Shaped charge

hollow chargeMunroe effectshaped-charge
Wuelfken of the German Ordnance Office – were unlined explosive charges and didn't produce a metal jet like the modern HEAT warheads. Due to the lack of metal liner they shook the turrets but they did not destroy them, and other airborne troops were forced to climb on the turrets and smash the gun barrels. The common term in military terminology for shaped-charge warheads is high-explosive anti-tank warhead (HEAT). HEAT warheads are frequently used in anti-tank guided missiles, unguided rockets, gun-fired projectiles (both spun and unspun), rifle grenades, land mines, bomblets, torpedoes, and various other weapons.

Naval mine

These are mines containing a moving weapon as a warhead, either a torpedo or a rocket. Rocket mine: a Russian invention, the rocket mine is a bottom distance mine that fires a homing high-speed rocket (not torpedo) upwards towards the target. It is intended to allow a bottom mine to attack surface ships as well as submarines from a greater depth. One type is the Te-1 rocket propelled mine. Torpedo mine: the torpedo mine is a self-propelled variety, able to lie in wait for a target and then pursue it e.g. the Mark 60 CAPTOR. Generally, torpedo mines incorporate computerised acoustic and magnetic fuzes. The U.S. Mark 24 "mine", code-named Fido, was actually an ASW homing torpedo.


guided missilemissilesguided missiles
A number of anti-submarine missiles also exist; these generally use the missile in order to deliver another weapon system such as a torpedo or depth charge to the location of the submarine, at which point the other weapon will conduct the underwater phase of the mission. By the end of WWII, all forces had widely introduced unguided rockets using High-explosive anti-tank warheads as their major anti-tank weapon (see Panzerfaust, Bazooka). However, these had a limited useful range of 100 m or so, and the Germans were looking to extend this with the use of a missile using wire guidance, the X-7.

Whitehead torpedo

Still, there remained the problem of course correction: returning the torpedo to its correct course after it had deviated due to wind or wave action. The solution was in the form of the gyroscope gear, which was patented by Ludwig Obry, the rights to which was bought by Whitehead in 1896. In 1868, Whitehead offered two types of torpedoes to the world's navies: one was 11 feet, seven inches (3.5 m) in length with a diameter of 14 inches (35.5 cm). It weighed 346 pounds (157 kg) and carried a 40-pound (18.1 kg) warhead. The other was 14 feet (4.3 m) long with a 16-inch (40.6 cm) diameter. It weighed 650 pounds (295 kg) and carried a 60-pound (27.2 kg) warhead.


nitrate filmguncottoncellulose nitrate
Guncotton containing more than 13% nitrogen (sometimes called insoluble nitrocellulose) was prepared by prolonged exposure to hot, concentrated acids for limited use as a blasting explosive or for warheads of underwater weapons such as naval mines and torpedoes. Safe and sustained production of guncotton began at the Waltham Abbey Royal Gunpowder Mills in the 1860s, and the material rapidly became the dominant explosive, becoming the standard for military warheads, although it remained too potent to be used as a propellant. More-stable and slower-burning collodion mixtures were eventually prepared using less-concentrated acids at lower temperatures for smokeless powder in firearms.

Nuclear torpedo

T-5 nuclear torpedotorpedoesnuclear torpedoes
A nuclear torpedo is a torpedo armed with a nuclear warhead. The idea behind the nuclear warheads in a torpedo was to create a much bigger and more explosive blast. Later analysis suggested that smaller, more accurate, and faster torpedoes were more efficient and effective. During the Cold War, nuclear torpedoes replaced some conventionally armed torpedoes on submarines of both the USSR and U.S. navies. The USSR developed the T15, the T5 and the ASB-30. The only nuclear warhead torpedo used by the United States was the Mark 45 torpedo. The Soviet Union widely deployed T5 nuclear torpedoes in 1958 and the U.S. deployed its Mark 45 torpedo in 1963.


Deploymenthuman torpedoesKaiten Type 1
The Type 93 torpedo formed the majority of this model of Kaiten with the only alterations being the warhead yield being increased from 490 kg and the control planes enlarged and altered to allow both gyroscope and pilot control. Between the torpedo warhead and the engine section is the torpedo compressed air flask, 6 (or 8 in later models) steering air bottles and the forward trim tank, followed by the control area and the pilot's seat. In later models the 5.5 l Tetrachloromethane starting air bottle is located in the cockpit and a further smaller trimming tank is supplied for use at initial launch.


DM2A4 SeaHake mod 4DM2A4 heavyweight torpedo DM2A4 Seehecht
The torpedo design template may also be used as the basis for ROV. The weapon is armed with a 260 kg PBX, (RDX–aluminium) warhead (equivalent to 460 kg of TNT) with magnetic influence and contact fuzes. The charge and fuse are insensitive and electromagnetic pulse safe. The weapon has a length of 6.6 m when configured with 4 battery modules, and is respectively shorter when configured with either 3 or 2 battery modules depending upon the requirement of the operating unit. Diameter of the unit is 533 mm.

Sting Ray (torpedo)

Sting Ray torpedoSting RayStingray
The original warhead concept was for a simple omnidirectional blast charge. However, studies in the 1970s showed that this would be inadequate against the large double-hulled submarines then entering service. A directed energy (shaped charge) warhead was used in the production weapon. In 1976 the designs had to be completely revised. Swapping the project for buying a ready-made US torpedo was not considered because the torpedo was expected to be better, and was all-British. The project manager was Eric Risness CBE. The torpedo was built at the MSDS (later MUSL) plants at Neston (in Cheshire) and MUSL in Farlington and Waterlooville near Portsmouth.

Mark 45 torpedo

Mark 45 nuclear torpedoMark 45Mk 45 ASTOR
By replacing the nuclear warhead and removing the wire guidance systems, the torpedo could be reconfigured for unguided launch against surface targets. Production of ASTOR began in 1959 and it entered service soon after. Approximately 600 torpedoes were built by 1976, when the torpedo was replaced by the Mark 48 torpedo. The ASTORs were collected, fitted with conventional warheads and wake homing guidance systems, then sold to foreign navies as the Mark 45 Mod 1 Freedom Torpedo. *American 21 inch torpedo *

VA-111 Shkval

ShkvalVA-111 Shkval Torpedorocket torpedoes
Shkval is supposed to have a rocket-type engine, but in the recent years has emerged publications from Russia and China about an "hydro ramjet" that use hydro reactive metal fuel (HRF) used for high speed torpedo. Available schemes of this type of engine shows also a dedicated steam circuit for the supercavitation generating head. Early designs may have relied solely on an inertial guidance system. The initial design was intended for nuclear warhead delivery. Later designs reportedly include terminal guidance and conventional warheads. The torpedo steers using four fins that skim the inner surface of the supercavitation gas bubble.

Human torpedo

manned torpedomanned torpedoeshuman torpedoes
This feat encouraged the British to develop their own torpedo "chariots". The last Italian model, the SSB (for Siluro San Bartolomeo, "San Bartolomeo Torpedo") was built with a partly enclosed cockpit, a more powerful motor and larger 300 kg warhead (up from the earlier SLC's 220 and 250 kg warheads). Three units were made but not operationally used because Italy surrendered in 1943. The first British version of the concept was named the Chariot manned torpedo. Two models were made; Mark I was 20 ft long while Mark II was 30 ft long, both suitable for carrying two men.


black powderpowderblack-powder
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur (S), charcoal (C), and potassium nitrate (saltpeter, KNO 3 ). The sulfur and charcoal act as fuels while the saltpeter is an oxidizer. Because of its incendiary properties and the amount of heat and gas volume that it generates, gunpowder has been widely used as a propellant in firearms, artillery, rockets, and fireworks, and as a blasting powder in quarrying, mining, and road building.

Fragmentation (weaponry)

shrapnelfragmentationfragmentation bomb
Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of a projectile from a bomb, barrel bomb, land mine, IED, artillery, mortar, tank gun, or autocannon shell, rocket, missile, grenade, etc. is shattered by the detonation of the explosive filler.

Nuclear weapon

atomic bombnuclear weaponsnuclear
More advanced systems, such as multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs), can launch multiple warheads at different targets from one missile, reducing the chance of a successful missile defense. Today, missiles are most common among systems designed for delivery of nuclear weapons. Making a warhead small enough to fit onto a missile, though, can be difficult. Tactical weapons have involved the most variety of delivery types, including not only gravity bombs and missiles but also artillery shells, land mines, and nuclear depth charges and torpedoes for anti-submarine warfare. An atomic mortar has been tested by the United States.

Proximity fuze

proximity fuseproximityproximity fuses
It is used in mines and torpedoes. Fuzes of this type can be defeated by degaussing, using non-metal hulls for ships (especially minesweepers) or by magnetic induction loops fitted to aircraft or towed buoys. Some naval mines are able to detect the pressure wave of a ship passing overhead. The designation "VT" is often said to refer to "variable time". Fuzed munitions before this invention were set to explode at a given time after firing, and an incorrect estimation of the flight time would result in the munition exploding too soon or too late. The VT fuze could be relied upon to explode at the right time—which might vary from that estimated.

Guidance system

guidanceguidance systemsguidance and control
A guidance system is a virtual or physical device, or a group of devices implementing a guidance process used for controlling the movement of a ship, aircraft, missile, rocket, satellite, or any other moving object. Guidance is the process of calculating the changes in position, velocity, attitude, and/or rotation rates of a moving object required to follow a certain trajectory and/or attitude profile based on information about the object's state of motion.

Rocket (weapon)

rocketrocketsunguided rocket
The 70mm rocket system offers several warhead configurations that fulfill a wide range of special mission requirements to defeat soft to lightly armored targets. Hydra 70. CRV-7. S-5 rocket. S-8 rocket. S-13 rocket. Ugroza. Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System (APKWS).


Naval armour has fundamentally changed from the Second World War doctrine of thicker plating to defend against shells, bombs and torpedoes. Passive defence naval armour is limited to kevlar or steel (either single layer or as spaced armour) protecting particularly vital areas from the effects of nearby impacts. Since ships cannot carry enough armour to completely prevent penetration by anti-ship missiles, they depend more on destroying an incoming missile before it hits, or causing it to miss its target.


However, as tank-on-tank warfare developed (including the development of anti-tank artillery), more specialized forms of ammunition were developed such as high-explosive anti-tank warheads and armor-piercing discarding sabot rounds. The development of shaped charges has had a significant impact on anti-tank ammunition design, now common on both tank-fire ammunition and in anti-tank missiles. Naval weapons were originally the same as many land-based weapons, but the ammunition was designed for specific use, such as a solid shot designed to hole the enemy ship and chain-shot to cut the rigging and sails.


rocketsrocketryrocket scientist
However, they are also useful in other situations: Some military weapons use rockets to propel warheads to their targets. A rocket and its payload together are generally referred to as a missile when the weapon has a guidance system (not all missiles use rocket engines, some use other engines such as jets) or as a rocket if it is unguided. Anti-tank and anti-aircraft missiles use rocket engines to engage targets at high speed at a range of several miles, while intercontinental ballistic missiles can be used to deliver multiple nuclear warheads from thousands of miles, and anti-ballistic missiles try to stop them.

Shock factor

\phi is the depression angle between the hull and warhead. {| class="wikitable". + Table 1: Shock Factor Table of Effects. Very limited damage. Generally considered insignificant. Lighting failures; electrical failures; some pipe leaks; pipe ruptures possible. Increase in occurrence of damage above; pipe rupture likely; machinery failures. General machinery damage. Usually considered lethal to a ship. }.

Anti-submarine missile

anti-submarine rocketanti-submarine rocketsanti submarine missile system
Some missiles and rockets, such as Hong Sang Eo carry homing torpedoes to provide terminal guidance for the warhead. The advantage of an anti-submarine missile is the attack stand-off range. The Swedish Bofors 375mm m/50 Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) rockets, in the past commonly used by Sweden, France, Japan and Germany for instance, can travel as far as 3600m depending on the rocket used. The USSR developed its own anti-submarine rockets in the RBU series and these are still in use in Russia and in countries using Russian designed ships. Today anti-submarine rockets have been phased out in most western navies, replaced by the Homing ASW Torpedo. Australia. Ikara (missile). France.

Nagato-class battleship

NagatoNagato''-classher class
The ship was also fitted with eight 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, four on each broadside, two above water and two submerged. They used the 6th Year Type torpedo which had a 203 kg warhead of Shimose powder. It had three settings for range and speed: 15500 m at 26 kn, 10000 m at 32 kn, or 7000 m at 37 kn. Around 1926, the four above-water torpedo tubes were removed and the ships received three additional 76-millimeter AA guns that were situated around the base of the foremast. They were replaced by eight 40-caliber 12.7-centimeter Type 89 dual-purpose guns in 1932, fitted on both sides of the fore and aft superstructures in four twin-gun mounts.

History of submarines

submarinesElectric submarinefirst submarine
The submarine became a potentially viable weapon with the development of the first practical self-propelled torpedoes. The Whitehead torpedo was the first such weapon, and was designed in 1866 by British engineer Robert Whitehead. His 'mine ship' was an 11-foot long, 14-inch diameter torpedo propelled by compressed air and carried an explosive warhead. The device had a speed of 7 kn and could hit a target 700 yd away. Many naval services procured the Whitehead torpedo during the 1870s and it first proved itself in combat during the Russo-Turkish War when, on January 16, 1878, the Turkish ship Intibah was sunk by Russian torpedo boats carrying Whiteheads.