List of taxes

Use tax, a tax charged on an item purchased in an area without a sales tax when brought to areas that has one. Alcoholic Tax is a tax that levies alcohol. Carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels, as a measure to income the impact of global warming. Fat tax is a tax levied on unhealthy foods. Financial transaction tax is a tax on certain financial transactions, such as the sale of stocks. Fuel excise is a tax levied on fuels, especially for motor vehicles. Luxury tax is a tax on luxury goods. Soda tax is a tax on soda. Sin tax is a tax levied against any undesired activity. This includes taxes on alcohol and cigarettes. Stamp Duty is a tax levied on official documents.

Ecotax

green tax shiftgreen taxenvironmental taxes
. • Carbon tax • Electronic Waste Recycling Fee • Energy Tax Act • Environmental crime • Environmental tariff • Feebate • Free-market environmentalism • Geolibertarianism • Georgism • Green politics • Land value tax • Market governance mechanism • Pigovian tax • Severance tax Payroll, income, and, to a lesser extent, sales taxes. Corporate taxes (taxes on investment and entrepreneurship). Property taxes on buildings and other infrastructure. Carbon taxes on the use of fossil fuels by greenhouse gases produced. Old hydrocarbon taxes don't penalize green house gas (GHG) production.

Indirect tax

indirect taxationindirect taxesindirect
Under this definition, even income taxes may be indirect. The term indirect tax has a different meaning in the context of American Constitutional law: see direct tax and excise tax in the United States. In the United States, the federal income tax has been, since its inception on July 1, 1862, an indirect tax (more specifically an excise ) even though during the 1940s, its application grew from a historical average of about 8% of the population paying it to around 90% of the population paying it as a measure to support the war effort. The concept of Value Added Tax (VAT) as an indirect tax was the brainchild of a German industrialist, Dr.

Gasoline

petrolgasunleaded gasoline
In the United States, most consumer goods bear pre-tax prices, but gasoline prices are posted with taxes included. Taxes are added by federal, state, and local governments. As of 2009, the federal tax is 18.4¢ per gallon for gasoline and 24.4¢ per gallon for diesel (excluding red diesel). Among individual states, the highest gasoline tax rates, including the federal taxes as of October 2018, are found in Pennsylvania (77.1¢/gal), California (73.93¢/gal), and Washington (67.8¢/gal). About 9 percent of all gasoline sold in the U.S. in May 2009 was premium grade, according to the Energy Information Administration.

Vehicle Excise Duty

tax discSORNroad tax
Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) (also known as "vehicle tax", "car tax" or "road tax", and formerly as a "tax disc") is an annual tax that is levied as an excise duty and which must be paid for most types of vehicles which are to be used (or parked) on public roads in the United Kingdom. Registered vehicles that are not being used or parked on public roads and which has been taxed since 31 January 1998, must be covered by a Statutory Off Road Notification (SORN) to avoid VED. In 2016, VED generated approximately £6 billion for the Exchequer. A vehicle tax was first introduced in Britain in 1888.

Diesel fuel

dieseldiesel oilgas oil
In India, taxes on diesel fuel are lower than on petrol, as the majority of the transportation for grain and other essential commodities across the country runs on diesel. Taxes on biodiesel in the US vary between states; some states (Texas, for example) have no tax on biodiesel and a reduced tax on biodiesel blends equivalent to the amount of biodiesel in the blend, so that B20 fuel is taxed 20% less than pure petrodiesel. Other states, such as North Carolina, tax biodiesel (in any blended configuration) the same as petrodiesel, although they have introduced new incentives to producers and users of all biofuels.

List of Washington initiatives to the people

Initiative 695I-985In 2005
murder (A). 322, outlawing fluoridation of public water supplies (R). 325, restricting the future construction of nuclear power facilities (R). 335, outlawing businesses engaged in regular public display of pornographic films or sale of pornographic publications (A). 345, exempting most food products from sales tax (A). 348, repealing the new variable motor vehicle fuel tax and reinstating the old one (R). 394, requiring voter approval before issuance of bonds for major public utility energy projects (A). 402, abolishing inheritance and gift taxes and limiting state estate taxes to the federal estate tax credit allowed (A). 412, setting the maximum interest rate on retail sales at the higher

Progressive tax

progressiveprogressive taxationprogressive income tax
The opposite of a progressive tax is a regressive tax, where the average tax rate or burden decreases as an individual's ability to pay increases. The term is frequently applied in reference to personal income taxes, in which people with lower income pay a lower percentage of that income in tax than do those with higher income. It can also apply to adjustments of the tax base by using tax exemptions, tax credits, or selective taxation that creates progressive distribution effects.

Ad valorem tax

ad valoremad valorem'' taxad valorem property tax
Haig–Simons income. Land value tax.

Hypothecated tax

earmarkhypothecatedearmarked
For example, the Vehicle Excise Duty from 1920 when earned revenues were used for the construction and maintenance of the roads, assigning 1p on the income tax directly to education in 1992, or giving £300 million per year from the revenues from taxes on the tobacco industry to help the fight against smoking-related diseases since 1999. Nowadays, earmarking of taxes is mainly connected to the health care system, education or the upkeep of the roads. The hypothecated tax can be divided into three groups based on the main characteristics. The emphasis can be put on the final use of the revenues, on the vastness of the area financed from the money earned or on the type of the tax.

Double taxation

double-taxationdouble taxdouble tax treatment
Double taxation is the levying of tax by two or more jurisdictions on the same declared income (in the case of income taxes), asset (in the case of capital taxes), or financial transaction (in the case of sales taxes). Double liability is mitigated in a number of ways, for example: Another approach is for the jurisdictions affected to enter into a tax treaty which sets out rules to avoid double taxation. The term "double taxation" can also refer to the double taxation of some income or activity.

Corporate tax

corporation taxcorporate income taxcorporate taxes
Corporations property tax, payroll tax, withholding tax, excise tax, customs duties, value added tax, and other common taxes, are generally not referred to as “corporate tax.” Characterization as a corporation for tax purposes is based on the form of organization, with the exception of United States Federal and most states income taxes, under which an entity may elect to be treated as a corporation and taxed at the entity level or taxed only at the member level. See Limited liability company, Partnership taxation, S corporation, Sole proprietorship. Most jurisdictions tax corporations on their income, like the United Kingdom or the United States.

Tax refund

tax rebaterefundrebate
For claiming a refund one has to file the income tax return within a specified period. However, under Sections 237 and 119(2)(b) of the Income Tax Act, the Chief Commissioner or Commissioner of Income Tax are empowered to condone a delay in the claim of a refund. Provisions of refund of duty exists in indirect taxation. In Section 11 B of the Central Excises Act, 1944 which is also applicable in the cases of Service Tax (Finance Act, 1994). In the United Kingdom, income tax is deducted by the employer under the PAYE (Pay As You Earn) tax system via HMRC. Some refunds such as those due to changing tax codes or similar circumstances will be automatically processed via a P800 form.

HM Revenue and Customs

HMRCHM Revenue & CustomsHer Majesty's Revenue and Customs
The department is responsible for the administration and collection of direct taxes including Income Tax, Corporation Tax, Capital Gains Tax (CGT) and Inheritance Tax (IHT), indirect taxes including Value Added Tax (VAT), excise duties and Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT), and environmental taxes such as Air Passenger Duty and the Climate Change Levy.

Arthur Cecil Pigou

PigouArthur PigouA. C. Pigou
Pigou's most enduring contribution was The Economics of Welfare, 1920, in which he introduced the concept of externality and the idea that externality problems could be corrected by the imposition of a Pigovian tax. The externality concept remains central to modern welfare economics and particularly to environmental economics. The Pigou Club, named in his honour is an association of modern economists who support the idea of a carbon tax to address the problem of climate change.

Energy tax

BTU taxenergy
The CAP tax is to generate roughly $1 million annually. The City Council has the authority to increase the rates as needed. As of October 2009, the rate is assigned as follows: Carbon tax. Ecotax. Energy Tax Act of 1978. Energy Policy Act of 2005. Fee and dividend. Fuel economy in automobiles. H.R. 1424.

Poll tax

head taxpoll taxescapitation
Finally, ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1913 made possible modern income taxes, by limiting the Sixteenth Amendment income tax to the class of indirect excises (i.e. excises, duties, and imposts) – thus requiring no apportionment, a practice that would remain unchanged into the 21st century. Various cities, including Chicago and Denver, have levied head taxes with a set rate per employee targeted at large employers. After Cupertino postponed head tax proposals to 2020, Mountain View became the only city in Silicon Valley, California, to continue to pursue such type of taxes.

Duty (economics)

dutiesdutycustoms duties
In economics, a duty is a kind of tax levied by a state. It is often associated with customs, in which context they are also known as tariffs or dues. The term is often used to describe a tax on certain items purchased abroad. Properly, a duty differs from a tax in being levied on specific commodities, financial transactions, estates, etc. rather than on individuals. Duties may be import duties, excise duties, stamp duties, death or succession duties, etc.; but not such direct impositions as personal income taxes. An estate duty (or inheritance tax) is a tax levied on the estate of a deceased person in many jurisdictions or on the inheritance of a person.

Taxation in Germany

German tax systemsolidarity surchargeGermany
A distinction is made between: If a taxpayer’s income does not fall into any of these categories, then it is not subject to income tax. This includes winnings at a lottery, for example. The rate of income tax in Germany ranges from 0% to 45%. The German income tax is a progressive tax, which means that the average tax rate (i.e., the ratio of tax and taxable income) increases monotonically with increasing taxable income. Moreover, the German taxation system warrants that an increase in taxable income never results in a decrease of the net income after taxation.