However, Ternopil is a city of regional significance, thus being subject directly to the oblast authorities rather than to the raion administration which is housed in the city as well. The city was founded in 1540 by Polish commander and Hetman Jan Amor Tarnowski, as a military stronghold and castle. On 15 April 1540, the King of Poland Sigismund I in Cracow handed Tarnowski a permission for the establishment of Tarnopol settlement, in the vicinity of Sopilcze (Sopilche). Its Polish name "Tarnopol" means "Tarnowski's city" and stems from a combination of the founder's family name and the Greek term "polis".
Equivalent type of regional subdivision are also raions in city (Raions of cities in Ukraine), and cities of regional significance (City of regional significance (Ukraine)). Raions are one of three types of administrative divisions of regions of Ukraine and second level in the administrative divisions of Ukraine. In 2019, the government proposed to carry out a reform of administrative divisions of Ukraine, which would reduce the number of raions is from 490 to 102. There are 490 raions in 24 oblasts and the Crimea autonomous republic of Ukraine. The number of raions per region (oblast and autonomous republic) varies between 11 and over 20. The average area of a Ukrainian raion is 1200 km2.
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. It is bordered by Russia to the north-east; Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west; and Romania, Moldova, and the Black Sea to the south. Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603628 km², making it both the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev.
A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.
OblastSubdivisions of UkraineMunicipality
Cities of oblast significance (178). City districts (118). Primary level (Local communities, 11,515):. Cities of raion significance (276). Urban-type settlements (885). Villages (27,190). Rural-type settlements (1,266). The city of Slavutych which is administratively subordinated directly to Kiev Oblast while being completely surrounded by neighboring Chernihiv Oblast. The settlement of Bile which is located on Snake Island and is fully surrounded by the Black Sea was established in 2007 and is part of Vylkove, Odessa Oblast. The town of Kotsiubynske which is part of the Kiev Oblast and is completely surrounded by the city of Kiev.
Berezhany (Бережани, Brzeżany, ברעזשאַן, Bzhezhani/Bzhizhani) is a city of regional significance located in the Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Berezhanskyi Raion (district), and lies about 100 km from Lviv and 50 km from the oblast capital, Ternopil. The city has a population of about 20,000, and is about 400 m above sea level. The yearly temperature in Berezhany ranges from -35 °C in winter to 40 °C in summer. The first written mention of Berezhany dates from 1374, when the village was granted by the Governor of Galicia and Lodomeria Vladislaus II to Ruthenian boyar Vas'ko Teptukhovych.
Ivano-FrankivskIvano-Frankivsk regionStanislav Oblast
Prykarpattia, together with Lviv and Ternopil regions, was the main body of the historic region of eastern Halychyna; which in the 13th century was a part of the Kingdom of Rus and the Halych-Volyn Principality (see Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia). Along with the Lviv and Ternopil regions Prykarpattia is a component of the Carpathian Euroregion. During the times of the Second Polish Republic the area was known as Stanisławów Voivodeship (1918–1939) and later, after the Soviet invasion of Poland, as Stanislav Oblast (1939–1962). During World War II it was part of the District of Galicia in General Governorate.
ChernivtsiChernivtsi regionChernivetska Oblast
Chernivtsi Oblast is bordered by Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ternopil Oblast, Khmelnytskyi Oblast, Vinnytsia Oblast, Romania, and Moldova. Within the oblast the national border of Ukraine with Romania extends 226 km, and with Moldova. Chernivtsi oblast was created on August 7, 1940 in the wake of the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. The oblast was organized out of the northeast part of Ţinutul Suceava of Kingdom of Romania, joining parts of three historical regions: northern half of Bukovina, northern half of the Hotin County county of Bessarabia, and Hertza region, which was part of the Dorohoi county (presently Botoşani County) of proper Moldavia.
Volhynia was completely parted after the incorporation of the east Poland into the Soviet Union in September 1939 and divided between three oblast, Volyn, Rivne, and Ternopil. The Rivne Oblast is administratively subdivided into 16 raions (districts) as well as 4 cities (municipalities) which are directly subordinate to the oblast government: Dubno, Varash, Ostroh, and the administrative center of the oblast, Rivne. Rivne is one of the regions with the highest birth rate in all of Ukraine. The heavy rural (about two thirds of the population is rural) and ethnic Ukrainian (close to 95%) composition of the population might be responsible for this.
The oblast borders the Rivne Oblast to the northwest, the Zhytomyr Oblast to the northeast, the Vinnytsia Oblast to the east, the Chernivtsi Oblast to the south, and the Ternopil Oblast to the west. The Podolian Upland (270–370 meters above sea-level) occupies the central area of the Khmelnytska oblast. The northwestern areas of the oblast are part of the Volyn highland (highest point — 329 m above sea-level), while to the north, the oblast claims a part of the historic region of Polissia (highest point — 200–250 m above sea-level). The southwestern territory of the Khmelnytska oblast is crossed by the Tovtry range (Товтровий кряж, translit.
Chortkiv (Чортків; Czortków; undefined Chortkov) is a city in Ternopil Oblast (province) in western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Chortkiv Raion (district), housing the district's local administration buildings. Chortkiv is located in the northern part of the historic region of Galician Podolia on the banks of the Seret River. In the past Chortkiv was the home of many Hasidic Jews; it was a notable shtetl and had a significant number of Jews residing there prior to the Holocaust. Today, Chortkiv is a regional commercial and small-scale manufacturing center.
LvivLviv regionLvivska Oblast
Two of these, Lviv Oblast and Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast were entirely contained in the kingdom; the third oblast of Ternopil was mainly in the kingdom apart from four of its most northerly counties (raions). The counties of the Kingdom of Galicia remained largely unchanged when they were incorpoated into successor states; with minor changes as detailed below, the current counties are almost co-extensive with those of the Kingdom. The region is also notable for having declared independence from the central government during the 2014 Euromaidan protests. The terrain of Lviv Oblast is highly varied.
Kremianets', Kremenets'; Krzemieniec; קרעמעניץ) is a city of regional significance in the Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Kremenets Raion (district), and lies 18 km north-east of the great Pochayiv Monastery. The city is situated in the historic region of Volhynia. According to some sources the Kremenets fortress was built in the 8th or 9th century, and later became a part of Kievan Rus'. The first documented reference to the fortress is given in a Polish encyclopedic dictionary written in 1064.
The cities of regional significance can either be of oblast subordinance or republican subordinance (in Crimea). The cities of national significance are officially known as the cities with special status. The significance of a city does not relate to whether the city is an administrative center and such industrial cities like Kryvyi Rih, Mariupol, Makiivka, Horlivka, Kamianske and others have the same level of significance as the regional administrative centers. Below is the list of all cities estimated by population in 2014 and compared to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, except for Chernobyl which population is an unofficial estimate.
city of district significancecities of district significance
Half of the cities of district significance are located within just six oblasts, not to mention that 94% of all of the cities in Ternopil Oblast and 82% in Chernivtsi Oblast are designated cities of district significance. These numbers are particularly higher than those in other regions throughout Ukraine due to a lower number of larger cities that could meet the status of cities of regional significance. Out of the 276 cities of district significance, 89 of them (32% of them) are not administrative centers of their surrounding rural raions.
Tarnopil Oblast was the name of Ternopil Oblast 1939–41 (renamed soon after World War II). Administrative divisions of Ukraine. Geography of Ukraine. ISO 3166-2:UA. List of etymologies of country subdivision names: "Ukraine". List of places named after people (Ukraine). Ukrainian historical regions. Handbook on history of the Communist Party and the Soviet Union. Handbook on history of the Communist Party and the Soviet Union.
An administrative center is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a commune is located.
2001 Ukrainian CensusUkrainian Census of 20012001 census
Ternopil Oblast - 1,138.5 (100%). Ukrainians - 1,113.5 (97.8%). Russians - 14.2 (1.2%). Poles - 3.8 (0.3%). Vinnytsia Oblast - 1,763.9 (100%). Ukrainians - 1,674.1 (94.9%). Russians - 67.5 (3.8%). Volyn Oblast - 1,057.2 (100%). Ukrainians - 1,025.0 (96.9%). Russians - 25.1 (2.4%). Belarusians - 3.2 (0.3%). Zakarpattia Oblast - 1,254.6 (100%). Ukrainians - 1,010.1 (80.5%). Hungarians - 151.5 (12.1%). Romanians - 32.1 (2.6%). Russians - 31.0 (2.5%). Gypsies - 14.0 (1.1%). Slovaks - 5.6 (0.5%). Germans - 3.5 (0.3%). Zaporizhzhia Oblast - 1,926.8 (100%). Ukrainians - 1,364.1 (70.8%). Russians - 476.8 (24.7%). Bulgarians - 27.7 (1.4%). Belarusians - 12.6 (0.7%). Armenians - 6.4 (0.3%).
To its west and south, the raion borders upon the Ternopil and Chernivtsi Oblasts, respectfully. It is the largest raion of the oblast, with an area of 1537 km2 constituting 7.5 percent of the oblast's area. A total of seven rivers flow through the raion, including the Dniester and Smotrych Rivers. Before the modern-day Kaimanets-Podilskyi Raion existed, a large portion of its current boundaries was under the control of other raions, one of which was the Dovzhok Raion, established on March 7, 1923 as part of an administrative reorganization of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
The oblast borders upon the Rivne Oblast to the northwest, the Zhytomyr Oblast to the northeast, the Vinnytsia Oblast to the east, the Chernivtsi Oblast to the south, and the Ternopil Oblast to the west. Administratively, it is divided into a total of 20 raions (districts), which serve as the second level of administrative division in the country. It has a total of 13 cities, six of which are under the oblast's jurisdiction (including its administrative center Khmelnytskyi) and seven which are under their raion's jurisdiction. The oblast has 24 urban-type settlements, 568 rural municipalities, 1409 villages, and five rural settlements.
The city itself is designated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. It is not to be confused with the Russian city of Cherkassk which is on the Don River to the east. Population: The city is the cultural, educational and industrial center of Cherkasy Oblast and Central Economical Region of Ukraine. Cherkasy has been known since the 13th century and played a great role in the history of Ukraine. Cherkasy was the center of Cossacks, citizens took part in Khmelnychchyna and Koliyivschyna (cossacks' and peasants' rebellions).
Administratively, Chernivtsi is a city of regional significance. At the time of the 2001 Ukrainian Census, the population of the city was 240,600. Current population: Chernivtsi is currently viewed as one of Western Ukraine's main cultural centers. The city is also considered one of Ukraine's important educational and architectural sites. Historically a cosmopolitan community, Chernivtsi was once dubbed "Little Vienna" and "Jerusalem upon the Prut". Chernivtsi is currently twinned with seven other cities around the world. The city is a major regional rail and road transportation hub, also housing an international airport.
Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance. Population: Chernihiv stands on the Desna River 150 km to the north-north-east of Kiev. The area was served by Chernihiv Shestovitsa Airport, and during the Cold War it was the site of Chernigov air base. Chernihiv was first mentioned in the Rus'-Byzantine Treaty (907) (as Черниговъ (Chernigov)), but the time of establishment is not known. According to the items uncovered by archaeological excavations of a settlement which included artifacts from the Khazar Khaganate, it seems to have existed at least in the 9th century. Towards the end of the 10th century, the city probably had its own rulers.
Kaniv serves as the administrative center of Kaniv Raion (district), but is designated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: Kaniv is a historical town that was founded in the 11th century by Kievan Prince Yaroslav the Wise. This pleasant city is known today mostly for the burial site of Taras Shevchenko, the great Ukrainian poet and artist. Picturesque and ancient, Kaniv was once one of Kievan Rus’ largest cities. At that time, it was an outpost used for diplomatic meetings between Ruthenian princes and ambassadors of militant tribes.
Uman, UkraineHumanHuman, Ukraine
Uman serves as the administrative center of Uman Raion (district), but is designated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: Among Ukrainians, Uman is known for its depiction of the Haidamak rebellions in Taras Shevchenko's longest of poems, Haidamaky ("The Haidamaks", 1843). The city is also a pilgrimage site for Breslov Hasidic Jews and a major center of gardening research containing the dendrological park Sofiyivka and the University of Gardening. Uman (Humań) was a privately owned city of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Uman was first mentioned in historical documents in 1616, when it was under Polish rule.