List of taxes

This page, a companion page to tax, lists different taxes by economic design. For different taxes by country, see Tax rates around the world. Taxes generally fall into the following broad categories: Most property taxes charge for both the value of the land and the value of any buildings or other improvements on the land. A general tax refers to a tax that applies to all or most goods and services and where all are taxed at the same rate. An excise tax refers to a tax on a single item, which may be different than the tax levied on other items. Income tax. Payroll tax. Property tax. Consumption tax. Tariff (taxes on international trade). Capitation, a fixed tax charged per person.

Regressive tax

regressiveregressive taxationburdening the poor
Non-uniform excise taxation based on everyday essentials like food (fat tax, salt tax), transport (fuel tax, fare hikes for public transport), energy (carbon tax) and housing (council tax, window tax) is frequently regressive on income. The income elasticity of demand of food, for example, is usually less than 1 (inelastic) (see Engel's law) and therefore as a household's income rises, the tax collected on the food remains almost the same. Therefore, as a proportion of available expenditure, the relative tax burden falls more heavily on households with lower incomes.

Ecotax

green tax shiftgreen taxenvironmental taxes
. • Carbon tax • Electronic Waste Recycling Fee • Energy Tax Act • Environmental crime • Environmental tariff • Feebate • Free-market environmentalism • Geolibertarianism • Georgism • Green politics • Land value tax • Market governance mechanism • Pigovian tax • Severance tax Payroll, income, and, to a lesser extent, sales taxes. Corporate taxes (taxes on investment and entrepreneurship). Property taxes on buildings and other infrastructure. Carbon taxes on the use of fossil fuels by greenhouse gases produced. Old hydrocarbon taxes don't penalize green house gas (GHG) production.

List of Washington initiatives to the people

Initiative 695I-985In 2005
(A). 912, rolling back a key component (the gas tax) of the 2005 transportation funding package, which the Legislature passed to improve road safety and relieve congestion. (R). 920, repealing Washington State estate taxes. (R). 933, concerning government regulation of private property, would have compensated property owners when regulations damage the use or value of private property. It would have forbidden further legal restrictions of private property use, and provided exceptions or payments. (R). 937, concerning energy use by electrical utilities, required large electric utilities to increase energy conservation and renewable energy use.

Direct tax

direct taxationdirect taxesdirect
Regarding direct taxation for individuals, the policies cover taxation of savings income, dividend taxation of individuals and tackling tax obstacles to the cross-border provision of occupational pensions. Indirect tax. United Kingdom Corporation Tax. Income tax in the United States.

HM Revenue and Customs

HMRCHM Revenue & CustomsHer Majesty's Revenue and Customs
The department is responsible for the administration and collection of direct taxes including Income Tax, Corporation Tax, Capital Gains Tax (CGT) and Inheritance Tax (IHT), indirect taxes including Value Added Tax (VAT), excise duties and Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT), and environmental taxes such as Air Passenger Duty and the Climate Change Levy.

Corporate tax

corporation taxcorporate income taxcorporate taxes
IRS gateway for corporations. IRS Publication 542, Corporations.

Taxation in Germany

German tax systemsolidarity surchargeGermany
Taxation classes (tax groups, Lohnsteuerklasse aka Steuerklassen) The taxation at source for capital income will be done with a flat tax rate of 25% (add solidarity surcharge of 5.5% of the amount of tax and, if applicable, church tax). Aside from standard yearly property taxes, known as Grundsteuer, On property sales in Germany there is a state level sales tax on the declared purchase amount. Transfer of German property is subject to a transfer tax (Grunderwerbsteuer)–the equivalent of UK stamp duty.

Ad valorem tax

ad valoremad valorem'' taxad valorem property tax
Haig–Simons income. Land value tax.

Sales tax

salessales taxesnational sales tax
Investopedia defines a regressive tax as "[a] tax that takes a larger percentage from low-income people than from high-income people. A regressive tax is generally a tax that is applied uniformly. This means that it hits lower-income individuals harder". Higher sales taxes have been shown to have many different effects on local economies. With higher taxes, more consumers are starting to reconsider where they shop, according to a study conducted in Minnesota and Wisconsin, where the sales tax was raised on cigarettes. Effects of higher sales tax were not shown immediately in sales, but about six months after the taxes were raised.

Taxation in Azerbaijan

The tax legislation of Azerbaijan is comprised by the Constitution of Azerbaijan Republic, the Tax Code and legal standards which are adopted herewith. The taxes levied in Azerbaijan can be generally broken down into 3 main types: state taxes, taxes of autonomy republic and local (municipal) taxes. State taxes include the following: personal income tax, corporate tax, value added tax, excise tax, property tax, land tax, road tax, mineral royalty tax and simplified tax. Taxes of autonomy republic are the same as state taxes but levied in Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. The Tax Code of Azerbaijan Republic was approved on 11 July 2000 and consists of two parts.

State Board of Equalization (California)

State Board of EqualizationBoard of EqualizationCalifornia State Board of Equalization
Insurance Tax. Integrated Waste Management Fee. Natural Gas Surcharge. Fuel Taxes. Aircraft Jet Fuel Tax. Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Fee. Diesel Fuel Tax. International Fuel Tax Agreement (IFTA). Interstate User Diesel Fuel Tax. Motor Vehicle Fuel Tax. Oil Spill Response, Prevention, and Administration Fees. Underground Storage Tank Maintenance Fee. Use Fuel Tax. County Assessed Properties Division. Private Railroad Car Tax. State-Assessed Property Program. Timber Yield Tax. Bank and Corporation Tax Law. Personal Income Tax. Homeowner and Renter Property Tax Assistance Law. Publicly Owned Property Assessment Review Program. Taxpayers' Bill of Rights Law.

Indirect tax

indirect taxationindirect taxesindirect
Under this definition, even income taxes may be indirect. The term indirect tax has a different meaning in the context of American Constitutional law: see direct tax and excise tax in the United States. In the United States, the federal income tax has been, since its inception on July 1, 1862, an indirect tax (more specifically an excise ) even though during the 1940s, its application grew from a historical average of about 8% of the population paying it to around 90% of the population paying it as a measure to support the war effort. The concept of Value Added Tax (VAT) as an indirect tax was the brainchild of a German industrialist, Dr.

Index of law articles

– Tangible property – Taqlid – Targeting civilians – Targum – TaxTax avoidance – Tax costs – Tax credit – Tax deduction – Tax evasion – Tax haven – Tax law – Tax sale – Tax treaty – Taxation in the United States – Taxation of costs – Temporary injunction – Temporary insanity – Ten Commandments – Tenancy – Tenancy at sufferance – Tenancy at will – Tenancy by the entirety – Tenancy in common – Tenement – Tentative trust – Tenure – Terms and conditions of employment – Terms and conditions of purchase – Terms and conditions of sale – Terms of disparagement – terra nullius – Territorial integrity – Terrorism – Test Act – Testacy – Testamentary – Testamentary capacity – Testamentary disposition

Value-added tax

value added taxVATGoods and Services Tax
The state of Michigan used a form of VAT known as the "Single Business Tax" (SBT) as its form of general business taxation. It is the only state in the United States to have used a VAT. When it was adopted in 1975, it replaced seven business taxes, including a corporate income tax. On 9 August 2006, the Michigan Legislature approved voter-initiated legislation to repeal the Single Business Tax, which was replaced by the Michigan Business Tax on 1 January 2008. The state of Hawaii has a 4% General Excise Tax (GET) that is charged on the gross income of any business entity generating income within the State of Hawaii.

Gasoline

petrolgasunleaded gasoline
In the United States, most consumer goods bear pre-tax prices, but gasoline prices are posted with taxes included. Taxes are added by federal, state, and local governments. As of 2009, the federal tax is 18.4¢ per gallon for gasoline and 24.4¢ per gallon for diesel (excluding red diesel). Among individual states, the highest gasoline tax rates, including the federal taxes as of October 2018, are found in Pennsylvania (77.1¢/gal), California (73.93¢/gal), and Washington (67.8¢/gal). About 9 percent of all gasoline sold in the U.S. in May 2009 was premium grade, according to the Energy Information Administration.

Vehicle Excise Duty

tax discSORNroad tax
Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) (also known as "vehicle tax", "car tax" or "road tax", and formerly as a "tax disc") is an annual tax that is levied as an excise duty and which must be paid for most types of vehicles which are to be used (or parked) on public roads in the United Kingdom. Registered vehicles that are not being used or parked on public roads and which has been taxed since 31 January 1998, must be covered by a Statutory Off Road Notification (SORN) to avoid VED. In 2016, VED generated approximately £6 billion for the Exchequer. A vehicle tax was first introduced in Britain in 1888.

Tax avoidance

tax planningnot paying any taxestax loopholes
Canada also uses Foreign Accrual Property Income rules to obviate certain types of tax avoidance. In the United Kingdom many provisions of the tax legislation (known as "anti-avoidance" provisions) apply to prevent tax avoidance where the main object (or purpose), or one of the main objects (or purposes), of a transaction is to enable tax advantages to be obtained. In the United States, the Internal Revenue Service distinguishes some schemes as "abusive" and therefore illegal. The Alternative Minimum Tax was developed to reduce the impact of certain tax avoidance schemes.

Diesel fuel

dieseldiesel oilgas oil
In India, taxes on diesel fuel are lower than on petrol, as the majority of the transportation for grain and other essential commodities across the country runs on diesel. Taxes on biodiesel in the US vary between states; some states (Texas, for example) have no tax on biodiesel and a reduced tax on biodiesel blends equivalent to the amount of biodiesel in the blend, so that B20 fuel is taxed 20% less than pure petrodiesel. Other states, such as North Carolina, tax biodiesel (in any blended configuration) the same as petrodiesel, although they have introduced new incentives to producers and users of all biofuels.

Internal Revenue Code

U.S. tax codetax codeIRC
The Internal Revenue Code (IRC), formally the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, is the domestic portion of federal statutory tax law in the United States, published in various volumes of the United States Statutes at Large, and separately as Title 26 of the United States Code (USC). It is organized topically, into subtitles and sections, covering income tax (see Income tax in the United States), payroll taxes, estate taxes, gift taxes, and excise taxes; as well as procedure and administration. Its implementing agency is the Internal Revenue Service. Prior to 1874, U.S. statutes (whether in tax law or other subjects) were not codified.

Tax refund

tax rebaterefundrebate
A tax refund or tax rebate is a refund on taxes when the tax liability is less than the taxes paid. Taxpayers can often get a tax refund on their income tax if the tax they owe is less than the sum of the total amount of the withholding taxes and estimated taxes that they paid, plus the refundable tax credits that they claim. (Tax refunds are often paid after the end of the tax year.) According to the Internal Revenue Service, 77% of tax returns filed in 2004 resulted in a refund check, with the average refund check being $2,100. In 2011, the average tax refund was $2,913.

Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Sixteenth Amendment16th AmendmentSixteenth
to the population; (4) that the income tax imposed on an award for nonphysical injuries does not violate the constitutional requirement of Article I, Section 8, Clause 1, that all duties, imposts and excises be uniform throughout the United States; (5) that under the doctrine of sovereign immunity, the Internal Revenue Service may not be sued in its own name.

Taxation in the United Kingdom

income taxtaxationtax
The income of charities is usually exempt from United Kingdom income tax. 1) the estates of deceased persons. 2) gifts made within seven years of death (known as Potentially Exempt Transfers or "PETs"). 3) "lifetime chargeable transfers", meaning transfers into certain types of trust. See Taxation of trusts (United Kingdom). HM Revenue & Customs. Chartered Institute of Taxation. Government spending in the United Kingdom. Institute of Indirect Taxation. Income in the United Kingdom. Tax credit. Starting rate of UK income tax. Business rates. Council tax. Local income tax. Tax. Tax haven. Tax law. Stephen Dowell, History of Taxation and Taxes in England (Routledge, 2013).

Tax resistance

tax resistertax revoltrefuse to pay taxes
This last method is less effective in countries where small coins are legal tender only in limited amounts, allowing the tax authority legally to reject such payments; for example in England and Wales, 1p coins are legal tender only in amounts up to 20p. Other tax resisters change their lifestyles so that they owe less tax. For instance; to avoid consumption taxes on alcohol, a resister might home-brew beer; to avoid excise taxes on gasoline, a resister might take up cycling; to avoid income tax, a resister may reduce their income below the tax threshold by embracing simple living or a freegan lifestyle.

Excise tax in the United States

Excise taxexcise taxesfederal excise tax
Its responsibilities include the investigation and prevention of federal offenses involving the unlawful use, manufacture, and possession of firearms and explosives; acts of arson and bombings; and illegal manufacturing and trafficking of alcohol and tobacco products that avoid paying the federal excise taxes on these products. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) within the United States Department of the Treasury is responsible for collecting the over one million excise tax returns that collects almost $70 billion in excise taxes. IRS publication 510 lists all the forms, rates, rules etc. on federal excise tax collection.