Peer review

peer-reviewedpeer-reviewpeer reviewed
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competences as the producers of the work (peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are used to maintain quality standards, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is often used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, e.g., medical peer review.


SHERPA/RoMEO is a service run by SHERPA to show the copyright and open access self-archiving policies of academic journals.

List of American Medical Association journals

JAMA Networkjournals published by the American Medical AssociationList of journals published by the American Medical Association
There are thirteen medical journals published by the American Medical Association (AMA). The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), along with JAMA Network Open and eleven specialty journals, compose the JAMA Network family of journals. The journals share a common website, archives and other means of access (such as RSS feeds), have common policies on publishing and public relations, and pool their editorial resources in producing the AMA Manual of Style.

Journal of Medical Internet Research

JMIR PublicationsJMIRThe Journal of Medical Internet Research
The Journal of Medical Internet Research is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal established in 1999 covering eHealth and "healthcare in the Internet age". The editor-in-chief is Gunther Eysenbach. The publisher is JMIR Publications.

Jerome V. C. Smith

Jerome V.C. Smith
Jerome Van Crowninsfield Smith (July 20, 1800 – August 21, 1879) was an American physician, author and politician, serving as the fourteenth mayor of Boston, Massachusetts from 1854 to 1855.

American Association for Cancer Research

AACRAmerican Association of Cancer ResearchAmerican Association for Cancer Research (AACR)
The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) is the world's oldest and largest professional association related to cancer research. Based in Philadelphia, the AACR focuses on all aspects of cancer research, including basic, clinical, and translational research into the etiology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. Founded in 1907 by 11 physicians and scientists, the organization now has more than 42,000 members in over 120 countries. The mission of the AACR is to prevent and cure cancer through research, education, communication, collaboration, science policy and advocacy, and funding for cancer research.

Rod of Asclepius

Rod of AesculapiusStaff of AsclepiusSerpent
In Greek mythology, the Rod of Asclepius (Ράβδος του Ασκληπιού, ; Unicode symbol: ⚕), also known as the Staff of Asclepius (sometimes also spelled Asklepios or Aesculapius) and as the asklepian, is a serpent-entwined rod wielded by the Greek god Asclepius, a deity associated with healing and medicine. The symbol has continued to be used in modern times, where it is associated with medicine and health care, yet frequently confused with the staff of the god Hermes, the caduceus. Theories have been proposed about the Greek origin of the symbol and its implications.

American Heart Association

American Stroke AssociationAHAAmerican Heart Association (AHA)
The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that funds cardiovascular medical research, educates consumers on healthy living and fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke. Originally formed in New York City in 1924 as the Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease, it is currently headquartered in Dallas, Texas. The American Heart Association is a national voluntary health agency.

American Institute of Physics

AIPAIP PublishingAmerican Center for Physics
The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science and the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies. The AIP is made up of various member societies. Its corporate headquarters are at the American Center for Physics in College Park, Maryland, but the institute also has offices in Melville, New York, and Beijing.


quill penpencrowquill
A quill pen is a writing implement made from a moulted flight feather (preferably a primary wing-feather) of a large bird. Quills were used for writing with ink before the invention of the dip pen, the metal-nibbed pen, the fountain pen, and, eventually, the ballpoint pen. The hand-cut goose quill is rarely used as a calligraphy tool, because many papers are now derived from wood pulp and wear down the quill very quickly. However, it is still the tool of choice for a few scribes who noted that quills provide an unmatched sharp stroke as well as greater flexibility than a steel pen.

American Physical Society

APSAmerican Physics SocietyFellow of the American Physical Society
Not to be confused with the American Physical Society which was absorbed by the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh in 1796.

American Society for Microbiology

American Academy of MicrobiologySociety of American BacteriologistsASM Press
The American Society for Microbiology (ASM), originally the Society of American Bacteriologists, is a professional organization for scientists who study viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa as well as other aspects of microbiology. It was founded in 1899. The Society publishes a variety of scientific journals, textbooks, and other educational materials related to microbiology and infectious diseases. ASM organizes annual meetings, as well as workshops and professional development opportunities for its members.

American Society of Clinical Oncology

American Society for Clinical OncologyASCOAmerican Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a professional organization representing physicians of all oncology sub-specialties who care for people with cancer. Founded in 1964 by Drs. Fred Ansfield, Harry Bisel, Herman Freckman, Arnoldus Goudsmit, Robert Talley, William Wilson, and Jane C. Wright, ASCO has nearly 45,000 members worldwide.


An anesthetic (American English) or anaesthetic (British English; [[American and British English spelling differences#Miscellaneous spelling differences|see spelling differences]]) is a drug used to induce anesthesia ⁠— ⁠in other words, to result in a temporary loss of sensation or awareness. They may be divided into two broad classes: general anesthetics, which result in a reversible loss of consciousness, and local anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of sensation for a limited region of the body without necessarily affecting consciousness.

Beilstein Institute for the Advancement of Chemical Sciences

The Beilstein Institute for the Advancement of Chemical Sciences is a non-profit foundation located in Frankfurt am Main (German: Beilstein-Institut zur Förderung der Chemischen Wissenschaften). Founded in 1951 by the Max Planck Society, the institute is actively involved in maintaining the Beilstein database and the conversion of the contents of scientific libraries into electronic media.

BMJ (company)

BMJ GroupBMJ Publishing GroupBMJ
BMJ (branded as BMJ Group until 2013) is a provider of journals, clinical decision support, events and medical education. The company, legally the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, is a wholly owned subsidiary of the British Medical Association. Established in 1840 with the publication of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal (later the first edition of the British Medical Journal), it is now a fully commercial organisation with about 550 staff and offices in several locations around the world.

Dental extraction

tooth extractionextractionextracted
A dental extraction (also referred to as tooth extraction, exodontia, exodontics, or informally, tooth pulling) is the removal of teeth from the dental alveolus (socket) in the alveolar bone. Extractions are performed for a wide variety of reasons, but most commonly to remove teeth which have become unrestorable through tooth decay, periodontal disease, or dental trauma, especially when they are associated with toothache. Sometimes wisdom teeth are impacted (stuck and unable to grow normally into the mouth) and may cause recurrent infections of the gum (pericoronitis).

Mary Ann Liebert

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology NewsGenetic Engineering News
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. is a privately held independent publishing company founded by its president, Mary Ann Liebert, in 1980. The company publishes peer-reviewed academic journals, books, and trade magazines in the areas of biotechnology, biomedical research/life sciences; clinical medicine, surgery, and nursing; technology and engineering; environmental science; public health and policy; law, regulation, and education.

Microbiology Society

Society for General MicrobiologySociety of General MicrobiologyMicrobial Genomics (journal)
The Microbiology Society (previously the Society for General Microbiology) is a learned society based in the United Kingdom with a worldwide membership based in universities, industry, hospitals, research institutes and schools. It is the largest learned microbiological society in Europe. Interests of its members include basic and applied aspects of viruses, prions, bacteria, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, fungi, algae and protozoa, and all other aspects of microbiology. Its headquarters is at 14–16 Meredith Street, London. The Society's current president is Prof. Judy Armitage. The Society is a member of the Science Council.


Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery. As a surgical measure, it is used to control pain or a disease process in the affected limb, such as malignancy or gangrene. In some cases, it is carried out on individuals as a preventive surgery for such problems. A special case is that of congenital amputation, a congenital disorder, where fetal limbs have been cut off by constrictive bands. In some countries, amputation of the hands, feet or other body parts is or was used as a form of punishment for people who committed crimes. Amputation has also been used as a tactic in war and acts of terrorism; it may also occur as a war injury.

IOP Publishing

Institute of Physics PublishingIOP ScienceAdam Hilger
IOP Publishing (previously Institute of Physics Publishing) is the publishing company of the Institute of Physics. It provides publications through which scientific research is distributed worldwide, including journals, community websites, magazines, conference proceedings and books. The Institute of Physics is a scientific charity devoted to increasing the practice, understanding and application of physics. Any financial surplus earned by IOP Publishing goes to support physics through the activities of the Institute.

Oxford University Press

Clarendon PressOUPOxford
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century. The Press is located on Walton Street, opposite Somerville College, in the suburb of Jericho.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IEEEFellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics EngineersTechnical Field Award
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associated disciplines) with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey. It was formed in 1963 from the amalgamation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the Institute of Radio Engineers.