taxes
This last method is less effective in countries where small coins are legal tender only in limited amounts, allowing the tax authority legally to reject such payments; for example in England and Wales, 1p coins are legal tender only in amounts up to 20p. Other tax resisters change their lifestyles so that they owe less tax. For instance; to avoid consumption taxes on alcohol, a resister might home-brew beer; to avoid excise taxes on gasoline, a resister might take up cycling; to avoid income tax, a resister may reduce their income below the tax threshold by embracing simple living or a freegan lifestyle.


However, hardly 2% of Indians pay income taxes. Driven by growth, India's nominal GDP per capita has steadily increased from US$329 in 1991, when economic liberalisation began, to US$1,265 in 2010, to an estimated US$1,723 in 2016, and is expected to grow to US$2,358 by 2020; however, it has remained lower than those of other Asian developing countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is expected to remain so in the near future. However, it is higher than Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and others. According to a 2011 PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report, India's GDP at purchasing power parity could overtake that of the United States by 2045.


The country was set to impose a carbon tax in 2009 at 17 euros per tonne of carbon emitted, which would have raised 4 billion euros of revenue annually. However, the plan was abandoned due to fears of burdening French businesses. Forests account for 28% of France's land area, and are some of the most diverse in Europe, comprising more than 140 species of trees. There are nine national parks and 46 natural parks in France, with the government planning to convert 20% of its Exclusive Economic Zone into a Marine Protected Area by 2020.

Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Sixteenth Amendment16th AmendmentSixteenth
Until 1913, customs duties (tariffs) and excise taxes were the primary sources of federal revenue. During the War of 1812, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander J. Dallas made the first public proposal for an income tax, but it was never implemented. The Congress did introduce an income tax to fund the Civil War through the Revenue Act of 1861. It levied a flat tax of three percent on annual income above $800. This act was replaced the following year with the Revenue Act of 1862, which levied a graduated tax of three to five percent on income above $600 and specified a termination of income taxation in 1866.

New Mexico

NMNew MexicanState of New Mexico
Since 2008, personal income tax rates for New Mexico have ranged from 1.7% to 4.9%, within four income brackets. As of 2007, active-duty military salaries are exempt from state income tax. New Mexico is one of the largest tax havens in the U.S., offering numerous economic incentives and tax breaks on personal and corporate income. It does not have inheritance tax, estate tax, or sales taxes. New Mexico imposes a Gross Receipts Tax (GRT) on many transactions, which may even include some governmental receipts. This resembles a sales tax but, unlike the sales taxes in many states, it applies to services as well as tangible goods.

Washington (state)

WashingtonWashington StateWA
The state of Washington is one of seven states that do not levy a personal income tax. The state does not collect a corporate income tax or franchise tax either. Washington businesses are responsible for various other state levies, including the business and occupation tax (B & O), a gross receipts tax which charges varying rates for different types of businesses. Washington's state base sales tax is 6.5 percent, which is combined with a local sales tax that varies by locality. The combined state and local retail sales tax rates increase the taxes paid by consumers, depending on the variable local sales tax rates, generally between 7.5 and 10 percent.

Roger J. Traynor

Roger Traynor
Through his work for the Board of Equalization, Traynor was responsible for creating much of California's modern tax regime, including the vehicle registration fee (1933), sales tax (1933), income tax (1935), use tax (1935), corporate income tax (1937), and fuel tax (1937). He served as the first administrator of the California sales tax and supervised its deployment across 200,000 retailers. In January 1940, he started working part-time as a Deputy Attorney General under California Attorney General Earl Warren (who later became Chief Justice of the United States). He also started serving as Acting Dean of Boalt Hall at UC Berkeley, where he had earned his law degree.

List of Washington initiatives to the people

Initiative 695I-985In 2005
murder (A). 322, outlawing fluoridation of public water supplies (R). 325, restricting the future construction of nuclear power facilities (R). 335, outlawing businesses engaged in regular public display of pornographic films or sale of pornographic publications (A). 345, exempting most food products from sales tax (A). 348, repealing the new variable motor vehicle fuel tax and reinstating the old one (R). 394, requiring voter approval before issuance of bonds for major public utility energy projects (A). 402, abolishing inheritance and gift taxes and limiting state estate taxes to the federal estate tax credit allowed (A). 412, setting the maximum interest rate on retail sales at the higher

Index of law articles

Tax avoidance – Tax costs – Tax credit – Tax deduction – Tax evasion – Tax haven – Tax law – Tax sale – Tax treaty – Taxation in the United States – Taxation of costs – Temporary injunction – Temporary insanity – Ten Commandments – Tenancy – Tenancy at sufferance – Tenancy at will – Tenancy by the entirety – Tenancy in common – Tenement – Tentative trust – Tenure – Terms and conditions of employment – Terms and conditions of purchase – Terms and conditions of sale – Terms of disparagement – terra nullius – Territorial integrity – Terrorism – Test Act – Testacy – Testamentary – Testamentary capacity – Testamentary disposition – Testamentary trust – Testate – Testator – Testatrix – Testify –

Progressive tax

progressiveprogressive taxationprogressive income tax
The opposite of a progressive tax is a regressive tax, where the average tax rate or burden decreases as an individual's ability to pay increases. The term is frequently applied in reference to personal income taxes, in which people with lower income pay a lower percentage of that income in tax than do those with higher income. It can also apply to adjustments of the tax base by using tax exemptions, tax credits, or selective taxation that creates progressive distribution effects.

United States

During FY2012, the federal government collected approximately $2.45 trillion in tax revenue, up $147 billion or 6% versus FY2011 revenues of $2.30 trillion. Primary receipt categories included individual income taxes ($1,132B or 47%), Social Security/Social Insurance taxes ($845B or 35%), and corporate taxes ($242B or 10%). Based on CBO estimates, under 2013 tax law the top 1% will be paying the highest average tax rates since 1979, while other income groups will remain at historic lows. U.S. taxation has historically been generally progressive, especially the federal income taxes, though by most measures it became noticeably less progressive after 1980.

Ad valorem tax

ad valoremad valorem'' taxad valorem property tax
Haig–Simons income. Land value tax.

Hypothecated tax

For example, the Vehicle Excise Duty from 1920 when earned revenues were used for the construction and maintenance of the roads, assigning 1p on the income tax directly to education in 1992, or giving £300 million per year from the revenues from taxes on the tobacco industry to help the fight against smoking-related diseases since 1999. Nowadays, earmarking of taxes is mainly connected to the health care system, education or the upkeep of the roads. The hypothecated tax can be divided into three groups based on the main characteristics. The emphasis can be put on the final use of the revenues, on the vastness of the area financed from the money earned or on the type of the tax.

Double taxation

double-taxationdouble taxdouble tax treatment
Double taxation is the levying of tax by two or more jurisdictions on the same declared income (in the case of income taxes), asset (in the case of capital taxes), or financial transaction (in the case of sales taxes). Double liability is mitigated in a number of ways, for example: Another approach is for the jurisdictions affected to enter into a tax treaty which sets out rules to avoid double taxation. The term "double taxation" can also refer to the double taxation of some income or activity.