Tigrayans

TigrayanTigrayTigrinya
The predominantly Tigrayan populated urban centers in Ethiopia are found within the Tigray Region in towns including Mekelle, Adwa, Axum, Adigrat, and Shire and in Eritrea are Asmara and Keren. Populations of Tigrayans are also found in other large Ethiopian cities such as the capital Addis Ababa and Gondar as well as abroad in the United States. The Tigrayans are, despite a general impression of homogeneity, composed of numerous subgroups with their own socio-cultural traditions.

Tigray Province

TigrayTigreArmy of Tigre
Pre-Aksumite inscriptions show that Tigray was marked by a Sabaic-influenced kingdom (D'mt), which had merged with a local culture. In later Aksumite times migration again linked both sides of the Red Sea, with Aksumite settlements also on the Arabian side. Toponyms indicate that the Tigray highlands had an important (Pre-) Agaw population in ancient times (the house-style specific for Agaw regions reaching up to Aksum, in a region with Agaw toponyms); north of Tigray there was a Beja migration after the fall of Aksum, and later several migrations of Agaw groups.

Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church

Ethiopian Orthodox ChristianityEthiopian Orthodox ChurchEthiopian Orthodox
This exiled synod comprised some Ethiopian Churches in North America and Europe who recognized Patriarch Abune Merkorios, while the synod inside Ethiopia continued to uphold the legitimacy of Patriarch Abune Paulos. Following the independence of Eritrea as a nation in 1993, the Coptic Orthodox Church in 1994 appointed an Archbishop for the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, which in turn obtained autocephaly in 1998 with the reluctant approval of its mother synod. That same year the first Eritrean Patriarch was consecrated.

Agame

house of Agame
Agame is one of the oldest regions of Ethiopia, being part of the Kingdom of D'mt in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea that would develop into the Kingdom of Aksum.It was a main center of Aksumite culture (second only to Western Tigray, where the capital was located), with a distinct sub-culture that separated the two regions from that of Western Tigray (Shire, Axum, Yeha), Central Eritrea (Seraye, Hamasien, Akele Guzai and Adulis), and frontier areas in northern Eritrea. Agame is one of the very few place-names identified in the Adulis inscription as early as the 3rd century.

History of Ethiopia

EthiopiaEthiopian historyAbyssinia
One of the earliest kingdoms to rise to power in the territory was the kingdom of D'mt in the 10th century BC, which established its capital at Yeha. In the first century AD the Aksumite Kingdom rose to power in the Tigray Region with its capital at Aksum and grew into a major power on the Red Sea, subjugating Yemen and Meroe and converting to Christianity in the early fourth century. The Aksumite empire fell into decline with the rise of Islam in the Arabian peninsula which slowly shifted trade away from the Christian Aksum and it eventually became isolated then economy slumped and Aksum's commercial domination of the region was over[ ].

Geʽez

Ge'ezEthiopicGe'ez language
The language originates from the region encompassing southern Eritrea and northern Ethiopia regions in the Horn of Africa. Today, Geʽez is used only as the main liturgical language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Ethiopian Catholic Church and Eritrean Catholic Church, and the Beta Israel Jewish community. However, in Ethiopia, Amharic or other local languages, and in Eritrea and Ethiopia's Tigray Region, Tigrinya may be used for sermons. Tigrinya and Tigre are closely related to Geʽez. The closest living languages to Geʽez are Tigre and Tigrinya, with lexical similarity at 71% and 68% respectively.

Matara, Eritrea

MataraMeteraMetara
Matara (Musnad: ‎𐩣𐩷𐩧; መጠራ; مطره), or Metera is a small town and important archeological site located in the Debub Region of Eritrea. Situated a few kilometers south of Senafe, it was a major city in the Dʿmt and Aksumite kingdoms. Since Eritrean independence, the National Museum of Eritrea has petitioned the Ethiopian government to return artifacts removed from the site. However, the efforts have thus far been rebuffed. Matara is the name of both a small village and an important archaeological site in Eritrea. The latter is located some 136 kilometers southeast of the capital Asmara, just past Senafe on the road leading south to the border with the northern Tigray Region of Ethiopia.

Yohannes IV

Yohannes IV of EthiopiaEmperor Yohannes IVYohannis IV
Upon vanquishing the rebellions of Wolde Iyasus in Azebo and Kaśa Golja on the northern peripheries, on 21 January 1872 Yohannes was crowned in Aksum as Yohannes IV by abunä Atnatyos (becoming the first emperor crowned in Axum since Fasilides in 1632). His seal also changed from "...nəgusä mäkanənt" ('head of the notables') to "...nəgusä Səyon, nəgusä nəguśt zä Ityopya" ('King of Zion, King of Kings of Ethiopia'). The principle of Yohannes's internal policy was to unite and aggrandize Ethiopia, a traditional ideal which had been revived by Tewodros II after almost a century of dissension and decline.

Red Sea

Redthe Red SeaErythraean Sea
Contact between Rome and China depended on the Red Sea, but the route was broken by the Aksumite Empire around the 3rd century AD. During the Middle Ages, the Red Sea was an important part of the spice trade route. In 1183, Raynald of Châtillon launched a raid down the Red Sea to attack the Muslim pilgrim convoys to Mecca. The possibility that Raynald's fleet might sack the holy cities of Mecca and Medina caused fury throughout the Muslim world.

Ethiopian Highway 2

No 2
The Ethiopian Highway 2 is a highway in Ethiopia. It connects the capital Addis Ababa with Mekelle, as well as with Wukro, Adigrat, Axum, Shire and Humera. Ethiopian Highway 2 has a length of 974 kilometers. Towns and cities along Ethiopian Highway 2 include, from north to south: There are three high-mountain passes on Highway 2: The highway crosses the continental divide twice: once at Debre Sina and another time over the Alage pass north of Maychew. Mekelle, the capital of the Tigray region, is located ten kilometers off the highway. A large road turns off to Mekelle at Kwiha, the center of the Enderta district. The detour to Mekelle adds thirteen kilometers.

Islam in Ethiopia

MuslimMoslemIslam
Islam was in 2007 the second largest religion in Ethiopia with over 33.9% of the population. The faith arrived in Ethiopia at an early date, shortly before the hijira. Muslims arrived in the Axumite Empire during the Hijarat as early disciples from Mecca, persecuted by the ruling Quraysh tribe. They were received by the Christian ruler of Axum, whom Arabic tradition has named Ashama ibn Abjar (King Armah in Ge'Ez and Amharic), and he settled them in Negash. Located in the Tigray Region. On the other hand, the principal center of Islamic culture, learning, and propagation has been Wello. The Quraysh sent emissaries to bring them back to Arabia, but the King of Axum refused their demands.

Ethiopian Empire

EthiopiaAbyssiniaEthiopian
Ethiopia's human occupation began early, as evidenced by the findings. It is believed that the ancient Egyptians claimed that Punt, known as gold country, was in Ethiopia in 980BC. According to the Kebra Nagast, Menelik I founded the Ethiopian empire in the 1stcentury BC, around when the Axumite Empire was established. In the 4thcentury, under King Ezana of Axum, the kingdom adopted Christianity (Ethiopian Orthodox Church) as the state religion. It was thus one of the first Christian states. After the conquest of Aksum by Queen Gudit or Yodit, a period began which some scholars refer to as the Ethiopian Dark Ages.

Political history of East Africa

Political history of Eastern Africa
The following is a list of the 'Political History of East Africa. 25th century BC: Earliest recorded Egyptian expedition to the Land of Punt in the Horn of Africa organized by Pharaoh Sahure of the Fifth Dynasty. c. 800 BC: Foundation of the Kingdom of D`mt in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea (capital: Yeha). c. 1st century AD: Periplus of the Erythraean Sea reports trade connecting Somalis in present-day Berbera and Ras Hafun in northern Somalia to other communities along the Indian coast. c. 250: Foundation of the Kingdom of Aksum, in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea (capital: Axum). c. 614 AD: Islam is first introduced into northern Somalia. 7th century: Foundation of the Sultanate of Zeila in

Mibraqawi Zone

Misraqawi ZoneMisraqawi (Eastern) ZoneMisraqawi (Eastern)
Mebrak (or "East") is a Zone in the Ethiopian Region of Tigray. Misraqawi is bordered on the east by the Afar Region, on the south by Debub Misraqawi (South Eastern), on the west by Mehakelegnaw (Central) and on the north by Eritrea. Its highest point is Mount Asimba (3,250 m). Towns and cities in Misraqawi include Adigrat, Atsbi, Hawzen, and Wiqro. Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), this Zone has a total population of 755,343, of whom 359,638 are men and 395,705 women; 146,064 or 19.34% are urban inhabitants.

Horn of Africa

HornSomali peninsulanortheastern Africa
With its capital at Yeha, the kingdom developed irrigation schemes, used plows, grew millet, and made iron tools and weapons. After the fall of Dʿmt in the 5th century BCE, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms, until the rise of one of these kingdoms during the 1st century, the Aksumite Kingdom, which was able to reunite the area. The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient state located in the Eritrean highlands and Ethiopian highlands, which thrived between the 1st and 7th centuries CE. A major player in the commerce between the Roman Empire and Ancient India, Aksum's rulers facilitated trade by minting their own currency.

Habesha peoples

AbyssinianHabeshaAbyssinians
The Kingdom of Aksum may have been founded as early as 300 BCE. Very little is known of the time period between the mid-1st millennium BCE to the beginning of Aksum's rise around the 1st century CE. It is thought to be a successor kingdom of Dʿmt, a kingdom in the early 1st millennium BC most likely centered at nearby Yeha. The Kingdom of Aksum was situated in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, with its capital city in Northern Ethiopia. Axum remained its capital until the 7th century. The kingdom was favorably located near the Blue Nile basin and the Afar depression. The former is rich in gold and the latter in salt: both materials having a highly important use to the Aksumites.

Sabaean language

SabaeanSabaicOld Sabaic
The South Arabic alphabet used in Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Yemen beginning in the 8th century BC, in all three locations, later evolved into the Ge'ez alphabet. The Ge'ez language however is no longer considered to be a descendant of Sabaean, or of Old South Arabian; and there is linguistic evidence that Semitic languages were in use and being spoken in Eritrea and Ethiopia as early as 2000 BC. Sabaean is attested in some 1040 dedicatory inscriptions, 850 building inscriptions, 200 legal texts and 1300 short graffiti (containing only personal names). No literary texts of any length have yet been brought to light.

Eritrean–Ethiopian War

Eritrean-Ethiopian Warborder warwar
However, because Badme was in the province of Tigray, the region from which many of the members of the Ethiopian government originated (including Meles Zenawi, the former Ethiopian prime minister), the Ethiopian government came under political pressure from within the EPRDF as well as from the wider Ethiopian public to meet force with force. After a series of armed incidents in which several Eritrean officials were killed near Badme, on 6 May 1998, a large Eritrean mechanized force entered the Badme region along the border of Eritrea and Ethiopia's northern Tigray Region, resulting in a firefight between the Eritrean soldiers and the Tigrayan militia and security police they encountered.

Tigrinya language

TigrinyaTigrignatir
They live primarily in modern countries of Eritrea and Ethiopia. Eritrea has nine languages of equal status. There is no official language at the policy level. In Ethiopia, Tigrinya is spoken in the Tigray region. It is also spoken by groups of emigrants from these regions, including some Beta Israel. Tigrinya should not be confused with the related Tigre language. The latter is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigre people, who mostly inhabit the lowland regions of Eritrea, Sudan, and northwest Eritrea.

Ezana of Axum

EzanaKing EzanaEzana of Aksum
‘Ezana of Axum ( ‘Ezana, unvocalized ዐዘነ ‘zn; also spelled Aezana or Aizan) was ruler of the Kingdom of Aksum (320s – c. 360 AD) located in present-day northern Ethiopia, Yemen, part of southern Saudi Arabia, Eritrea, and parts of Sudan. He himself employed the style (official title) "king of Saba and Salhen, Himyar and Dhu-Raydan". Tradition states that ‘Ezana succeeded his father Ella Amida (Ousanas) while still a child and his mother, Sofya served as regent. ‘Ezana was the first monarch of the Kingdom of Aksum to embrace Christianity, and the first after Za Haqala (possibly Zoskales) to be mentioned by contemporary historians, a situation that lead S. C.

Akele Guzai

Akkele GuzayAkele GuzayAkelle-Guzai
Instead, the name may be connected with the Agazian clan conquered by the 4th-century king Ezana of Axum, and the Agʿaze (unvocalized 'GZ, referring either to a person or a group) of the Hawulti at Matara. Along with Agame in Ethiopia, it was a main center of Aksumite culture (second only to Western Tigray, where the capital was located), with a distinct sub-culture that separated the two regions from that of Western Tigray (Shire, Axum, Yeha), Central Eritrea (Serae, Hamasien, and Adulis), and frontier areas in northern Eritrea and Central Ethiopia.

Regions of Ethiopia

Regionregionskilil
List of Governors of the Regions of Ethiopia. Flags of the regions of Ethiopia. List of Ethiopian regions by Human Development Index. ISO 3166-2:ET. Subdivisions of Ethiopia. Regional maps of Ethiopia at UN-OCHA. States of Ethiopia at Statoids.

Ethiopian aristocratic and court titles

DejazmachRasFitawrari
Although a civil title granted by the Emperor, it was usually bestowed on a clergyman due to Axum's status as the holiest site of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church within the country. The title of Nebure ed was also granted to the administrator of the Church of St. Mary at Addis Alem, founded by Menelik II west of Addis Ababa. However the Nebura ed of Addis Alem was much further down the hierarchy than the Nebura ed of Axum, and was not accorded the Ras Warq. Tigray Mekonnen – governor of the province of Tigray.

History of Eritrea

EritreaBritish administrationby the United Nations Mandate in 1952
After the fall of Dʿmt in the 5th century BC, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms until the rise of one of these polities during the first century, the Kingdom of Aksum, which was able to reunite the area. The Kingdom of Aksum was a trading empire centered in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia. It existed from approximately 100–940 AD, growing from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age period c. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD. The Aksumites established bases on the northern highlands of the Ethiopian Plateau and from there expanded southward.

Geʽez script

Ge'ezGe'ez scriptEthiopic
The earliest inscriptions of Semitic languages in Eritrea and Ethiopia date to the 9th century BCE in Ancient South Arabian script, which is known as Epigraphic South Arabian (ESA), an abjad shared with contemporary kingdoms in South Arabia. After the 7th and 6th centuries BCE, variants of the script arose, evolving in the direction of the later Geʻez abugida or alphasyllabary. This evolution can be seen most clearly in evidence from inscriptions (mainly graffiti on rocks and caves) in the Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia and the former province of Akele Guzai in Eritrea.