The American Naturalist is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1867. It is published by the University of Chicago Press on behalf of the American Society of Naturalists. The journal covers research in ecology, evolutionary biology, population, and integrative biology., the editor-in-chief is Daniel I. Bolnick. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal had a 2017 impact factor of 4.265, ranking it 26th out of 158 journals in the category "Ecology" and 11th out of 49 journals in the category "Evolutionary Biology".
American NaturalistAm. Nat.
chemical analysisanalytical chemistanalytical
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter. In practice, separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration.
Aminopterin (or 4-aminopteroic acid), the 4-amino derivative of folic acid, is an antineoplastic drug with immunosuppressive properties often used in chemotherapy. Aminopterin is a synthetic derivative of pterin. Aminopterin works as an enzyme inhibitor by competing for the folate binding site of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. Its binding affinity for dihydrofolate reductase effectively blocks tetrahydrofolate synthesis. This results in the depletion of nucleotide precursors and inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.
Paul M. ZollPaul Maurice Zoll
Paul Maurice Zoll (July 15, 1911 – January 5, 1999) was a Jewish American cardiologist and one of the pioneers in the development of the artificial cardiac pacemaker and cardiac defibrillator. He graduated from Boston Latin School in 1928.
J Clin OncolJ. Clin. Oncol.JCO
The Journal of Clinical Oncology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 3 times a month by the American Society of Clinical Oncology. It covers research on all aspects of clinical oncology. All articles older than one year are freely available online. The journal was established in 1983 and the editor-in-chief is Stephen A. Cannistra (Harvard Medical School).
JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics is an online peer-reviewed medical journal of oncology and medical informatics published by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). The journal was established in 2017 and the editor-in-chief is Debra A. Patt (Texas Oncology). Articles are published upon acceptance and after 12 months become freely available. All ASCO special articles (e.g. clinical guidelines and policy statements), editorials, comments and controversies articles, and correspondence are freely available immediately upon publication.
Asystole is the absence of ventricular contractions in the context of a lethal heart arrhythmia (in contrast to an induced asystole on a cooled patient on a heart-lung machine and general anesthesia during surgery necessitating stopping the heart). Asystole is the most serious form of cardiac arrest and is usually irreversible. A cardiac flatline is the state of total cessation of electrical activity from the heart, which means no tissue contraction from the heart muscle and therefore no blood flow to the rest of the body.
Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It can provide a visual diagnosis (e.g., ulceration, polyps) and grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal cancer lesions. Colonoscopy can remove polyps as small as one millimeter or less. Once polyps are removed, they can be studied with the aid of a microscope to determine if they are precancerous or not. It can take up to 15 years for a polyp to turn cancerous.
The Journal of Oncology Practice is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the mechanics of oncology care. It was established in 2005 and is published by the American Society of Clinical Oncology. The editor-in-chief is Linda D. Bosserman (City of Hope).
FASEB JournalFASEB J.Federation Proceedings
The FASEB Journal is a scientific journal related to experimental biosciences, promoting scientific progress and education. It is published by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, that was founded in 1912 originally by 3 societies (29 as of January 2019, see current list).
The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, abbreviated FASEB, is a non-profit organization that is the principal umbrella organization of U.S. societies in the field of biological and medical research. FASEB organizes academic conferences and publishes scientific literature.
ScienceScience MagazineScience'' magazine
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals. It was first published in 1880, is currently circulated weekly and has a subscriber base of around 130,000. Because institutional subscriptions and online access serve a larger audience, its estimated readership is 570,400 people.
AAASAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)American Association for the Advancement of Sciences
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity. It is the world's largest general scientific society, with over 120,000 members, and is the publisher of the well-known scientific journal Science.
Proceedings of the National Academy of SciencesPNASProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (often abbreviated PNAS or PNAS USA) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scientific journal. It is the official journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915, and publishes original research, scientific reviews, commentaries, and letters. According to Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2018 impact factor of 9.58. PNAS is the second most cited scientific journal, with more than 1.9 million cumulative citations from 2008-2018. In the lay press, PNAS has been described variously as "prestigious", "sedate", "renowned", and "high impact".
United States National Academy of SciencesNational Academy of ScienceU.S. National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the National Academy of Medicine (NAM).
opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects. Medically they are primarily used for pain relief, including anesthesia. Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, reversing opioid overdose, suppressing cough, as well as for executions in the United States. Extremely potent opioids such as carfentanil are only approved for veterinary use. Opioids are also frequently used non-medically for their euphoric effects or to prevent withdrawal.
Current Biology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers all areas of biology, especially molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, neurobiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The journal includes research articles, various types of review articles, as well as an editorial magazine section. The journal was established in 1991 by the Current Science group, acquired by Elsevier in 1998 and has since 2001 been part of Cell Press, a subdivision of Elsevier.
Cell Press, an imprint of Elsevier, is a publisher of biomedical journals, including Cell and Neuron.
Journal of NeuroscienceNeuroscience
The Journal of Neuroscience is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Society for Neuroscience. It covers empirical research on all aspects of neuroscience. Its editor-in-chief is Marina Picciotto (Yale University). According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal had a 2014 impact factor of 6.344 and an Eigenfactor of 0.413, which is almost twice as high as the next highest neuroscience journal.
AIDSHIVacquired immune deficiency syndrome
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection a person may not notice any symptoms, or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of developing common infections such as tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have uncompromised immune systems.
CellCell Cell (USA)
Cell is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences. Areas covered include molecular biology, cell biology, systems biology, stem cells, developmental biology, genetics and genomics, proteomics, cancer research, immunology, neuroscience, structural biology, microbiology, virology, physiology, biophysics, and computational biology. The journal was established in 1974 by Benjamin Lewin and is published twice monthly by Cell Press, an imprint of Elsevier.