hand grenadegrenadeshand grenades
A grenade is an explosive weapon typically thrown by hand, but can also refer to projectiles shot out of grenade launchers. Generally, a grenade consists of an explosive charge, a detonating mechanism, and firing pin inside the grenade to trigger the detonating mechanism. Once the soldier throws the grenade, the safety lever releases, the striker throws the safety lever away from the grenade body as it rotates to detonate the primer. The primer explodes and ignites the fuze (sometimes called the delay element). The fuze burns down to the detonator, which explodes the main charge.

Type 91 grenade

Type 91Type 91 fragmentation grenadeType 91 Fragmentation Hand/Discharger Grenade
Introduced in 1931, the Type 91 fragmentation grenade could be thrown by hand, fired from a cup-type grenade launcher (the Type 100), discharged by a lightweight mortar-like projector (the Type 89 grenade discharger, or knee mortar). or fitted with finned tail-assembly and fired from a spigot-type rifle grenade launcher. The design of the Type 91 grenade was almost identical to the earlier Type 10. The main difference was the Type 91's dome top as opposed to the Type 10's serrated top. As with the Type 10, a threaded socket in the bottom of the body allowed for the attachment of an auxiliary propellant canister for use in a Type 89 grenade discharger.

List of infantry mortars

Infantry mortars
List of heavy mortars. List of mortar carriers. List of siege artillery — which includes "super heavy" or siege mortars. Ryan, J.W., Guns, Mortars and Rockets (Battlefield Weapons Systems & Technology), Brassey's publishers, London, 1982. .

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources.

Type 97 grenade

Type 97grenadeType 97 Fragmentation Hand Grenade
The Type 97 was developed from the earlier Type 91 Grenade which could also be used as a fragmentation hand grenade, but was predominately used as munitions for the Type 10, and Type 89 grenade launchers. For this reason, it had less explosive power and a relatively longer delay time than a dedicated manual hand grenade. To address these issues, the Army Technical Bureau developed a new design in 1937. The Type 97 had the same principles as most of fragmentation grenades of the period: a grooved 'pineapple-shaped' segmented body which dispersed sharp pieces of shrapnel when it exploded.

Type 10 grenade

Type 10Type 10 Fragmentation Hand/Discharger Grenade
The Technical Bureau then turned to a World War I-vintage German design for a small signal mortar, which was developed into the stand-alone Type 10 Grenade Discharger. The Type 10 grenade was designed for use with this grenade launcher when attached to a base containing a primer and propelling charge. It could also be thrown by hand, or fired from a rifle grenade launcher with a tail assembly added. The design of the Type 10 grenade was almost identical to the later Type 91 with a grooved 'pineapple-shaped' segmented body designed to disperse sharp fragments when it exploded. The main difference was the Type 10's serrated top.

Rifle grenade

grenade musketrifle grenadesrifle-grenade
Today, it can be seen as an early, if unsuccessful ancestor of modern under-barrel grenade launchers such as the M203. The Japanese military continued to experiment with rifle and hand-thrown grenades between the wars and would adopt a family of fragmentation grenades with almost universal adaptability. Introduced in 1931, the Type 91 fragmentation grenade could be thrown by hand, fired from a cup-type grenade launcher (the Type 100), discharged by a lightweight mortar-like projector (the Type 89 grenade discharger, or knee mortar). or fitted with tail-fin assembly and fired from a spigot-type rifle grenade launcher.

Armoured fighting vehicle

armored fighting vehiclearmoured fighting vehiclesAFV
A mortar carrier is a self-propelled artillery vehicle carrying a mortar as its primary weapon. Mortar carriers cannot be fired while on the move and some must be dismounted to fire. In U.S. Army doctrine, mortar carriers provide close and immediate indirect fire support for maneuver units while allowing for rapid displacement and quick reaction to the tactical situation. The ability to relocate not only allows fire support to be provided where it is needed faster, but also allows these units to avoid counter-battery fire. Mortar carriers have traditionally avoided direct contact with the enemy. Many units report never using secondary weapons in combat.

Rocket-propelled grenade

RPGrocket propelled grenadeRPGs
Grenade launcher. Rifle grenade. Panzerfaust 3. Type 69 RPG. Yasin (RPG). AT4.

Stokes mortar

trench mortartrench mortarsStokes
Mortar (weapon). List of infantry mortars. "Stokes' trench howitzer, 3", mark I". US Army War College, January 1918. Made available online by Combined Arms Research Library. Field Artillery Notes No. 7. US Army War College August 1917. Provided online by Combined Arms Research Library. Field Artillery Notes No. 7. US Army War College August 1917. Provided online by Combined Arms Research Library. "Handbook of the M.L. Stokes 3-Inch Trench Mortar Equipments. 1919." Published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1920. "Basic Field Manual. Volume III, Basic Weapons. Part Four, Howitzer Company. 3-inch Trench Mortar". United States War Department, 1932.

M79 grenade launcher

M79M-79M-79 grenade launcher
B&T GL-06 Grenade Launcher. China Lake Grenade Launcher. EAGLE grenade launcher. FN40GL EGLM. Fort-600 Grenade Launcher. HK69 Grenade Launcher. M320. Mk 19 grenade launcher. XM174 grenade launcher. Gary's U.S. Infantry Weapons Reference Guide. US Army Field Manual 3–22.31 Appendix A.

22 mm grenade

22 mm22mm rifle grenades22 mm rifle grenades
A rifle grenade cannot be easily or safely fired directly at a target, and must always be fired in a ballistic arc; the closer the target, the higher the angle the rifle must be held, much like a mortar. The first rifles to utilize the 22mm grenade were the American M1903 Springfield, M1 Garand and M1 Carbine, all of which required an adapter (the M1, M7, and M8 grenade launchers, respectively). After the formation of NATO, the 22mm grenade was adopted as its standard rifle grenade. The French have been producing 22mm grenades fired with 7.62×51mm NATO rounds since 1956.

Hand mortar

Grenade launcher. Type 89 grenade discharger. Hand cannon. Cohorn. Fire lance.

Granatnik wz. 36

Granatnik wz.36wz. 1936wz.36 46mm light mortar/grenade launcher
Overall, some 3850 were delivered to the army (397 of wz. 30 and 3453 of wz. 36 type), which allowed the creation of either a separate light mortar section of three mortars in every infantry company, or arming every infantry platoon with at least one grenade launcher. Full documentation of the wz. 36 mortar and the 46 mm grenades was given free of charge to Yugoslavia in late 1930s, but no licence production followed. Unlike ordinary mortars of the era, the firing angle was fixed at 45 degrees and the range was regulated not by raising or lowering the barrel but by limiting the volume of a gas chamber (see also the Type 89 grenade discharger).


tankstank commanderarmor
Grenade launchers can rapidly deploy a smoke screen that is opaque to infrared light, to hide it from the thermal viewer of another tank. In addition to using its own grenade launchers, a tank commander could call in an artillery unit to provide smoke cover. Some tanks can produce a smoke screen. Sometimes camouflage and concealment are used at the same time. For example, a camouflage-painted and branch-covered tank (camouflage) may be hidden in a behind a hill or in a dug-in-emplacement (concealment). Some armoured recovery vehicles (often tracked, tank chassis-based "tow trucks" for tanks) have dummy turrets and cannons.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
By 1917, indirect fire with guns (as well as mortars and even machine guns) was commonplace, using new techniques for spotting and ranging, notably aircraft and the often overlooked field telephone. Counter-battery missions became commonplace, also, and sound detection was used to locate enemy batteries. Germany was far ahead of the Allies in using heavy indirect fire. The German Army employed 150 mm and 210 mm howitzers in 1914, when typical French and British guns were only 75 mm and 105 mm. The British had a 6-inch (152 mm) howitzer, but it was so heavy it had to be hauled to the field in pieces and assembled.

Second Sino-Japanese War

Sino-Japanese WarJapanese invasion of ChinaJapanese invasion
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle. Some sources in the modern People's Republic of China date the beginning of the war to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. It is known as the War of Resistance (undefined; lit. "Chinese War of Resistance Against Japan") in China.

Indonesian National Revolution

Indonesian War of IndependenceIndonesian RevolutionNational Revolution
The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence (Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia; Indonesische Onafhankelijkheidsoorlog), was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia. It took place between Indonesia's declaration of independence in 1945 and the Netherlands' recognition of Indonesia's independence at the end of 1949.

Imperial Japanese Army

Japanese ArmyJapanese Imperial ArmyJapanese
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; 大日本帝國陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army.

Korean War

KoreaKoreanKorea War
For example, in the last three months of 1952 the U.N. fired 3,553,518 field gun shells and 2,569,941 mortar shells, while the communists fired 377,782 field gun shells and 672,194 mortar shells: an overall 5.83:1 ratio in the U.N.'s favor. The communist insurgency, reinvigorated by North Korean support and scattered bands of KPA stragglers, also resurged in the south. In the autumn of 1951 Van Fleet ordered Major General Paik Sun-yup to break the back of guerrilla activity. From December 1951 to March 1952, ROK security forces claimed to have killed 11,090 partisans and sympathizers and captured 9,916 more.

Malayan Emergency

MalayaEmergencyOperation Firedog
On 9 January 1955, full-scale tactical operations began; artillery, mortars and aircraft began harassing fires in the South Swamp. Originally, the plan was to bomb and shell the swamp day and night so that the terrorists would be driven out into ambushes; but the terrorists were well prepared to stay indefinitely. Food parties came out occasionally, but the civil population was too afraid to report them. Plans were modified; harassing fires were reduced to night-time only. Ambushes continued and patrolling inside the swamp was intensified. Operations of this nature continued for three months without results.

Smoke screen

smokescreensmoke-screensmoke screens
Artillery and mortars can also fire smoke generating munitions, and are the main means of generating tactical smokescreens on land. As with grenades, artillery shells are available as both emission type smoke shell, and bursting smoke shell. Mortars nearly always use bursting smoke rounds because of the smaller size of mortar bombs and the greater efficiency of bursting rounds. Very large or sustained smoke screens are produced by a smoke generator. This machine heats a volatile material (typically oil or an oil based mixture) to evaporate it, then mixes the vapor with cool external air at a controlled rate so it condenses to a mist with a controlled droplet size.


projectileskinetic kill vehiclekinetic projectile
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force. Although any object in motion through space (for example a thrown baseball) may be called a projectile, the term more commonly refers to a ranged weapon. Mathematical equations of motion are used to analyze projectile trajectory. An object projected at an angle to the horizontal has both the vertical and horizontal components of velocity. The vertical component of the velocity on the y-axis given as Vy=USin(teta) while the horizontal component of the velocity Vx=UCos(teta). There are various terms used in projectiles at specific angle teta 1. Time to reach maximum height.


infantry regimentinfantrymanP.
Modern versions include machine guns, anti-tank missiles, and infantry mortars. Beginning with the development the first regular military forces, close-combat regular infantry fought less as unorganised groups of individuals and more in coordinated units, maintaining a defined tactical formation during combat, for increased battlefield effectiveness; such infantry formations and the arms they used developed together, starting with the spear and the shield.

Close-quarters combat

close quarters combatclose quarters battleCQB
Urban warfare is a much larger field, including logistics and the role of crew-served weapons like heavy machine guns, mortars, and mounted grenade launchers, as well as artillery, armor, and air support. In close-quarters combat, the emphasis is on small infantry units using light, compact weapons that one person can carry and use easily in tight spaces, such as carbines, submachine guns, shotguns, pistols, knives, and bayonets. As such, close-quarters combat is a tactical concept that forms a part of the strategic concept of urban warfare, but not every instance of close-quarters combat is necessarily urban warfare – for example, a jungle is potentially a stage for close-quarters combat.