The ships were equipped with six torpedo tubes in two rotating triple mounts amidships; each tube was provided with a reload. The Project 7-class ships primarily used the 53-38 or the 53-38U torpedo, which differed only in the size of their warhead; the latter had a warhead 100 kg heavier than the 300 kg warhead of the 53-38. The torpedoes had three range/speed settings: 10000 m at 30.5 kn; 8,000 m at 34.5 kn and 4,000 m at 44.5 kn. The ships could also carry a maximum of either 60 or 95 mines and 25 depth charges. They were fitted with a set of Mars hydrophones for anti-submarine work, although it was useless at speeds over 3 kn.
Whitehead torpedo Mk.1 (short)Whitehead Mark 1Whitehead Mk 1
The Whitehead Mark 1 torpedo was the first Whitehead torpedo adopted by the United States Navy for use in an anti-surface ship role after the E. W. Bliss Company of Brooklyn, New York secured manufacturing rights in 1892. The US Navy made an initial acquisition of 100 Mark 1s, which, by the time they entered American service, were faster, had longer range and carried a larger warhead than Robert Whitehead's earlier models. The Mark 1 was ordinarily assembled into three sections: the warhead, the air flask and the after-body. The warhead's charge of dry guncotton weighed 98 3/4 pounds plus 20% water. The Mark 1 was what was known as a "cold-running" torpedo.
The anti-torpedo boat armament consisted of fourteen 75 mm Canet Pattern 1892 50-calibre guns mounted in sponsons on the upper deck, protected by gun shields. The gun fired 10.8 lb shells to a range of about 8600 yd at its maximum elevation of 21 degrees with a muzzle velocity of 2700 ft/s. The rate of fire was between 12 and 15 rounds per minute. The Evstafi class carried two 17.7 in torpedo tubes on the broadside aft. These torpedoes carried a 212 lb warhead of TNT. It had two speed settings which gave it a maximum range of 3280 yd at 29 kn or 2190 yd at 34 kn. The Evstafi-class ships used Krupp armour.
her classKearsarge''-class battleship
The tubes were supplied with a total of six torpedoes. They were initially equipped with the Mark II Whitehead design, which carried a 140 lb warhead and had a range of 800 yd at a speed of 27 kn. The ships were protected with face-hardened Harvey armor, an improvement over earlier compound plates. The main strake of the belt armor extended from the forward boiler room to the aft main battery barbette, and covered a section of the hull from above the waterline and below the line. It was thick at the top, gradually tapering to at the waterline, and reducing further to at the bottom edge of the belt.
Because of its large size, the UGM-89 Perseus missile could not be launched from the Navy's standard 21-inch (533 mm) submarine torpedo tubes, but would be carried in a vertical launch system (VLS) housed within the proposed cruise missile submarine's hull. Twenty VLS tubes would be located in a separate compartment situated between the submarine's operations and reactor compartments. The individual launcher tube would be 30 x 300 inches (76.2 x 762 cm) in dimension. The missile warhead payload would be a new 21-inch (533 mm) diameter homing torpedo to be developed concurrently with the UGM-89 Perseus missile.
A contemporary investigation determined that it was the result of badly deteriorated chemicals in her torpedo warheads, though the naval historian René Greger reports that a mine was actually to blame. After repairs were effected, she joined the harbor defense at Pola. Sebenico was withdrawn from guard duties in 1918 and assigned to the torpedo school. All three ships were seized as war prizes by the victorious Allied powers after the war in 1918, and all three were awarded to Italy in 1920. Having no use for the vessels, the Italians immediately sold all three to ship breakers. *
Whitehead Mk 1BWhitehead torpedo Mk.1 (long)Whitehead Mark 1B
The Whitehead Mark 1B torpedo, designated as a Torpedo Type B, was a variant of the Whitehead Mark 1 torpedo adopted by the United States Navy for use in an anti-surface ship role after the E. W. Bliss Company of Brooklyn, New York secured manufacturing rights in 1892. The primary differences between the Mark 1 and the Mark 1B were that the Mark 1B was longer, carried a heavier guncotton charge in the warhead and included an improved guidance system. The Mark 1B was ordinarily assembled into three sections: the warhead, the air flask and the after-body. The warhead carried the explosive charge of wet guncotton. The Mark 1B was a "cold-running" torpedo.
Mark 7 (Bliss-Leavitt (Short)
The Short Mark 7 torpedo was a variant of the Bliss-Leavitt Mark 7 torpedo developed by the Washington Navy Yard in order to fit certain submarine torpedo tubes in 1917. The Short Mark 7, also designated Torpedo Type D, had an air flask that was shortened and a reduced warhead weight. The fuel and water tanks were relocated to obtain more air flask capacity; the fuel tank was mounted in the aft air flask bulkhead, while the water tanks were mounted in the after-body. The overall weight of the warshot torpedo was 590 pounds lighter and 58 inches shorter than the Mark 7. The air, fuel and water capacities were approximately one-third of the capacities found on the full-size Mark 7.
Connecticut''-class battleshipsher classConnecticut''-class battleship
For close-range defense against torpedo boats, they carried twenty 3 in/50 caliber guns mounted in casemates along the side of the hull and twelve 47 mm 3-pounder guns. They also carried four 37 mm 1-pounder guns. As was standard for capital ships of the period, the Connecticut class carried four 21 in torpedo tubes, submerged in their hulls on the broadside. Each ship carried a total of 16 torpedoes. They were initially equipped with the Mark I Bliss-Leavitt design, but these were quickly replaced with Mark II, designed in 1905. The Mark II carried a 207 lb warhead and had a range of 3500 yd at a speed of 26 kn.
Its magazine of missiles were fitted with cadmium warheads, which were temporarily able to control the nuclear reactions keeping Godzilla alive. However, the detonation of a nuclear missile in the stratosphere above Tokyo results in a spectacular lightning storm that revives Godzilla. Godzilla and the Super X then have a final battle. Godzilla fires an atomic breath blast that erodes the warship's armor causing its rotors to fail, and it crash lands near the Sumitomo building. Godzilla then destroys the Super X by toppling the building on to it. A sleeker but broader shape defined the second Super X, a remotely operated VTOL craft designed specifically to combat Godzilla.
Graf ZeppelinGerman aircraft carrier ''Graf Zeppelinaircraft carrier ''Graf Zeppelin
Graf Zeppelin remained afloat, and Admiral Yury Rall ordered a torpedo strike. A torpedo fired from an Elco PT boat exploded in the anti-torpedo bulge but did not penetrate the belt armor. A torpedo fired by the destroyer penetrated the unprotected hull section below the bow elevator; Graf Zeppelin sank 25 minutes later. The exact position of the wreck was unknown for decades. On 12 July 2006, the research vessel, a ship belonging to the Polish oil company Petrobaltic, found a 265 m wreck 55 km north of Władysławowo, which they thought was most likely Graf Zeppelin. The wreck rests at a depth of more than 80 m below the surface.
Andrea DoriaAndrea Doria''-classAndrea Doria''-class battleships
The existing underwater protection was replaced by the Pugliese system that consisted of a large cylinder surrounded by fuel oil or water that was intended to absorb the blast of a torpedo warhead. These modernizations have been criticized by some naval historians because these ships would eventually prove to be inferior to the British battleships they were meant to face (namely the, since by the time the decision to proceed was taken a war between Italy and the United Kingdom seemed more likely).
Glascoed Royal Ordnance FactoryRoyal Ordnance Factory, GlascoedBAE Systems, Glascoed
These included munitions for field guns and howitzers, tanks and other fighting vehicles, mortar and aerial bombs, warheads for missiles and torpedoes, flares, pyrotechnics and smoke bombs. The Royal Ordnance Factories were part of a government department until they were privatised in 1987. Today Glascoed is operated by BAE Systems Global Combat Systems Munitions. With the closure of other ROFs, Glascoed remains the only ammunition filling facility in the UK and exports its products, as well as supplying the British Ministry of Defence (MoD). Glascoed now employs about 400 people and has invested heavily in R&D and improved production facilities.
The term guncotton was also used; although some references identify guncotton as a more extensively nitrated and refined product used in torpedo and mine warheads prior to use of TNT. Unreacted acid was removed from pyrocellulose pulp by a multistage draining and water washing process similar to that used in paper mills during production of chemical woodpulp. Pressurized alcohol removed remaining water from drained pyrocellulose prior to mixing with ether and diphenylamine. The mixture was then fed through a press extruding a long tubular cord form to be cut into grains of the desired length.
In the 1880s, Germans were testing torpedoes with panclastite warhead. Carbon disulfide and nitrogen tetroxide were stored in separate glass compartments, which were broken when the torpedo was launched and the chemicals mixed, and later were detonated by a contact fuse. * [http://groups.google.com/group/alt.engr.explosives/browse_thread/thread/25858dfe027ec85c/ee9290d4d7f92421?lnk=st&q=panclastite&rnum=2&hl=en#ee9290d4d7f92421 The Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry. April 29, 1886: NOTE ON SO-CALLED "PANCLASTITE." BY H. SPRENGEL, PH.D., F.R.S.]
naval gunnaval gunsgunnery
Early high explosives used in torpedo warheads would detonate during the acceleration of firing from a gun. After brief use of dynamite guns aboard, picric acid became widely used in conventional naval artillery shells during the 1890s. William Armstrong was awarded a contract by the British government in the 1850s to design a revolutionary new piece of artillery—the Armstrong Gun—produced at the Elswick Ordnance Company. This marked the birth of modern artillery both on land and at sea. The piece was rifled, which allowed for a much more accurate and powerful action. The necessary machinery to accurately rifle artillery was only available by the mid-19th century.
Fulton(Robert) FultonAmerican engineer and inventor of the same name
Torpedo war, and submarine explosions published 1810. A Treatise on the Improvement of Canal Navigation, 1796. From the University of Georgia Libraries in DjVu & layered PDF formats. A Treatise on the Improvement of Canal Navigation 1796. From Rare Book Room. Robert Fulton Birthplace. Photos of Fulton's Birthplace. CHAPTER XIII: ROBERT FULTON in Great Fortunes, and How They Were Made (1871), by James D. McCabe, Jr., Illustrated by G. F. and E. B. Bensell, a Project Gutenberg eBook. Examples of art by Robert Fulton at the Art Renewal Center. Archived from the original.
Unlike ships of the line, the battleships of the late 19th and early 20th centuries had significant vulnerability to torpedoes and mines—because efficient mines and torpedoes did not exist before that —which could be used by relatively small and inexpensive craft. The Jeune École doctrine of the 1870s and 1880s recommended placing torpedo boats alongside battleships; these would hide behind the larger ships until gun-smoke obscured visibility enough for them to dart out and fire their torpedoes. While this tactic was vitiated by the development of smokeless propellant, the threat from more capable torpedo craft (later including submarines) remained.
WhiteheadWhitehead & Co.Whitehead torpedo
torpedo hits over the course of two nights by several Japanese torpedo boats.
Submarines could usually locate and attack other submarines only on the surface, although managed to sink with a four torpedo spread while both were submerged. The British developed a specialized anti-submarine submarine in WWI, the R class. After WWII, with the development of the homing torpedo, better sonar systems, and nuclear propulsion, submarines also became able to hunt each other effectively. The development of submarine-launched ballistic missile and submarine-launched cruise missiles gave submarines a substantial and long-ranged ability to attack both land and sea targets with a variety of weapons ranging from cluster bombs to nuclear weapons.
Torpediniformestorpedo fishelectric rays
Family Torpedinidae (torpedo electric rays). Subfamily Torpedininae. Genus Tetronarce. Genus Torpedo. Endangered rays. Electric fish.
Ivan LupisIvan Lupis-Vukić
History of Rijeka torpedo factory. History of the Whithead Factory (part one). Evolution of the submarine weapons in 19th century (in Italian). History of R. Whitehead (site about Royal Navy). History of the torpedo: the early days (Journal of the Royal Navy Scientific Service Vol 27 No 1). Torpedo History (Naval Undersea Museum of U.S. Navy). La Voce del Popolo (Fiume), Sabato 3 marzo 2007: Storia del silurificio di Fiume e biografia di Giovanni Luppis (pp. 6–7).
As delivered to the United States Navy, the Schwartzkopff torpedo was constructed in eight sections: war nose, warhead, immersion chamber, air flask, engine room, after body, bevel gear box and tail. However, it was typically dismantled and assembled into four parts: the head, immersion chamber, air flask and after body. All the sections were manufactured out of bronze with the air flask made of a special grade to withstand the internal pressure of 90 atmospheres. During the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), both the Chinese and Japanese navies were equipped with Schwartzkopff torpedoes.
Peter Brotherhood LimitedBrotherhoodKittoe and Brotherhood
;Products 2 In June 1937 Peter Brotherhood's products included: high and low pressure compressors, compressors for torpedo service, torpedo tubes, Brotherhood high speed forced lubrication steam engines, steam turbines, turbo-generators, high speed diesel engines, oil and gas engines, refrigerating compressors, pumps, water cooling towers, filtering plants, fans, dynamometers, pressure gauge testing and other precision instruments.
Howell Automobile Torpedoown design
The Howell was the first torpedo to use the gyroscope effect, which Howell patented. When, in an attempt to improve directional stability, Whitehead (using a Ludwig Obry design) adopted the gyroscope in 1895, Howell sued for patent infringement. After very protracted development – the product of a paucity of funds, the novelty of the torpedo as a weapon, and myopia of the Navy's senior officers – fifty Howell Torpedoes Mark 1 were ordered (from Hotchkiss Ordnance Company of Providence, Rhode Island) in 1889. This was 14.2 in (36 cm) diameter, 129.75 in (330 cm) long, with a 96 lb (43.5 kg) warhead and a range of 400 yd (365 m) at 25 knots (46 km/h). Contemporary Whiteheads, built by E. W.