Tax avoidance

tax planningnot paying any taxestax loopholes
It was introduced in England and Wales in 1696 with the aim of imposing tax on the relative prosperity of individuals without the controversy of introducing an income tax. The bigger the house, the more windows it was likely to have, and the more tax the occupants would pay. Nevertheless, the tax was unpopular, because it was seen by some as a "tax on light" (leading to the phrase daylight robbery) and led property owners to block up windows to avoid it. The tax was repealed in 1851. Other historic examples of tax avoidance were the deliberate destructions of roofs in Scotland to avoid substantial property taxes.

Corporate tax

corporation taxcorporate income taxcorporate taxes
Corporations property tax, payroll tax, withholding tax, excise tax, customs duties, value added tax, and other common taxes, are generally not referred to as “corporate tax.” Characterization as a corporation for tax purposes is based on the form of organization, with the exception of United States Federal and most states income taxes, under which an entity may elect to be treated as a corporation and taxed at the entity level or taxed only at the member level. See Limited liability company, Partnership taxation, S corporation, Sole proprietorship. Most jurisdictions tax corporations on their income, like the United Kingdom or the United States.

Tax exemption

tax-exemptexemption statustax exempt
Tax exemption is a monetary exemption which reduces taxable income. Tax exempt status can provide complete relief from taxes, reduced rates, or tax on only a portion of items. Examples include exemption of charitable organizations from property taxes and income taxes, veterans, and certain cross-border or multi-jurisdictional scenarios. Tax exemption generally refers to a statutory exception to a general rule rather than the mere absence of taxation in particular circumstances, otherwise known as an exclusion. Tax exemption also refers to removal from taxation of a particular item rather than a deduction. International duty free shopping may be termed "tax-free shopping".

Real property

The conceptual difference was between immovable property, which would transfer title along with the land, and movable property, which a person would retain title to. In modern legal systems derived from English common law, classification of property as real or personal may vary somewhat according to jurisdiction or, even within jurisdictions, according to purpose, as in defining whether and how the property may be taxed. Bethell (1998) contains much historical information on the historical evolution of real property and property rights. To be of any value a claim to any property must be accompanied by a verifiable and legal property description.

Direct tax

direct taxationdirect taxesdirect
Regarding direct taxation for individuals, the policies cover taxation of savings income, dividend taxation of individuals and tackling tax obstacles to the cross-border provision of occupational pensions. Indirect tax. United Kingdom Corporation Tax. Income tax in the United States.

Taxation in Germany

German tax systemsolidarity surchargeGermany
Taxation classes (tax groups, Lohnsteuerklasse aka Steuerklassen) The taxation at source for capital income will be done with a flat tax rate of 25% (add solidarity surcharge of 5.5% of the amount of tax and, if applicable, church tax). Aside from standard yearly property taxes, known as Grundsteuer, On property sales in Germany there is a state level sales tax on the declared purchase amount. Transfer of German property is subject to a transfer tax (Grunderwerbsteuer)–the equivalent of UK stamp duty.

List of taxes

Payment in lieu of taxes is a system where an entity that is exempt from taxation makes a payment to the government instead. This payment may be mandatory or voluntary. Usually it applies to property. Proportional tax is any tax where the tax rate is the same for all payers. Progressive tax is a tax that charges the rich a greater percentage of their income than the poor. Regressive tax is a tax that charges the poor a greater percentage of their income than the rich. Single tax is a tax system that has only one tax levied. Steering tax is a tax that aims to change the behavior of the public.

Taxation in Switzerland

federal taxesSwitzerlandtaxation
The Federal Supreme Court has interpreted this as prohibiting a regressive tax, although flat rate taxes (as instituted in several cantons) are held to be constitutional by tax law scholars. Moreover, double taxation by several cantons is constitutionally prohibited, as is a confiscatory rate of taxation. All people resident in Switzerland are liable for the taxation of their worldwide income and assets, except on the income and wealth from foreign business or real estate, or where tax treaties limit double taxation. For tax purposes, residence may also arise if a person stays in Switzerland for 30 days, or for 90 days if he or she does not work.

Imputed rent

imputedowner-imputed rent
The absence of taxes on imputed rents is also referred to as Home-Ownership Bias. for owner-occupiers, as a small percentage (4–6%) of the capital accrued in the property. for public housing tenants, as the difference between rent paid and the average rent for a similar property in the same location. for those living rent-free, as the estimate of the rent they would have to pay to rent a similar property in the same location. for renters in the private market, as zero. Imputed income. Land value tax. Property tax.

Taxation in the United Kingdom

income taxtaxationtax
The income of charities is usually exempt from United Kingdom income tax. 1) the estates of deceased persons. 2) gifts made within seven years of death (known as Potentially Exempt Transfers or "PETs"). 3) "lifetime chargeable transfers", meaning transfers into certain types of trust. See Taxation of trusts (United Kingdom). HM Revenue & Customs. Chartered Institute of Taxation. Government spending in the United Kingdom. Institute of Indirect Taxation. Income in the United Kingdom. Tax credit. Starting rate of UK income tax. Business rates. Council tax. Local income tax. Tax. Tax haven. Tax law. Stephen Dowell, History of Taxation and Taxes in England (Routledge, 2013).

HM Revenue and Customs

HMRCHM Revenue & CustomsHer Majesty's Revenue and Customs
The department is responsible for the administration and collection of direct taxes including Income Tax, Corporation Tax, Capital Gains Tax (CGT) and Inheritance Tax (IHT), indirect taxes including Value Added Tax (VAT), excise duties and Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT), and environmental taxes such as Air Passenger Duty and the Climate Change Levy.

Window tax

contribution from doors and windowson window glassreceiver of duties on windows
The tax was introduced in England and Wales in 1696 under King William III and was designed to impose tax relative to the prosperity of the taxpayer, but without the controversy that then surrounded the idea of income tax. At that time, many people in Britain opposed income tax, on principle, because the disclosure of personal income represented an unacceptable governmental intrusion into private matters, and a potential threat to personal liberty. In fact the first permanent British income tax was not introduced until 1842, and the issue remained intensely controversial well into the 20th century.

List of countries by tax rates

state taxfederal taxfee
A comparison of tax rates by countries is difficult and somewhat subjective, as tax laws in most countries are extremely complex and the tax burden falls differently on different groups in each country and sub-national unit. The list focuses on the main indicative types of taxes: corporate tax, individual income tax, and sales tax, including VAT and GST. Some other taxes (for instance property tax, substantial in many countries, such as the United States) and payroll tax are not shown here. The table is not exhaustive in representing the true tax burden to either the corporation or the individual in the listed country.


Georgistsingle taxGeorgists
Excess burden of taxation. Externality. Free-market environmentalism. Freiwirtschaft. Geolibertarianism. Green economy. Labor economics. Laissez-faire. Land (economics). Landed property. Land law. Land monopoly. Land tenure and registration. Land value tax. Law of rent. Lockean proviso. Manorialism. Natural and legal rights. Optimal tax. Physiocracy. Pigovian tax. Poverty reduction. Progress and Poverty. Progressive Era. Prosper Australia (formerly "Henry George League"). Radical centrism. Tax reform / shift. Tragedy of the anticommons. Universal basic income. Value capture. Wealth concentration. YIMBY.

No taxation without representation

taxation without representationwithout representationa lack of colonial representation
She says when the Commonwealth of Massachusetts will give her the right of representation she will pay her taxes." The phrase is also used by other groups in America who pay various types of taxes (sales, income, property) but lack the ability to vote, such as felons (who are, in many states, barred from voting), people who work in one state and live in another (thus having to pay income tax to a state they don't live in), or people under 18. To become citizens of the United States, immigrants most often must be permanent residents for a period of time (usually 5 years). Permanent residents must pay taxes on their worldwide income and, in most cases, cannot vote.

State Board of Equalization (California)

State Board of EqualizationBoard of EqualizationCalifornia State Board of Equalization
Its original mandate was to ensure that property tax assessments were uniform and equal across all counties in the state. Prior to the creation of the state income tax, sales tax, and fuel taxes in the 1930s, California's state government was almost completely supported by property taxes, which were and still are assessed at the county level by elected tax assessors. Assessors were tempted to boost their popularity with county voters by undervaluing voters' property (and thereby lowering their taxes).

Taxation in the United States

However, internal taxes were dropped in 1817 in favor of import tariffs that went to the federal government. By the American Civil War, the principle of taxation of property at a uniform rate had developed, and many of the states relied on property taxes as a major source of revenue. However, the increasing importance of intangible property, such as corporate stock, caused the states to shift to other forms of taxation in the 1900s. Income taxes in the form of "faculty" taxes were imposed by the colonies. These combined income and property tax characteristics, and the income element persisted after 1776 in a few states. Several states adopted income taxes in 1837.


green tax shiftgreen taxenvironmental taxes
. • Carbon tax • Electronic Waste Recycling Fee • Energy Tax Act • Environmental crime • Environmental tariff • Feebate • Free-market environmentalism • Geolibertarianism • Georgism • Green politics • Land value tax • Market governance mechanism • Pigovian tax • Severance tax Payroll, income, and, to a lesser extent, sales taxes. Corporate taxes (taxes on investment and entrepreneurship). Property taxes on buildings and other infrastructure. Carbon taxes on the use of fossil fuels by greenhouse gases produced. Old hydrocarbon taxes don't penalize green house gas (GHG) production.

Taxation in Spain

Spanish Tax Decreetax in Spain
As of January 1, 2013, new properties are taxed at the reduced rate of 10%. Second-hand properties are not subject to VAT, but a transfer tax, known as Impuestos sobre Transmisiones Patrimoniales or ITP. The tax is levied by the autonomous regional governments and therefore varies by region. The rate varies from 6% to 8%. As of January 1, 2015, the corporate tax rate is 28%. In 2016 the tax will be further reduced to 25%. There is a lower tax rate for newly formed companies. The rate, which was introduced in 2015, is set at 15% for the first 2 years in which the company obtains taxable profit.

List of Washington initiatives to the people

Initiative 695I-985In 2005
(A). 912, rolling back a key component (the gas tax) of the 2005 transportation funding package, which the Legislature passed to improve road safety and relieve congestion. (R). 920, repealing Washington State estate taxes. (R). 933, concerning government regulation of private property, would have compensated property owners when regulations damage the use or value of private property. It would have forbidden further legal restrictions of private property use, and provided exceptions or payments. (R). 937, concerning energy use by electrical utilities, required large electric utilities to increase energy conservation and renewable energy use.

Taxation in China

Chinese taxation systemtaxation system in mainland Chinataxes
Taxpayers are owners, mortgagees custodians and/or users of house property. (2) Tax base, tax rates and computation of tax payable Two different rates are applied to two different bases: one rate of 1. 2% is applied to the value of house property, and the other rate of 18% is applied to the rental income from the property. The formula for calculating House Property Tax payable is: Tax payable = Tax base ×Applicable rate (3) Major exemptions and reductions Newly constructed buildings shall be exempt from the tax for three years commencing from the month in which the construction is completed.

Oregon Tax Court

tax courtTax Court, Oregon
The Oregon Tax Court is a state court in the U.S. state of Oregon, which has jurisdiction in questions of law that regard state tax laws. Examples of matters that would come before this court include income taxes, corporate excise taxes, property taxes, timber taxes, cigarette taxes, local budget law, and property tax limitations. The purpose of the court is parallel to that of the United States Tax Court. Taxpayers and tax authorities can take advantage of a court that is familiar with taxation issues. Oregon Tax Court cases are usually filed by taxpayers who are unhappy with the decisions of the Oregon Department of Revenue or a county tax assessor.

Taxation in Azerbaijan

Taxes can be withhold from people who are related to employment activities, as well as non-entrepreneurial activities such as interest income, dividends, capital gains and royalties. Agricultural income, gifts and inheritance from family members, capital gains, income from crafts production, lottery prizes, alimonies and compensation receipts are exempt from taxation. Standard deductions are applicable for war heroes, their families and military officials. Income taxes in Azerbaijan are set at progressive rate. The taxable base for residents is income which has been earned in or outside of Azerbaijan.

Taxation in Iran

smugglingSmuggling in Iranaccounting standards
A fixed deduction of 25% of the gross income is extended to all taxpayers to account for income-generating expenses. The net income, which is 75% of the gross rent, is then subject to the same rates as in the above table (max. 35%). Rental income is exempted from real estate tax if the property is a residential property leased as such and measures up to 150 sq. m. if it is located in Tehran (up to 200 sq. m. if it is located in other parts of the country).

Outline of finance

List of valuation topicsFinanceList of insurance topics
Tax advantage. Wealth. Comparison of accounting software. Personal financial management. Investment club. Collective investment scheme. Central bank. Federal Reserve. Fractional-reserve banking. Deposit creation multiplier. Tax. Capital gains tax. Estate tax (and inheritance tax). Gift tax. Income tax. Inheritance tax. Payroll tax. Property tax (including land value tax). Sales tax (including value added tax, excise tax, and use tax). Transfer tax (including stamp duty). Tax advantage. Tax, tariff and trade. Tax amortization benefit. Crowding out. Industrial policy. Agricultural policy. Currency union. Monetary reform. Actuarial science. Annuities. Catastrophe modeling. Earthquake loss.