This page, a companion page to tax, lists different taxes by economic design. For different taxes by country, see Tax rates around the world. Taxes generally fall into the following broad categories: Most property taxes charge for both the value of the land and the value of any buildings or other improvements on the land. A general tax refers to a tax that applies to all or most goods and services and where all are taxed at the same rate. An excise tax refers to a tax on a single item, which may be different than the tax levied on other items. Income tax. Payroll tax. Property tax. Consumption tax. Tariff (taxes on international trade). Capitation, a fixed tax charged per person.
regressiveregressive taxationburdening the poor
Non-uniform excise taxation based on everyday essentials like food (fat tax, salt tax), transport (fuel tax, fare hikes for public transport), energy (carbon tax) and housing (council tax, window tax) is frequently regressive on income. The income elasticity of demand of food, for example, is usually less than 1 (inelastic) (see Engel's law) and therefore as a household's income rises, the tax collected on the food remains almost the same. Therefore, as a proportion of available expenditure, the relative tax burden falls more heavily on households with lower incomes.
green tax shiftgreen taxenvironmental taxes
. • Carbon tax • Electronic Waste Recycling Fee • Energy Tax Act • Environmental crime • Environmental tariff • Feebate • Free-market environmentalism • Geolibertarianism • Georgism • Green politics • Land value tax • Market governance mechanism • Pigovian tax • Severance tax Payroll, income, and, to a lesser extent, sales taxes. Corporate taxes (taxes on investment and entrepreneurship). Property taxes on buildings and other infrastructure. Carbon taxes on the use of fossil fuels by greenhouse gases produced. Old hydrocarbon taxes don't penalize green house gas (GHG) production.
direct taxationdirect taxesdirect
Regarding direct taxation for individuals, the policies cover taxation of savings income, dividend taxation of individuals and tackling tax obstacles to the cross-border provision of occupational pensions. Indirect tax. United Kingdom Corporation Tax. Income tax in the United States.
ad valoremad valorem'' taxad valorem property tax
Haig–Simons income. Land value tax.
salessales taxesnational sales tax
Investopedia defines a regressive tax as "[a] tax that takes a larger percentage from low-income people than from high-income people. A regressive tax is generally a tax that is applied uniformly. This means that it hits lower-income individuals harder". Higher sales taxes have been shown to have many different effects on local economies. With higher taxes, more consumers are starting to reconsider where they shop, according to a study conducted in Minnesota and Wisconsin, where the sales tax was raised on cigarettes. Effects of higher sales tax were not shown immediately in sales, but about six months after the taxes were raised.
State Board of EqualizationBoard of EqualizationCalifornia State Board of Equalization
Insurance Tax. Integrated Waste Management Fee. Natural Gas Surcharge. Fuel Taxes. Aircraft Jet Fuel Tax. Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Fee. Diesel Fuel Tax. International Fuel Tax Agreement (IFTA). Interstate User Diesel Fuel Tax. Motor Vehicle Fuel Tax. Oil Spill Response, Prevention, and Administration Fees. Underground Storage Tank Maintenance Fee. Use Fuel Tax. County Assessed Properties Division. Private Railroad Car Tax. State-Assessed Property Program. Timber Yield Tax. Bank and Corporation Tax Law. Personal Income Tax. Homeowner and Renter Property Tax Assistance Law. Publicly Owned Property Assessment Review Program. Taxpayers' Bill of Rights Law.
Initiative 695I-985In 2005
(A). 912, rolling back a key component (the gas tax) of the 2005 transportation funding package, which the Legislature passed to improve road safety and relieve congestion. (R). 920, repealing Washington State estate taxes. (R). 933, concerning government regulation of private property, would have compensated property owners when regulations damage the use or value of private property. It would have forbidden further legal restrictions of private property use, and provided exceptions or payments. (R). 937, concerning energy use by electrical utilities, required large electric utilities to increase energy conservation and renewable energy use.
indirect taxationindirect taxesindirect
Under this definition, even income taxes may be indirect. The term indirect tax has a different meaning in the context of American Constitutional law: see direct tax and excise tax in the United States. In the United States, the federal income tax has been, since its inception on July 1, 1862, an indirect tax (more specifically an excise ) even though during the 1940s, its application grew from a historical average of about 8% of the population paying it to around 90% of the population paying it as a measure to support the war effort. The concept of Value Added Tax (VAT) as an indirect tax was the brainchild of a German industrialist, Dr.
– Tangible property – Taqlid – Targeting civilians – Targum – Tax – Tax avoidance – Tax costs – Tax credit – Tax deduction – Tax evasion – Tax haven – Tax law – Tax sale – Tax treaty – Taxation in the United States – Taxation of costs – Temporary injunction – Temporary insanity – Ten Commandments – Tenancy – Tenancy at sufferance – Tenancy at will – Tenancy by the entirety – Tenancy in common – Tenement – Tentative trust – Tenure – Terms and conditions of employment – Terms and conditions of purchase – Terms and conditions of sale – Terms of disparagement – terra nullius – Territorial integrity – Terrorism – Test Act – Testacy – Testamentary – Testamentary capacity – Testamentary disposition
value added taxVATGoods and Services Tax
The state of Michigan used a form of VAT known as the "Single Business Tax" (SBT) as its form of general business taxation. It is the only state in the United States to have used a VAT. When it was adopted in 1975, it replaced seven business taxes, including a corporate income tax. On 9 August 2006, the Michigan Legislature approved voter-initiated legislation to repeal the Single Business Tax, which was replaced by the Michigan Business Tax on 1 January 2008. The state of Hawaii has a 4% General Excise Tax (GET) that is charged on the gross income of any business entity generating income within the State of Hawaii.
In the United States, most consumer goods bear pre-tax prices, but gasoline prices are posted with taxes included. Taxes are added by federal, state, and local governments. As of 2009, the federal tax is 18.4¢ per gallon for gasoline and 24.4¢ per gallon for diesel (excluding red diesel). Among individual states, the highest gasoline tax rates, including the federal taxes as of October 2018, are found in Pennsylvania (77.1¢/gal), California (73.93¢/gal), and Washington (67.8¢/gal). About 9 percent of all gasoline sold in the U.S. in May 2009 was premium grade, according to the Energy Information Administration.
tax discSORNroad tax
Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) (also known as "vehicle tax", "car tax" or "road tax", and formerly as a "tax disc") is an annual tax that is levied as an excise duty and which must be paid for most types of vehicles which are to be used (or parked) on public roads in the United Kingdom. Registered vehicles that are not being used or parked on public roads and which has been taxed since 31 January 1998, must be covered by a Statutory Off Road Notification (SORN) to avoid VED. In 2016, VED generated approximately £6 billion for the Exchequer. A vehicle tax was first introduced in Britain in 1888.
dieseldiesel oilgas oil
In India, taxes on diesel fuel are lower than on petrol, as the majority of the transportation for grain and other essential commodities across the country runs on diesel. Taxes on biodiesel in the US vary between states; some states (Texas, for example) have no tax on biodiesel and a reduced tax on biodiesel blends equivalent to the amount of biodiesel in the blend, so that B20 fuel is taxed 20% less than pure petrodiesel. Other states, such as North Carolina, tax biodiesel (in any blended configuration) the same as petrodiesel, although they have introduced new incentives to producers and users of all biofuels.
HMRCHM Revenue & CustomsHer Majesty's Revenue and Customs
The department is responsible for the administration and collection of direct taxes including Income Tax, Corporation Tax, Capital Gains Tax (CGT) and Inheritance Tax (IHT), indirect taxes including Value Added Tax (VAT), excise duties and Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT), and environmental taxes such as Air Passenger Duty and the Climate Change Levy.
corporation taxcorporate income taxcorporate taxes
Corporations property tax, payroll tax, withholding tax, excise tax, customs duties, value added tax, and other common taxes, are generally not referred to as “corporate tax.” Characterization as a corporation for tax purposes is based on the form of organization, with the exception of United States Federal and most states income taxes, under which an entity may elect to be treated as a corporation and taxed at the entity level or taxed only at the member level. See Limited liability company, Partnership taxation, S corporation, Sole proprietorship. Most jurisdictions tax corporations on their income, like the United Kingdom or the United States.
German tax systemsolidarity surchargeGermany
Taxation classes (tax groups, Lohnsteuerklasse aka Steuerklassen) The taxation at source for capital income will be done with a flat tax rate of 25% (add solidarity surcharge of 5.5% of the amount of tax and, if applicable, church tax). Aside from standard yearly property taxes, known as Grundsteuer, On property sales in Germany there is a state level sales tax on the declared purchase amount. Transfer of German property is subject to a transfer tax (Grunderwerbsteuer)–the equivalent of UK stamp duty.
The income of charities is usually exempt from United Kingdom income tax. 1) the estates of deceased persons. 2) gifts made within seven years of death (known as Potentially Exempt Transfers or "PETs"). 3) "lifetime chargeable transfers", meaning transfers into certain types of trust. See Taxation of trusts (United Kingdom). HM Revenue & Customs. Chartered Institute of Taxation. Government spending in the United Kingdom. Institute of Indirect Taxation. Income in the United Kingdom. Tax credit. Starting rate of UK income tax. Business rates. Council tax. Local income tax. Tax. Tax haven. Tax law. Stephen Dowell, History of Taxation and Taxes in England (Routledge, 2013).
contribution from doors and windowson window glassreceiver of duties on windows
The tax was introduced in England and Wales in 1696 under King William III and was designed to impose tax relative to the prosperity of the taxpayer, but without the controversy that then surrounded the idea of income tax. At that time, many people in Britain opposed income tax, on principle, because the disclosure of personal income represented an unacceptable governmental intrusion into private matters, and a potential threat to personal liberty. In fact the first permanent British income tax was not introduced until 1842, and the issue remained intensely controversial well into the 20th century.
All real property and personal property are subject to tax, unless specifically exempted by law. Most personal property owned by individuals is exempt from tax. Personal property tax applies to personal property used when conducting business, or to other personal property not exempt by law. All property taxes are paid to the county treasurer's office where the property is located. Washington does not impose a tax on intangible assets such as bank accounts, stocks, or bonds. Neither does the state assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state.
NMNew MexicanState of New Mexico
Normally, the provider or seller passes the tax on to the purchaser, however legal incidence and burden apply to the business, as an excise tax. GRT is imposed by the state and there may an additional locality component to produce a total tax rate. As of July 1, 2013 the combined tax rate ranged from 5.125% to 8.6875%. Property tax is imposed on real property by the state, by counties, and by school districts. In general, personal-use personal property is not subject to property taxation. On the other hand, property tax is levied on most business-use personal property. The taxable value of property is 1/3 of the assessed value.
Indian governmentCentral GovernmentUnion Government
India has a three-tier tax structure, wherein the constitution empowers the union government to levy income tax, tax on capital transactions (wealth tax, inheritance tax), sales tax, service tax, customs and excise duties and the state governments to levy sales tax on intrastate sale of goods, tax on entertainment and professions, excise duties on manufacture of alcohol, stamp duties on transfer of property and collect land revenue (levy on land owned). The local governments are empowered by the state government to levy property tax and charge users for public utilities like water supply, sewage etc.
NDNorthState of North Dakota
North Dakota has a slightly progressive income tax structure; the five brackets of state income tax rates are 1.1%, 2.04%, 2.27%, 2.64%, and 2.90% as of 2017. In 2005 North Dakota ranked 22nd highest by per capita state taxes. The sales tax in North Dakota is 5% for most items. The state allows municipalities to institute local sales taxes and special local taxes, such as the 1.75% supplemental sales tax in Grand Forks. Excise taxes are levied on the purchase price or market value of aircraft registered in North Dakota. The state imposes a use tax on items purchased elsewhere but used within North Dakota.
Otherwise, it should be taxed at the source of payment without subtracting its expenses. Gains, which arise from revaluation of assets are not subject to taxation. The profits are taxed at 20% rate. Value Added Tax (VAT) rate is 18%. All works, goods, services provided and taxable imports constitute the base for taxation. There also exists zero (0) rate VAT in the country for the issues related with financial aids, diplomacy, cargo and valuable goods. Excise taxes are indirect taxes which are included in the sales price of goods. All excise goods that are produced or imported to Azerbaijan are subject to taxation.
Chinese taxation systemtaxation system in mainland Chinataxes
Taxpayers are owners, mortgagees custodians and/or users of house property. (2) Tax base, tax rates and computation of tax payable Two different rates are applied to two different bases: one rate of 1. 2% is applied to the value of house property, and the other rate of 18% is applied to the rental income from the property. The formula for calculating House Property Tax payable is: Tax payable = Tax base ×Applicable rate (3) Major exemptions and reductions Newly constructed buildings shall be exempt from the tax for three years commencing from the month in which the construction is completed.