Ingelfinger rule

Ingelfinger, the NEJM editor-in-chief who enunciated it in 1969. An earlier version of the policy had been expressed in 1960 by Samuel Goudsmit, editor of the Physical Review Letters, but did not become as well known. * List of academic journals by preprint policy. News embargo. Network effect.


British Medical JournalBMJThe British Medical Journal
The five journals that have cited The BMJ most often are (in order of descending citation frequency) The BMJ, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Lancet, BMC Public Health, and BMC Health Services Research., the five journals that have been cited most frequently by articles published in The BMJ are The BMJ, The Lancet, The New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. In the 2019 Journal Citation Reports, The BMJ's impact factor was 27.604 in 2018, ranking it fourth among general medical journals.

List of open-access journals

List of open access journalsList of journals available free onlinefree online access to its research articles
The New England Journal of Medicine. Open Heart. Open Medicine. PLOS Medicine. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. PLOS Pathogens. Scientia Pharmaceutica. Swiss Medical Weekly. Gamut: The Journal of the Music Theory Society of the Mid-Atlantic. Music Theory Online. Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy. Philosophers' Imprint. New Journal of Physics. Open Physics. Physical Review X. Nature Communications. PLOS ONE. Royal Society Open Science. Science Advances. Scientific Reports. Caucasian Review of International Affairs. Central European Journal of International and Security Studies. Journal of Politics & Society. Michigan Journal of Political Science. Cultural Anthropology.

John Collins Warren

John C. WarrenJohn Collins Warren (Sr.)John Collins Warren, Sr.
During this time, Warren played a leading role in establishing New England's first medical journal, The New England Journal of Medicine and Surgery (first issue January 1812), which subsequently evolved into today's New England Journal of Medicine. He was also active in the Anthology Club. Warren was the first dean of Harvard Medical School (1816–1819) and promoted its move from Cambridge to Boston. Harvard presented him with an honorary medical degree in 1819. He was a founding member of Massachusetts General Hospital and served as the facility's first surgeon. He held an appointment on the hospital staff until 1853 and was then on its Board of Consultation until his death.

Massachusetts Medical Society

Massachusetts Medical Society Committee Jeff Nutrition
The Massachusetts Medical Society is the owner and publisher of the New England Journal of Medicine which is the most widely read, cited and influential medical journal in the world. The New England Journal of Medicine is also the oldest continuously published and circulating medical journal in the world and has an impact factor of 79.3, which is the highest among all the medical journals in the world. It also publishes the Journal Watch family of professional newsletters.

James Homer Wright

James WrightWright
These began regular publication as the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal which later became the New England Journal of Medicine. In 1924 Wright, along with Dr. Frank B. Mallory, published Pathological Technique: a Practical Manual for the Pathological Laboratory. The book saw eight editions and for many years was the standard textbook in the field. He is the "Wright" in Wright's stain, and the "Homer Wright rosettes" associated with neuroblastoma. *Romanowsky stain

Henry Jacob Bigelow

His "Insensibility during Surgical Operations Produced by Inhalation" (1846), detailing the discovery of ether anesthesia, was selected by readers of the New England Journal of Medicine as the "most important article in NEJM history" in commemoration of the journal's 200th anniversary. "Dr. Harlow's case of Recovery from the passage of an Iron Bar through the Head" (1850) brought the case of Phineas Gage out of complete obscurity into merely relative obscurity, and largely neutralized remaining scepticism about the case. Bigelow described the structure and function of the Y-ligament of the hip joint in great detail, and it still carries his name.

Manuscript (publishing)

preprintsmanuscriptManuscript format
List of academic journals by preprint policy. Prepress. Postprint. ScientificCommons. Self-archiving.

Addiction Rare in Patients Treated with Narcotics

A letter
"Addiction Rare in Patients Treated with Narcotics" was the title of a letter to the editor published by Jane Porter and Hershel Jick in the January 10, 1980, issue of The New England Journal of Medicine. The letter analyzed data on patients who had been treated with opioids in a hospital setting, and concluded that addiction was uncommon among such patients. It has since been frequently misrepresented to claim that opioids are not addictive when prescribed for use at home, which has been blamed for contributing to the opioid epidemic in the United States.

ArXiv e-print archivearXiv id
List of academic journals by preprint policy. PsyArXiv. Science 2.0. Semantic Scholar. SocArxiv. Social Science Research Network. viXra.

The Lancet

LancetLancet OncologyThe Lancet Oncology
Most notably, the "Iraq Family Health Survey" published in the New England Journal of Medicine surveyed 9,345 households across Iraq and estimated 151,000 deaths due to violence (95% uncertainty range, 104,000 to 223,000) over the same period covered in the second Lancet survey by Burnham et al. The NEJM article stated that the second Lancet survey "considerably overestimated the number of violent deaths" and said the Lancet results were "highly improbable, given the internal and external consistency of the data and the much larger sample size and quality-control measures taken in the implementation of the IFHS."

Opioid epidemic in the United States

opioid crisisopioid epidemican addiction crisis in the U.S.
A brief letter published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) in January 1980, titled "Addiction Rare in Patients Treated with Narcotics", generated much attention and changed this thinking. A group of researchers in Canada claim that the letter may have originated and contributed to the opioid crisis. The NEJM published its rebuttal to the 1980 letter in June 2017, pointing out among other things that the conclusions were based on hospitalized patients only, and not on patients taking the drugs after they were sent home. The original author, Dr. Hershel Jick, has said that he never intended for the article to justify widespread opioid use.

Jeffrey M. Drazen

Drazen JMJeff DrazenJeffrey Drazen
Drazen is the editor-in-chief of The New England Journal of Medicine since 2000. He currently holds the positions of senior physician at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Distinguished Parker B. Francis Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, professor of physiology at the Harvard School of Public Health, and adjunct professor of medicine at the Boston University School of Medicine. He is the recipient of honorary degrees from the University of Ferrara and the University of Athens. Born and raised in St. Louis, Missouri, Drazen majored in physics at Tufts University and graduated from Harvard Medical School in 1972.

Pharmaceutical industry

pharmaceutical companypharmaceuticalpharmaceutical companies
In contrast to this viewpoint, an article and associated editorial in the New England Journal of Medicine in May 2015 emphasized the importance of pharmaceutical industry-physician interactions for the development of novel treatments, and argued that moral outrage over industry malfeasance had unjustifiably led many to overemphasize the problems created by financial conflicts of interest.


VioxxVioxx (Rofecoxib)
Months after the preliminary version of VIGOR was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in November 2000, the journal editors learned that certain data reported to the FDA were not included in the NEJM article. Several years later, when they were shown a Merck memo during the depositions for the first federal Vioxx trial, they realized that these data had been available to the authors months before publication. The editors wrote an editorial accusing the authors of deliberately withholding the data. They released the editorial to the media on December 8, 2005, before giving the authors a chance to respond.

Marcia Angell

Angell joined the editorial staff of The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) in 1979. She became Executive Editor in 1988, and served as interim Editor-in-Chief from 1999 until June 2000. The NEJM is the oldest continuously published medical journal, and one of the most prestigious; Angell is the first woman to have served as Editor-in-Chief of the journal since it was founded in 1812. In 1999, Jerome P. Kassirer, M.D. resigned as NEJM's Editor-in-Chief following a dispute with the journal's publisher, the Massachusetts Medical Society, over the Society's plan to use the journal's name to brand and market other sources of healthcare information.

Arnold S. Relman

Arnold RelmanArnold "Bud" RelmanArnold "Budd" Relman, M.D.
He was editor of The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) from 1977 to 1991. Relman was the only person to have been president of the American Federation for Clinical Research, the American Society for Clinical Investigation and the Association of American Physicians. In 1988 he was awarded Honorary Fellowship by the New York University School of Medicine. Relman died in Cambridge, Massachusetts of melanoma in 2014 at the age of 91. He and his wife Marcia Angell, also a NEJM editor and the first woman to serve as its editor-in-chief, had a son David Relman, a physician and professor at Stanford University School of Medicine.

Franz J. Ingelfinger

Franz Ingelfinger
He also served as Editor of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) from 1967 to 1976. His work was influential in the field of science journalism. Ingelfinger was born in Dresden, Germany. He came to the United States with his family in the early 1920s. Ingelfinger earned diplomas from Phillips Andover Academy, followed by Yale University in 1932 and Harvard Medical School in 1936. The Ingelfinger rule is named after him. In 1969, one of Ingelfinger's first acts as editor of NEJM was to draw up rules for authors forbidding prior submission or publication of their work in other media.

Jerome P. Kassirer

Kassirer was first named editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) in 1991. As editor, he increased the number of foreign scientists on the journal's editorial board, which drew more submissions from foreign scientists. In 1999, he was forced to resign his position as NEJMs editor-in-chief when the journal's publisher, the Massachusetts Medical Society, chose not to renew his contract. This decision was reportedly rooted in a dispute over marketing of the journal's name.

List of medical journals

List of defunct medical journalsmedical journalMedical World
Medical journals are published regularly to communicate new research to clinicians, medical scientists, and other healthcare workers. This article lists academic journals that focus on the practice of medicine or any medical specialty. Journals are listed alphabetically by journal name, and also grouped by the subfield of medicine they focus on.

Academic journal

journaljournalsacademic journals
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny, and discussion of research. They are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews.

Medical journal

A medical journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that communicates medical information to physicians and other health professionals. Journals that cover many medical specialties are sometimes called general medical journals.


bioRxiv (pronounced "bio-archive" ) is an open access preprint repository for the biological sciences co-founded by John Inglis and Richard Sever in November 2013. It is hosted by the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL). As preprints, papers hosted on bioRxiv are not peer-reviewed, but undergo basic screening and checked against plagiarism. Readers may offer comments on the preprint. It was inspired by and intends to complement the arXiv repository, which mostly focuses on physics and connected disciplines, launched in 1991 by Paul Ginsparg (who also serves on the bioRxiv advisory board). It received support from both the CSHL and the Lourie Foundation.


Physics (from, from φύσις phýsis 'nature') is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves.


Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), structure (algebra), space (geometry), and change (mathematical analysis). It has no generally accepted definition.