Alexander Hamilton

HamiltonHamiltonianA. Hamilton
The Federalists planned to deal with this by having all their Electors vote for John Adams, the Vice President, and all but a few for Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina. Adams resented Hamilton's influence with Washington and considered him overambitious and scandalous in his private life; Hamilton compared Adams unfavorably with Washington and thought him too emotionally unstable to be President. Hamilton took the election as an opportunity: he urged all the northern electors to vote for Adams and Pinckney, lest Jefferson get in; but he cooperated with Edward Rutledge to have South Carolina's electors vote for Jefferson and Pinckney.

George Mason

George Mason IVaddressedMason
In Fairfax County, only George Washington owned more, and Mason is not known to have freed any even in his will, in which his slaves were divided among his children. The childless Washington, in his will, ordered his slaves be freed after his wife's death, and Jefferson manumitted a few slaves, mostly of the Hemings family, likely including his own children by Sally Hemings. According to Broadwater, "In all likelihood, Mason believed, or convinced himself, that he had no options. Mason would have done nothing that might have compromised the financial futures of his nine children."

Martha Washington

MarthaMartha Dandridge CustisMartha Dandridge Custis Washington
Annette Haven played Martha Washington in the 1976 pornographic film Spirit of Seventy Sex. Emmy-winning actress Patty Duke portrayed Martha Washington in the TV miniseries George Washington (1984) and its sequel George Washington II: The Forging of a Nation (1986). Martha Washington is the name of a fox in The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams, episode 2 ("Blood Brothers"). A member of the geranium (a flower) family, scientific name Pelargonium x domesticum, is named after Martha Washington as the Martha Washington geranium. Martha Washington was portrayed by Lilli Birdsell in the third and fourth seasons of Turn: Washington's Spies from 2016–2017.

Founding Fathers of the United States

Founding FathersFounding FatherFounding Father of the United States
Other Founders like Sam Adams, John Adams, Franklin and Jay criticized the formation of what they considered to be an elitist body and threat to the Constitution. Franklin would later accept an honorary membership though Jay declined. Adams Papers Editorial Project. Founders Online – a searchable database of over 178,000 documents authored by or addressed to George Washington, John Jay, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams (and family), Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. The Selected Papers of John Jay at Columbia University. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson at Princeton University. The Papers of James Madison at University of Virginia.

List of Presidents of the United States who owned slaves

slave owner
George Washington was the first president to own slaves, including while he was president. Zachary Taylor was the last president to own slaves during his presidency, and Ulysses S. Grant was the last president to have owned a slave at some point in his life. Slave owning was common among early presidents; of the first twelve, only John Adams (2) and his son John Quincy Adams (6) never owned slaves, although two of the others (Martin Van Buren and William Henry Harrison) did not own slaves while serving as president. The U.S. president who owned the most slaves was Thomas Jefferson, with 600+ slaves, followed by George Washington, with 200 slaves.

Historical rankings of presidents of the United States

rankedrankgenerally ranked
Bush (95%). 4) George Washington (94%). 5) Abraham Lincoln (88%). 6) John F. Kennedy (83%). 7) Richard Nixon (82%). 8) Jimmy Carter (79%). 9) Thomas Jefferson (72%). 10) Ronald Reagan (66%). 11) Gerald Ford (62%). 12) Franklin D. Roosevelt or Theodore Roosevelt (60%). 13) John Adams or John Quincy Adams (56%). 14) Dwight D. Eisenhower (54%). 15) Harry S. Truman (50%). 16) Andrew Jackson (47%). 17) Herbert Hoover (42%). 18) Andrew Johnson or Lyndon B. Johnson (41%). 19) William Howard Taft (39%). 20) James Madison (38%). 21) Ulysses S. Grant (38%). 22) James Monroe (30%). 23) Woodrow Wilson (29%). 24) Calvin Coolidge (22%). 25) James A. Garfield (19%). 26) James K. Polk (17%). 27) Warren G.

Federalist Party

FederalistFederalistsF
The party controlled the federal government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican opposition led by Thomas Jefferson. The Federalist Party came into being between 1792 and 1794 as a national coalition of bankers and businessmen in support of Alexander Hamilton's fiscal policies. These supporters developed into the organized Federalist Party, which was committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government. The only Federalist President was John Adams. George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program, but he remained officially non-partisan during his entire presidency.

United States Declaration of Independence

Declaration of IndependenceindependenceAmerican Declaration of Independence
The source copy used for this printing has been lost and may have been a copy in Thomas Jefferson's hand. Jefferson's original draft is preserved at the Library of Congress, complete with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, as well as Jefferson's notes of changes made by Congress. The best-known version of the Declaration is a signed copy that is displayed at the National Archives in Washington, D.C., and which is popularly regarded as the official document. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19 and signed primarily on August 2. The sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry.

Alien and Sedition Acts

Sedition ActSedition Act of 1798Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
George Washington was so appalled by them that he told Patrick Henry that if "systematically and pertinaciously pursued", they would "dissolve the union or produce coercion". The influence of Jefferson's doctrine of states' rights reverberated right up to the Civil War and beyond. At the close of the Civil War, future president James Garfield said that Jefferson's Kentucky Resolution "contained the germ of nullification and secession, and we are today reaping the fruits". The Alien Enemies Acts remained in effect at the outset of World War I. It was recodified to be part of the US war and national defense statutes (50 USC 21–24).

Democratic-Republican Party

Democratic-RepublicanDemocratic-RepublicansRepublican
The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln (2005), detailed narrative history, 1800–1860. Wills, Garry. Henry Adams and the Making of America (2005), a close reading of Henry Adams (1889–1891). Cunningham, Noble E. In Pursuit of Reason The Life of Thomas Jefferson (ISBN: 0-345-35380-3) (1987). Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. "John Beckley: An Early American Party Manager", William and Mary Quarterly, 13 (January 1956), 40–52, in JSTOR. Miller, John C. Alexander Hamilton: Portrait in Paradox (1959), full-scale biography. Peterson; Merrill D. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (1975), full-scale biography. Remini, Robert.

Robert R. Livingston (chancellor)

Robert R. LivingstonRobert LivingstonChancellor Livingston
In 1798, Livingston ran for Governor of New York on the Democratic-Republican ticket, but was defeated by incumbent Governor John Jay. He served as Chancellor until June 30, 1801. Robert R Livingston was a member of the Committee of Five, along with Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Roger Sherman. The Committee was tasked with drafting the Declaration fo Independence. Following Thomas Jefferson's election as President of the United States, once Jefferson became President on March 4, 1801, he appointed Livingston U.S. Minister to France. Serving from 1801 to 1804, Livingston negotiated the Louisiana Purchase.

Second Continental Congress

Continental CongressCongressSecond
Notable new arrivals included Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania and John Hancock of Massachusetts. Within two weeks, Randolph was summoned back to Virginia to preside over the House of Burgesses; he was replaced in the Virginia delegation by Thomas Jefferson, who arrived several weeks later. Henry Middleton was elected as president to replace Randolph, but he declined. Hancock was elected president on May 24. Delegates from twelve of the Thirteen Colonies were present when the Second Continental Congress convened. Georgia had not participated in the First Continental Congress and did not initially send delegates to the Second.

George Clinton (vice president)

George ClintonGovernor George ClintonClinton
Federalists rallied around the candidacy of John Adams, and Adams finished second in the electoral vote behind George Washington, making Adams vice president. Clinton received just three electoral votes, partly because the New York legislature deadlocked and was unable to appoint a slate of electors. In the 1792 presidential election, he was chosen by the nascent Democratic-Republican Party as their candidate for vice president. While the Republicans joined in the general acclamation of Washington for a second term as president, they objected to the allegedly "monarchical" attitude of Vice President Adams.

Patrick Henry

American patriotPatrick Henry, Junrthat revolutionary patriot
In this, he found common cause with John Adams and Samuel Adams of Massachusetts, but not all were of that opinion. According to Tate, Henry "turned out not to be an especially influential member of the body". The Congress decided on a petition to the King; Henry prepared two drafts but neither proved satisfactory. When Congress on October 26 approved a draft prepared by John Dickinson of Pennsylvania, who had consulted with Henry and also Richard Henry Lee, Henry had already departed for home, and Lee signed on his behalf. The petition was rejected in London.

Jay Treaty

Jay's Treatytreatyagreed
They denounced Hamilton and Jay (and even Washington) as monarchists who betrayed American values. They organized public protests against Jay and his treaty; one of their rallying cries said: ''Damn John Jay! Damn everyone that won't damn John Jay! Damn every one that won't put lights in his window and sit up all night damning John Jay!'' The treaty was one of the major catalysts for the advent of the First Party System in the United States by further dividing the two major political factions within the country. The Federalist Party, led by Hamilton, supported the treaty. On the contrary, the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Jefferson and Madison, opposed it.

Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette

LafayetteMarquis de LafayetteGeneral Lafayette
Thomas Jefferson Letter, 30 November 1813 From the Collections at the Library of Congress.

John Marshall

Chief Justice MarshallMarshallChief Justice John Marshall
The Life of George Washington, Vol. 4 (of 5). The Life of George Washington, Vol. 5 (of 5). The John Marshall Foundation, Richmond, Virginia. John Marshall Papers, 1755–1835 at The College of William & Mary. National Park Service, "The Great Chief Justice" at Home, Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan. Research Collections: Marshall, John at the Federal Judicial Center.

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney

Charles C. PinckneyCharles PinckneyPinckney
Though Alexander Hamilton schemed to elect Pinckney president under the electoral rules then in place, both Pinckney and incumbent Federalist President John Adams were defeated by the Democratic-Republican candidates. Seeing little hope of defeating popular incumbent President Thomas Jefferson, the Federalists chose Pinckney as their presidential nominee for the 1804 election. Neither Pinckney nor the party pursued an active campaign, and Jefferson won in a landslide. The Federalists nominated Pinckney again in 1808, in the hope that Pinckney's military experience and Jefferson's economic policies would give the party a chance of winning.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionaryrevolutionary France
In 1793, as war broke out in Europe, the Republican Party led by Thomas Jefferson favoured France and pointed to the 1778 treaty that was still in effect. George Washington and his unanimous cabinet, including Jefferson, decided that the treaty did not bind the United States to enter the war. Washington proclaimed neutrality instead. Under President John Adams, a Federalist, an undeclared naval war took place with France from 1798 until 1799, often called the "Quasi War". Jefferson became president in 1801, but was hostile to Napoleon as a dictator and emperor.

Republicanism in the United States

republicanismrepublicanAmerican republicanism
The "Founding Fathers" were strong advocates of republican values, especially Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, George Washington, Thomas Paine, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. Thomas Jefferson defined a republic as: "... a government by its citizens in mass, acting directly and personally, according to rules established by the majority; and that every other government is more or less republican, in proportion as it has in its composition more or less of this ingredient of the direct action of the citizens. Such a government is evidently restrained to very narrow limits of space and population.

Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual UnionArticles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.Confederation
The resulting paralysis embarrassed and frustrated many American nationalists, including George Washington. Many of the most prominent national leaders, such as Washington, John Adams, John Hancock, and Benjamin Franklin, retired from public life, served as foreign delegates, or held office in state governments; and for the general public, local government and self-rule seemed quite satisfactory. This served to exacerbate Congress's impotence. Inherent weaknesses in the confederation's frame of government also frustrated the ability of the government to conduct foreign policy.

Richard B. Morris

Morris, Richard B.
In 1973, preparing for the impending bicentennial of the American Revolution, he published Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries, a collection of biographical essays about Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton. Morris was opposed to the Columbia University protests of 1968, and the agenda of the radicals.

History of the United States

American historyU.S. historyUnited States history
Washington called out the state militia and personally led an army, as the insurgents melted away and the power of the national government was firmly established. Washington refused to serve more than two terms – setting a precedent – and in his famous farewell address, he extolled the benefits of federal government and importance of ethics and morality while warning against foreign alliances and the formation of political parties. John Adams, a Federalist, defeated Jefferson in the 1796 election.

Early life and career of Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson
This toughened the tone that the French government adopted with the new Adams Administration. Due to pressure against the Adams Administration from Jefferson and his supporters, Congress released the papers related to the XYZ Affair, which rallied a shift in popular opinion from Jefferson and the French government to supporting Adams. * Bibliography of Thomas Jefferson * Gordon-Reed, Annette. The Hemingses of Monticello: an American Family. (W.W. Norton & Company, 2008); (Pulitzer Prize winner) * Peterson, Merrill D. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (Oxford U.P., 1975) * "Jefferson's Ancestry" Thomas Jefferson Encyclopedia

Post-presidency of George Washington

USS Washington (1776) Galley. USS George Washington (1798) Frigate. USS (1814) Warship. USS George Washington (SSBN-598) (1959) Nuclear Ballistic Missile Submarine. USS George Washington (CVN-73) (1992) Nuclear Aircraft Carrier Active Service 2018.