List of taxes

This page, a companion page to tax, lists different taxes by economic design. For different taxes by country, see Tax rates around the world. Taxes generally fall into the following broad categories: Most property taxes charge for both the value of the land and the value of any buildings or other improvements on the land. A general tax refers to a tax that applies to all or most goods and services and where all are taxed at the same rate. An excise tax refers to a tax on a single item, which may be different than the tax levied on other items. Income tax. Payroll tax. Property tax. Consumption tax. Tariff (taxes on international trade). Capitation, a fixed tax charged per person.

Indirect tax

indirect taxationindirect taxesindirect
An indirect tax (such as sales tax, per unit tax, value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST ), excise, tariff) is a tax collected by an intermediary (such as a retail store) from the person who bears the ultimate economic burden of the tax (such as the consumer). The intermediary later files a tax return and forwards the tax proceeds to government with the return. In this sense, the term indirect tax is contrasted with a direct tax, which is collected directly by government from the persons (legal or natural) on whom it is imposed. Some commentators have argued that "a direct tax is one that cannot be charged by the taxpayer to someone else, whereas an indirect tax can be."

Regressive tax

regressiveregressive taxationburdening the poor
Non-uniform excise taxation based on everyday essentials like food (fat tax, salt tax), transport (fuel tax, fare hikes for public transport), energy (carbon tax) and housing (council tax, window tax) is frequently regressive on income. The income elasticity of demand of food, for example, is usually less than 1 (inelastic) (see Engel's law) and therefore as a household's income rises, the tax collected on the food remains almost the same. Therefore, as a proportion of available expenditure, the relative tax burden falls more heavily on households with lower incomes.

Ad valorem tax

ad valoremad valorem'' taxad valorem'' taxes
An ad valorem tax (Latin for "according to value") is a tax whose amount is based on the value of a transaction or of property. It is typically imposed at the time of a transaction, as in the case of a sales tax or value-added tax (VAT). An ad valorem tax may also be imposed annually, as in the case of a real or personal property tax, or in connection with another significant event (e.g. inheritance tax, expatriation tax, or tariff). In some countries a stamp duty is imposed as an ad valorem tax. A sales tax is a consumption tax charged at the point of purchase for certain goods and services. The tax is usually set as a percentage by the government charging the tax.

HM Revenue and Customs

HMRCHer Majesty's Revenue and CustomsHM Revenue & Customs
The department is responsible for the administration and collection of direct taxes including Income Tax, Corporation Tax, Capital Gains Tax (CGT) and Inheritance Tax (IHT), indirect taxes including Value Added Tax (VAT), excise duties and Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT), and environmental taxes such as Air Passenger Duty and the Climate Change Levy.

List of Washington initiatives to the people

Initiative 695I-985In 2005
(A). 912, rolling back a key component (the gas tax) of the 2005 transportation funding package, which the Legislature passed to improve road safety and relieve congestion. (R). 920, repealing Washington State estate taxes. (R). 933, concerning government regulation of private property, would have compensated property owners when regulations damage the use or value of private property. It would have forbidden further legal restrictions of private property use, and provided exceptions or payments. (R). 937, concerning energy use by electrical utilities, required large electric utilities to increase energy conservation and renewable energy use.

Corporate tax

corporation taxcorporate income taxbusiness tax
Corporations property tax, payroll tax, withholding tax, excise tax, customs duties, value added tax, and other common taxes, are generally not referred to as “corporate tax.” Characterization as a corporation for tax purposes is based on the form of organization, with the exception of United States Federal and most states income taxes, under which an entity may elect to be treated as a corporation and taxed at the entity level or taxed only at the member level. See Limited liability company, Partnership taxation, S corporation, Sole proprietorship. Most jurisdictions tax corporations on their income, like the United Kingdom or the United States.

Excise tax in the United States

Excise taxexcise taxesfederal excise tax
In the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812 the imports and tariff taxes in the United States plummeted and Congress in 1812 brought back the excise tax on whiskey to partially compensate for the loss of customs/tariff revenue. Within a few years customs duties brought in enough federal income to abolish again nearly all federal taxes except tariffs. When the United States public debt was finally paid off in 1834, President Andrew Jackson abolished the excise taxes and reduced the customs duties (tariffs) in half. Excise taxes stayed essentially zero until the American Civil War brought a need for much more federal revenue.

Direct tax

direct taxesdirect taxationdirect
In general, a direct tax is one imposed upon an individual person (juristic or natural) or property (i.e. real and personal property, livestock, crops, wages, etc.) as distinct from a tax imposed upon a transaction. In this sense, indirect taxes such as a sales tax or a value added tax (VAT) are imposed only if and when a taxable transaction occurs.

Sales tax

salessales taxesnational sales tax
Use tax, imposed directly on the consumer of goods purchased without sales tax, generally items purchased from a vendor not under the jurisdiction of the taxing authority (such as a vendor in another state). Use taxes are commonly imposed by states with a sales tax but are usually enforced only for large items such as automobiles and boats. Securities turnover excise tax, a tax on the trade of securities. Value added tax (VAT), in which tax is charged on all sales, thus avoiding the need for a system of resale certificates.

Ecotax

green tax shiftgreen taxenvironmental taxes
The proposed tax would range between 1.50 euros ($1.7) and 18 euros ($20) and apply to most flights departing in France. The French government expects the new tax to raise over 180 million euros ($200 million) from 2020. • Carbon tax • Electronic Waste Recycling Fee • Energy Tax Act • Environmental crime • Environmental tariff • Feebate • Free-market environmentalism • Geolibertarianism • Georgism • Green politics • Land value tax • Market governance mechanism • Pigovian tax • Severance tax Payroll, income, and, to a lesser extent, sales taxes. Corporate taxes (taxes on investment and entrepreneurship). Property taxes on buildings and other infrastructure.

Tax avoidance

tax planningnot paying any taxestax loopholes
Canada also uses Foreign Accrual Property Income rules to obviate certain types of tax avoidance. In the United Kingdom many provisions of the tax legislation (known as "anti-avoidance" provisions) apply to prevent tax avoidance where the main object (or purpose), or one of the main objects (or purposes), of a transaction is to enable tax advantages to be obtained. In the United States, the Internal Revenue Service distinguishes some schemes as "abusive" and therefore illegal. The Alternative Minimum Tax was developed to reduce the impact of certain tax avoidance schemes.

Taxation in Azerbaijan

Otherwise, it should be taxed at the source of payment without subtracting its expenses. Gains, which arise from revaluation of assets are not subject to taxation. The profits are taxed at 20% rate. Value Added Tax (VAT) rate is 18%. All works, goods, services provided and taxable imports constitute the base for taxation. There also exists zero (0) rate VAT in the country for the issues related with financial aids, diplomacy, cargo and valuable goods. Excise taxes are indirect taxes which are included in the sales price of goods. All excise goods that are produced or imported to Azerbaijan are subject to taxation.

Philippine legal codes

Local Government CodeLocal Government Code of the PhilippinesLocal Government Code of 1991
Codification of laws is a common practice in the Philippines. Many general areas of substantive law, such as criminal law, civil law and labor law are governed by legal codes.

Gasoline

petrolgasleaded gasoline
In the United States, most consumer goods bear pre-tax prices, but gasoline prices are posted with taxes included. Taxes are added by federal, state, and local governments. As of 2009, the federal tax is 18.4¢ per gallon for gasoline and 24.4¢ per gallon for diesel (excluding red diesel). Among individual states, the highest gasoline tax rates, including the federal taxes as of October 2018, are found in Pennsylvania (77.1¢/gal), California (73.93¢/gal), and Washington (67.8¢/gal). About 9 percent of all gasoline sold in the U.S. in May 2009 was premium grade, according to the Energy Information Administration.

Tax evasion

tax fraudincome tax evasionevasion
A study of the 2008 tax gap found a range of $450–$500 billion, and unreported income to be about $2 trillion, concluding that 18 to 19 percent of total reportable income was not being properly reported to the IRS. • Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes • History of tax resistance • Informal sector • Land value tax • Panama Papers • Social inequality • Tax amnesty • Tax avoidance • Tax haven • Tax information exchange agreements • Tax noncompliance • Tax resistance • Taxation as slavery • Taxation as theft • U.S. taxation of illegal income * Employment Tax Evasion Schemes common employment schemes at IRS Tax Evasion and Fraud collected news and commentary

Duty-free shop

duty-freeduty freeduty-free store
The European Union does not permit arrivals duty-free stores; some EU airports sell goods on arrival in the baggage claim area described as "Tax-Free", but these goods are all tax-paid sales, the local sales tax is discounted. Normally, discounted liquors or tobacco products cannot be bought when arriving into an EU Member State as there is often a high local Excise Duty on these goods as well as the local sales tax (VAT/IVA/TVA) which is included in the price. In some EU Territories the tax on tobaccos and liquors is lower than in other EU countries, which is why the prices still seem competitive and look like duty-free prices.

Consumption tax

consumptionconsumption taxesbroad-based consumption tax
A simple value-added tax would be proportional to consumption but would also tend to be regressive on income at higher income levels, as consumption tends to fall as a percentage of income as income rises. Savings and investment are tax-deferred until they become consumption. A value-added tax may exclude certain goods to make it less regressive against income. It is imposed in European Union countries. Value added tax is a consumption based tax and is levied each and every time the value of a good gets increased in the process of manufacturing to the point of sale. In Australia, Canada, New Zealand and Singapore, it is instead called a "Goods and Services Tax."

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
The single market involves the free circulation of goods, capital, people, and services within the EU, and the customs union involves the application of a common external tariff on all goods entering the market. Once goods have been admitted into the market they cannot be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or import quotas, as they travel internally. The non-EU member states of Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland participate in the single market but not in the customs union. Half the trade in the EU is covered by legislation harmonised by the EU.

Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Sixteenth Amendment16th AmendmentSixteenth
Until 1913, customs duties (tariffs) and excise taxes were the primary sources of federal revenue. During the War of 1812, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander J. Dallas made the first public proposal for an income tax, but it was never implemented. The Congress did introduce an income tax to fund the Civil War through the Revenue Act of 1861. It levied a flat tax of three percent on annual income above $800. This act was replaced the following year with the Revenue Act of 1862, which levied a graduated tax of three to five percent on income above $600 and specified a termination of income taxation in 1866.

Taxation in Germany

solidarity surchargeGerman tax systemGermany
One-man businesses and members of a partnership may deduct a large portion of trade tax from their personal income tax bill. As from 1 January 2008, corporate entities may no longer deduct trade tax from their taxable profits. As a matter of principle, all services and products generated in Germany by a business entity are subject to value-added tax (VAT). The German VAT is part of the European Union value added tax system. Certain goods and services are exempted from value-added tax by law; this applies for German and foreign businesses alike. For example, the following are exempted from German value-added tax: The rate of value-added tax rate generally in force in Germany is 19%.

Taxation in the United Kingdom

income taxUK tax lawtaxation
The Finance Act 2004 introduced an income tax regime known as "pre-owned asset tax" which aims to reduce the use of common methods of inheritance tax avoidance. Income tax forms the single largest source of revenues collected by the government. The second largest source of government revenue is National Insurance Contributions. The third largest source of government revenues is value added tax (VAT), and the fourth-largest is corporation tax. United Kingdom source income is generally subject to UK taxation whatever the citizenship and place of residence of an individual, or the place of registration of a company.

Flat tax

flat income taxflatflat rate
For example, suppose that in a given year, a company called ACME earns a profit of 3 million, spends 2 million in wages, and spends 1 million on other expenses that under the tax law is taxable income to recipients, such as the receipt of stock options, bonuses, and certain executive privileges. Given a flat rate of 15%, ACME would then owe the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) (3M + 2M + 1M) × 0.15 = 900,000. This payment would, in one fell swoop, settle the tax liabilities of ACME's employees as well as the corporate taxes owed by ACME.

Government of India

Indian governmentCentral GovernmentGovt. of India
India has a three-tier tax structure, wherein the constitution empowers the union government to levy income tax, tax on capital transactions (wealth tax, inheritance tax), sales tax, service tax, customs and excise duties and the state governments to levy sales tax on intrastate sale of goods, tax on entertainment and professions, excise duties on manufacture of alcohol, stamp duties on transfer of property and collect land revenue (levy on land owned). The local governments are empowered by the state government to levy property tax and charge users for public utilities like water supply, sewage etc.

Kenyan taxation system

Kenya’s taxation system covers income tax, value-added tax, customs and excise duty. The regulations are governed by independent legislators that govern the taxation system, the main legislator, the Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA) has different sections that deal with the above taxes while also having the authority to undertake reviews on various companies and corporations. The main goal of the system is to limit corruption as it is a problem in developing nations such as Kenya. The Income Tax Act is the most important tax used in Kenya.