Thai language

ThaiThai:Central Thai
For this reason, most language courses recommend that learners master the Thai script. Official standards are the Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS), published by the Royal Institute of Thailand, and the almost identical defined by the International Organization for Standardization. The RTGS system is increasingly used in Thailand by central and local governments, especially for road signs. Its main drawbacks are that it does not indicate tone or vowel length. As the system is based on pronunciation, not orthography, reconstruction of Thai spelling from RTGS romanisation is not possible.

Nobiliary particle

Thailand: The Thai word na (of Pali origin) may be granted by a Thai monarch to form a Thai family name signifying of a former kingdom or tributary state of Siam. Example: Na Ayudhya, putative royal lineage in the Ayutthaya Kingdom that may be granted after marriage into the royal Chakri Dynasty. The honorific particles Sri (RTGS: Si) and Phra are also used in various names of Thai nobility (e.g. Somdet Chao Phraya Sri Suriwongse, RTGS: Si Suriwong). Phra which is rooted in the Sanskrit vara (in Pali: bara) means holy or excellent and is also used as a formal address (Preah) in the royal names of several Cambodian rulers (Preah Norodom Sihanouk and his son Preah Norodom Sihamoni).

ISO 11940-2

Although the standard is described as a procedure acting on the Thai orthography, the system is based on the pronunciation. Its rules can therefore be also described in terms of Thai phonology. Prominent features of include: Transcription is according to pronunciation, not Thai orthography, especially notable in final consonants. Vowels are transcribed in sequence as pronounced, not as written in Thai script. Implied vowels, which are not written in Thai script, are inserted as pronounced. Written silent letters are omitted. The result of applying the rules described in the standard is almost identical to the transcription defined by the Royal Thai General System of Transcription.

ISO 11940

ISOstandard romanization systemtransliteration
(Most Thai input methods ensure that the marks are stored in bottom to top order.) It does not transpose preposed vowels with complete consonant clusters; consonant clusters cannot be identified with complete accuracy, and transposing vowels with clusters would require an additional symbol to permit reliable conversion back to the Thai script. For example, under this implementation ภาษาไทย transliterates to and เชียงใหม่ to. Finally, this implementation generates transliterations in Unicode Normalisation Form C (NFC). List of ISO transliterations. Romanization of Lao. Romanization of Thai. Royal Thai General System of Transcription. Official ISO site. Transliteration rules on


Thai society has been influenced in recent years by its widely available multi-language press and media. There are some English and numerous Thai and Chinese newspapers in circulation. Most Thai popular magazines use English headlines as a chic glamour factor. Many large businesses in Bangkok operate in English as well as other languages. Thailand is the largest newspaper market in Southeast Asia with an estimated circulation of over 13 million copies daily in 2003. Even upcountry, out of Bangkok, the media flourish.

Tone (linguistics)

tonetonal languagetones
English translation available (open-access). English translation available (open-access). Hyman, Larry M., (2007a). "There is no pitch-accent prototype". Paper presented at the 2007 LSA Meeting. Anaheim, CA. Hyman, Larry M., (2007b). " Tone: Is it Different?". DRAFT prepared for The Handbook of Phonological Theory, 2nd Ed., Blackwell (John Goldsmith, Jason Riggle & Alan Yu, eds). (Reprinted 1972, ISBN: 0-472-08734-7). ISBN: 0-521-77445-4 (pbk). English translation available (open-access). Hyman, Larry M., (2007a). "There is no pitch-accent prototype". Paper presented at the 2007 LSA Meeting. Anaheim, CA. Hyman, Larry M., (2007b). " Tone: Is it Different?".


diacriticsdiacritical markdiacritical marks
English is one of the few European languages that does not have many words that contain diacritical marks. Instead, digraphs are the main way the Modern English alphabet adapts the Latin to its phonemes. Exceptions are unassimilated foreign loanwords, including borrowings from French and, increasingly, Spanish; however, the diacritic is also sometimes omitted from such words. Loanwords that frequently appear with the diacritic in English include café, résumé or resumé (a usage that helps distinguish it from the verb resume), soufflé, and naïveté (see English terms with diacritical marks).

Vowel length

shortlong vowellong
Often the chroneme, or the "longness", acts like a consonant, and may have arisen from one etymologically, such as in Australian English. While not distinctive in most other dialects of English, vowel length is an important phonemic factor in many of the world's languages and dialects, for instance in Arabic, Finnish, Fijian, Kannada, Japanese, Old English, Scottish Gaelic and Vietnamese. It plays a phonetic role in the majority of dialects of British English and is said to be phonemic in a few other dialects, such as Australian English, South African English and New Zealand English. It also plays a lesser phonetic role in Cantonese, unlike other varieties of Chinese.

Thai numerals

ThaiThai numeral systemalternate numbers
In fact, the etymology of Thai numerals 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 is Middle Chinese, while the etymology of Thai numeral 5 is Old Chinese, as illustrated in the table below Numerical digit characters, however, are almost identical to Khmer numerals. Thai and Lao words for numerals are almost identical, however, the numerical digits vary somewhat in shape. Shown above is a comparison between three languages using Cantonese and Minnan characters and pronunciations. Shown below is a comparison between three languages using Khmer numerals. Thai and Lao. The Thai transliteration uses the Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS).

Lao script

LaoLao alphabetLaos
The table below shows the Lao consonant, its name, its pronunciation according to the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), as well as various romanisation schemes, such as the French-based systems in use by both the US Board of Geographic Names and the British Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (BGN/PCGN), the English-based system in use by the US Library of Congress (LC), Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS) used in Thailand, and finally its Unicode name. A slash indicates the pronunciation at the beginning juxtaposed with its pronunciation at the end of a syllable. Note that the Unicode names for the characters ຝ (FO TAM) and ຟ (FO SUNG) are reversed.

Isan language

IsanIsan dialectdialect of Lao
The following examples are lyrics of songs known to Lao people in Laos and Isan, with Thai script as used in Isan, with the pronunciation in bold where pronunciation deviates from what the Thai script would suggest not taking into account tonal differences: Lyrics to Phleng Baisri/Phlèng Basi (traditional song of the baisri (Lao basi) ceremony used to call forth the protective guardian spirits) Isan (Thai alphabet): หมู่ชาวเมืองมา เบื้องขวานั่งส่ายล่าย เบื้องซ้ายนั่งเป็นแถว ยอพาขวัญไม้จันทน์เพริดแพร้ว ขวัญมาแล้ว มาสู่คีงกลม RTGS : Mu chao mueang ma, bueang khwa nang sailai, bueuang chai nang ben thaew yo pha khwan mai chan phroed phraew khwan ma laew ma su khing klom Thai (Central) pronunciation

Orthographic ligature

ligatureligaturestypographic ligature
It has exactly the same use in French and in English. The ampersand comes in many different forms. Because of its ubiquity, it is generally no longer considered a ligature, but a logogram. Like many other ligatures, it has at times been considered a letter (e.g., in early Modern English); in English it is pronounced "and", not "et", except in the case of &c, pronounced "et cetera". In most fonts, it does not immediately resemble the two letters used to form it, although certain typefaces (such as Trebuchet MS) use the design & in the form of a ligature.

International Phonetic Alphabet

IPAPronunciationInternational Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
However, most American (and some British) volumes use one of a variety of pronunciation respelling systems, intended to be more comfortable for readers of English. For example, the respelling systems in many American dictionaries (such as Merriam-Webster) use for IPA and for IPA, reflecting common representations of those sounds in written English, using only letters of the English Roman alphabet and variations of them. (In IPA, represents the sound of the French (as in tu), and represents the pair of sounds in graopper.) The IPA is also not universal among dictionaries in languages other than English.

Aspirated consonant

Armenian and Cantonese have aspiration that lasts about as long as English aspirated stops, in addition to unaspirated stops. Korean has lightly-aspirated stops that fall between the Armenian and Cantonese unaspirated and aspirated stops as well as strongly-aspirated stops whose aspiration lasts longer than that of Armenian or Cantonese. (See voice onset time.) Aspiration varies with place of articulation. The Spanish voiceless stops have voice onset times (VOTs) of about 5, 10, and 30 milliseconds, and English aspirated have VOTs of about 60, 70, and 80 ms. Voice onset time in Korean has been measured at 20, 25, and 50 ms for and 90, 95, and 125 for.

Scriptio continua

scripta continuano spacescriptura continua
Modern Thai script, which was said to have been created by King Ram Khamhaeng in 1283, does not contain any spaces between words, but spaces only indicate the clear endings of clauses or sentences. Below is a sample sentence of Thai written first without spaces between words (with Thai romanization in parentheses), second written in Thai with spaces between words (also with Thai romanization in parentheses), then finally translated into English.

Oil sands

tar sandsoil sandoilsand
After several years of production in situ, it has become clear that current THAI methods do not work as planned. Amid steady drops in production from their THAI wells at Kerrobert, Petrobank has written down the value of their THAI patents and the reserves at the facility to zero. They have plans to experiment with a new configuration they call "multi-THAI," involving adding more air injection wells. This is an experimental method that employs a number of vertical air injection wells above a horizontal production well located at the base of the bitumen pay zone. An initial Steam Cycle similar to CSS is used to prepare the bitumen for ignition and mobility.

List of islands of Thailand

Island of ThailandChumphon Archipelagohundreds of tropical islands
This list gives precedence to the Royal Thai General System of Transcription favored by the Government of Thailand, for the English-based Thai transcription is now becoming obsolete. Ko Kra. Ko Losin. Ko Yi.

Bang Sai District (1404)

Bang SaiAmphoe Bang Sai (1404)Amphoe Bang Sai
There is another district of Ayutthaya which shares the same romanization Bang Sai, but has a different spelling in Thai. The district dates back to khwaeng Sena Noi, which became an amphoe in 1898. It was renamed Ratchakhram in 1923 as the name of central tambon. In 1925 the district office was relocated to tambon Bang Sai, which became the name of the district in 1939. Neighboring districts are (from the north clockwise) Bang Ban, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Bang Pa-in of Ayutthaya Province, Sam Khok of Pathum Thani Province, and Lat Bua Luang and Sena of Ayutthaya again. The district is divided into 23 sub-districts (tambons).

Palace Revolt of 1912

Palace revolt1912conspiring to overthrow
Infatuated with Western culture and practices and considering himself an Edwardian English gentleman, Vajiravudh spent his time translating Shakespeare into Thai, staging dramatic productions, hunting, and overseeing his Wild Tiger Corps. On 1 May 1911 Vajiravudh established the Wild Tiger Corps (Thai: กองเสือป่า) (RTGS: Kong Suea Pa). The corps was meant to be a nationwide paramilitary corps, answerable only to the monarch. At first a ceremonial guard, it became a military force of 4,000 within its first year. Filled with commoners, the king would often mess with them and socialize with them openly. Army officers were not permitted to join the organization.

Ubon United F.C.

Ubon UMT UnitedUbon UnitedUbon UMT United F.C.
In 2016 the club won the Thai Division 1 League and were promoted to the Thai League 1 for the first time. A new ground, UMT Stadium, was built stadium in The Eastern University of Management and Technology (UMT), from which the club has taken its name. The stadium was inaugurated for the 2017 season. In the end of 2018, The club was change the name and logo to Ubon United. Coaches by years (2014–present) * Ubon United P = Played. W = Games won. D = Games drawn. L = Games lost. F = Goals for. A = Goals against. Pts = Points. Pos = Final position. N/A = No answer. TPL = Thai Premier League. TL = Thai League 1. QR1 = First Qualifying Round. QR2 = Second Qualifying Round.

Khon Kaen United F.C.

Khon Kaen UnitedKhonkaen UnitedFootball
Thai League 3. Champions (1): 2019. Thai League 3 Upper Region. Champions (1): 2019. Regional League North-East Division. Winners (1) : 2015.

Outline of Thailand

Topic outline of ThailandOutline
Thai stilt house. Cuisine of Thailand. Diving in Thailand. Diving sites in Ko Tao. Etiquette in Thailand. Festivals in Thailand. Languages of Thailand. Thai alphabet. Media in Thailand. Museums in Thailand. National symbols of Thailand. Coat of arms of Thailand. Flag of Thailand. National anthem of Thailand. People of Thailand. Ethnic groups in Thailand. Indians in Thailand. Thai names. Prostitution in Thailand. Public holidays in Thailand. Women in Thailand. World Heritage Sites in Thailand. Art in Thailand. Thai temple art and architecture. Buddha images in Thailand. Thai Buddha. Cinema of Thailand. List of cinemas in Thailand. List of films shot in Thailand. Dance of Thailand.

Udon Thani F.C.

Udon ThaniUdon Thani Football Club
Udon Thani FC in English. Official UDFC fanclubpage on Facebook. สโมสรฟุตบอลจังหวัดอุดรธานี. โปรวินเชียลลีก. Online magazin für Thai fussball. Thai League Football. Thai League Online. Udon Thani FC Clubwebsite.

Territorial Defense Student

Army Reserve Force StudentsTerritorial Defence StudentReserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC)
Territorial defense students are a military youth organization in Thailand under control of the Royal Thai Army, and recently the Royal Thai Navy and Royal Thai Air Force. Prior to World War II the Yuwachon Thahan (or "junior soldiers", Thai: ยุวชนทหาร) were established in 1934 by Field Marshal Luang Pibulsonggram. At the beginning of World War II junior soldiers were sent to fight troops of the Japanese Empire that invaded southern Thailand on 8 December 1941. At the end of the war the junior soldiers were disbanded, but Lieutenant General Luang Chatnakrop created the territorial defense students to replace them in 1948.