Sigmund Freud

FreudFreudianFreudian theory
In founding psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression. On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego.

Psychodynamic psychotherapy

psychodynamic therapypsychodynamicbrief psychodynamic therapy
Major techniques used by psychodynamic therapists include free association, dream interpretation, recognizing resistance and transference, working through painful memories and difficult issues, and building a strong therapeutic alliance. As in some psychoanalytic approaches, the therapeutic relationship is seen as a key means to understanding and working through the relational difficulties which the client has suffered in life. Although psychodynamic psychotherapy can take many forms, commonalities include: Psychodynamic psychotherapy, both short-term and long-term, is an effective psychotherapy.


He went on to develop techniques such as free association, dream interpretation, transference and analysis of the id, ego and superego. His popular reputation as the father of psychotherapy was established by his use of the distinct term "psychoanalysis", tied to an overarching system of theories and methods, and by the effective work of his followers in rewriting history. Many theorists, including Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Anna Freud, Otto Rank, Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein and Heinz Kohut, built upon Freud's fundamental ideas and often developed their own systems of psychotherapy.

Resistance (psychoanalysis)

resistanceSuperego resistanceId resistance
As a result, he eventually advanced his concept of resistance by developing it into a multitude of individual forms that included repression, transference, ego-resistance, "working-through", and self-sabotage. The common theory behind many of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic techniques, alluding to the fundamentals of psychoanalysis as a science, was that it is possible that memories that have been lost from consciousness provide hints of their existence by the means of prompting certain thoughts and behaviors. Accordingly, the aim of psychoanalysis is to bring what is unconscious or preconscious into consciousness through verbalization.

Self psychology

self-psychologyempathic failuresSelf psychologist
It has been suggested that at the height of the relationship 'Freud was in narcissistic transference, that he saw in Jung an idealised version of himself', and that conversely in Jung there was a double mix of 'idealization of Freud and grandiosity in the self'. During Jung's midlife crisis, after his break with Freud, arguably 'the focus of the critical years had to be a struggle with narcissism: the loss of an idealized other, grandiosity in the sphere of the self, and resulting periods of narcissistic rage'. Only as he worked through to 'a new sense of himself as a person separate from Freud' could Jung emerge as an independent theorist in his own right.

Psychoanalytic conceptions of language

., free association, dream analysis, transference-countertransference dynamics). Secondly, psychoanalytic theory is linked in many ways to linguistic phenomena, such as parapraxes and the telling of jokes. According to Freud (1915, 1923), the essential difference between modes of thought characterized by primary (irrational, governed by the id) as opposed to secondary (logical, governed by the ego and external reality) thought processes is one of preverbal vs. verbal ways of conceptualizing the world. According to Freud (1940), "...the function of speech…brings material in the ego into a firm connection with the residues of visual, but more particularly of auditory, perceptions" (p. 35).


For their part, some psychiatrists became interested in using psychoanalysis and other forms of psychodynamic psychotherapy to understand and treat the mentally ill. In this type of treatment, a specially trained therapist develops a close relationship with the patient, who discusses wishes, dreams, social relationships, and other aspects of mental life. The therapist seeks to uncover repressed material and to understand why the patient creates defenses against certain thoughts and feelings. An important aspect of the therapeutic relationship is transference, in which deep unconscious feelings in a patient reorient themselves and become manifest in relation to the therapist.

Index of psychology articles

List of psychological topics
- Witzelsucht - Womb envy - Word salad - Working memory - Working through - World Federation for Mental Health - Xenophobia - Yerkes-Dodson law - Young adult (psychology) - Zeitgeist - Zener cards - Zero-defects mentality ** List of topic lists Psychology-related.

Carl Jung

JungCarl Gustav JungC. G. Jung
In 1908, Jung became an editor of the newly founded Yearbook for Psychoanalytical and Psychopathological Research. In 1909, Jung travelled with Freud and Hungarian psychoanalyst Sándor Ferenczi to the United States; they took part in a conference at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. The conference at Clark University was planned by the psychologist G. Stanley Hall and included twenty-seven distinguished psychiatrists, neurologists and psychologists. It represented a watershed in the acceptance of psychoanalysis in North America. This forged welcome links between Jung and influential Americans. Jung returned to the United States the next year for a brief visit.


counter-transferencecounter transferencesomatic countertransference
Nothing in the new understanding alters of course the need for continuing awareness of the dangers in the narrow perspective – of "serious risks of unresolved countertransference difficulties being acted out within what is meant to be a therapeutic relationship"; but "from that point on, transference and counter-transference were looked upon as an inseparable couple...'total situation.

Jacques Lacan

LacanLacanianJaques Lacan
World Association of Psychoanalysis. CFAR – The Centre for Freudian Analysis and Research. London-based Lacanian psychoanalytic training agency. Homepage of the Lacanian School of Psychoanalysis and the San Francisco Society for Lacanian Studies. The London Society of the New Lacanian School. Site includes online library of clinical & theoretical texts. The Freudian School of Melbourne, School of Lacanian Psychoanalysis – Clinical and theoretical teaching and training of psychoanalysts. Theory. Lacan Dot Com. Links about Jacques Lacan at "How to Read Lacan" by Slavoj Zizek – full version. Jacques Lacan at The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapyCBT
Beck was conducting free association sessions in his psychoanalytic practice. During these sessions, Beck noticed that thoughts were not as unconscious as Freud had previously theorized, and that certain types of thinking may be the culprits of emotional distress. It was from this hypothesis that Beck developed cognitive therapy, and called these thoughts "automatic thoughts". Beck has been referred to as "the father of cognitive behavioral therapy." It was these two therapies, rational emotive therapy and cognitive therapy, that started the "second wave" of CBT, which was the emphasis on cognitive factors.

Otto F. Kernberg

Otto KernbergKernbergOtto Friedmann Kernberg
To do this, the client's affectively charged internal representations of previous relationships are consistently interpreted as the therapist becomes aware of them in the therapeutic relationship, that is, the transference. Techniques of clarification, confrontation, and interpretation are used within the evolving transference relationship between the patient and the therapist. The treatment begins with the development of the treatment contract, which consists of general guidelines that apply for all clients and of specific items developed from problem areas of the individual client that could interfere with the therapy progress. The contract also contains therapist responsibilities.

Psychoanalytic theory

Freud had ceased his analysis of the brain and his physiological studies and shifted his focus to the study of the mind and the related psychological attributes making up the mind, and on treatment using free association and the phenomena of transference. His study emphasized the recognition of childhood events that could influence the mental functioning of adults. His examination of the genetic and then the developmental aspects gave the psychoanalytic theory its characteristics. Starting with his publication of The Interpretation of Dreams in 1899, his theories began to gain prominence. Psychoanalytic and psychoanalytical are used in English.

Psychological projection

. • Animism • Anthropology of religion • Displacement • Double standard • Giambattista Vico • Hostile attribution bias • Identified patient • Introjection • Narcissistic abuse • Narcissistic rage and narcissistic injury • Participation mystique • Psychoanalytic theory • Psychodynamics • Rationalization • Reaction formation • Regression • Repression • Scapegoating • Transference • The pot calling the kettle black • Tu quoque Victim blaming: The victim of someone else's actions or bad luck may be offered criticism, the theory being that the victim may be at fault for having attracted the other person's hostility.

Object relations theory

object relationsobjectobject relation
London: Free Association Press. ISBN: 1-85343-347-0. Masterson, James F. (1988). The Search for the Real Self. ISBN: 0-02-920291-4. Mitchell, S.A., & Black, M.J. (1995). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psycho analytic thought. Basic Books, New York. ISBN: 978-0-465-01405-7. Object Relations Theory, Psychology Department, Sonoma State University. Melanie Klein Obituary.

Charles Brenner (psychiatrist)

Charles BrennerBrennerCharles Brenner, MD
Charles Brenner (18 November 1913, in Boston – 19 May 2008) was an American psychoanalyst who served as President of the New York Psychoanalytic Society, and is perhaps best known for his contributions to drive theory, the structure of the mind, and conflict theory. He was for half a century an exemplary figure for psychoanalysis in America, being termed by Janet Malcolm “the intransigent purist of American psychoanalysis”. Brenner first made his name as the author of the Elementary Textbook of Psychoanalysis, which Eric Berne paired with Freud's Outline of Psychoanalysis as the best guide to the subject.


psychodynamicpsychodynamic theorydynamic psychology
Alliance of Psychoanalytic Organizations. PDM Task Force. (2006). Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual. Silver Spring, MD. Alliance of Psychoanalytic Organizations.

Rat Man

Critics have also objected to Freud's downplaying of the role of the Rat Man's mother, and for several deviations on his part from what would later become standard psychoanalytic practice. Mahoney accepted that Freud obtained a degree of success in restoring his patient to functional life, though he considered Freud exaggerated the extent of this in his case-study. Others have suggested that by concentrating on building rapport with his patient, at the expense of analyzing the negative transference, Freud merely achieved a temporary transference cure.

Neutrality (psychoanalysis)

Analytic neutralityneutral technical position
Others would subsequently expand on Ferenczi's points, Nina Coltart for example suspecting the "austere and benevolently neutral manner which we hold as our working ideal" and stressing that "we can do no harm to a patient by showing authentic affect". • Abstinence • Acting in • Countertransference • Evenly-suspended attention • Intersubjective psychoanalysisTherapeutic alliance • Trigant Burrow * The Problem of Analytic Neutrality

Transference focused psychotherapy

transference-focused psychotherapyTransference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP)
A follow-up of this study concluded that both clients and therapists rated therapeutic alliance higher in schema therapy than in TFP. Diagnostic description of a particular internalized object relation in the transference. Diagnostic elaboration of the corresponding self and object representation in the transference, and of their enactment in the transference /countertransference. Integration of the split-off self representations, leading to an integrated sense of self and others which resolves identity diffusion. Containment of suicidal and self-destructive behaviors. Various ways of destroying the treatments.

The Foundations of Psychoanalysis

Edelson considered the book a sophisticated critique of psychoanalysis. He believed that Grünbaum's discussion of the "Tally Argument" helped to show that psychoanalysts were mistaken to rely on clinical data to make causal claims. Nevertheless, he believed that Grünbaum went too far by rejecting any use of clinical evidence by psychoanalysts to support its causal claims. While he agreed with Grünbaum's call for studies to test psychoanalytic hypotheses, he argued that Grünbaum ignored inherent problems with studies of the kind he advocated. He also faulted Grünbaum's discussion of how the psychoanalytic theory of paranoia might be tested and Grünbaum's discussion of free association.

Jewish culture

Secular Jewish cultureJewish artJewish
Sigmund Freud, known as the father of psychoanalysis, is one of the most influential scientists of the 20th century. In creating psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory.

Freud and Philosophy

Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation
He discusses Freud's theories of the death drive, the defence mechanisms, homosexuality, the id, ego and super-ego, identification, the libido, metapsychology, narcissism, the Oedipus complex, the pleasure principle, the preconscious, the psychic apparatus, psychosexual development, the reality principle, sublimation, the transference, the unconscious, as well as dreamwork, Freud's seduction theory, and the method of free association. He suggests that in The Interpretation of Dreams (1899), Freud did not succeed in reconciling the "language of meaning" and the "quasi-physical language" implied by different parts of his theory.

Intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy

The question of how maladaptive patterns of interpersonal behaviour could arise from early childhood experiences in the family of origin was postulated within psychoanalytic theory. Independent empirical support came from Bowlby's newly arising field of Attachment Theory. John Bowlby, a British psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, was very interested in the impact on a child of adverse experiences in relation to its primary attachment figures (usually the mother, but often the father and others) in early life. He concluded, in opposition to received psychoanalytic dogma of the day, that childhood experience was far more important than unconscious fantasy.