Bibliographies of the War of American Independence compiled by the United States Army Center of Military History. Political bibliography from Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture.
Revolutionary WarAmerican War of IndependenceAmerican Revolution
United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
Constitutionalism in the United States. History of democracy. List of national constitutions (world countries). List of proposed amendments to the United States Constitution. List of sources of law in the United States. National Constitution Center. Pocket Constitution. State constitution (United States). Second Constitutional Convention of the United States. The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation. UK constitutional law. Mayflower Compact (1620). Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639). Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641). Bill of Rights 1689 – English Bill of Rights. United States Declaration of Independence (1776).
Articles of Confederation and Perpetual UnionConfederationArticles
The signers and the states they represented were: Roger Sherman (Connecticut) was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the United States: the Continental Association, the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. Robert Morris (Pennsylvania) signed three of the great state papers of the United States: the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution.
WashingtonGeneral WashingtonGeneral George Washington
Washington had "anxious and painful sensations" about leaving the "domestic felicity" of Mount Vernon, but departed for New York City on April 23 to be inaugurated. Washington was inaugurated on April 30, 1789, taking the oath of office at Federal Hall in New York City. His coach was led by militia and a marching band and followed by statesmen and foreign dignitaries in an inaugural parade, with a crowd of 10,000. Chancellor Robert R. Livingston administered the oath, using a Bible provided by the Masons, after which the militia fired a 13-gun salute.
New York: Houghton Mifflin. Some information in this article has been provided by the Senate Historical Office. Wilson, Woodrow. (1885). Congressional Government. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Some information in this article has been provided by the Senate Historical Office. Government. U.S. House of Representatives. [//www.senate.gov/ U.S. Senate]. Black Americans in Congress, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives. GovTrack.us, a free reference and tracking tool for congressional legislation and voting records. How Laws Are Made, via U.S. Government Printing Office. Legislative Information (Congress.gov) via Library of Congress. Women in Congress, Office of the Clerk, U.S.
New YorkNew York StateNY
In 1777, American forces defeated a major British Army, which led France to recognize the independence of the United States, and enter the war as a decisive military ally of the struggling Americans. Statue of Liberty National Monument includes Ellis Island and the Statue of Liberty. The statue, designed by Frédéric Bartholdi and formally named Liberty Enlightening the World, was a gift from France to the United States to mark the Centennial of the American Declaration of Independence; it was dedicated in New York Harbor on October 28, 1886. It has since become an icon of the United States and the concepts of democracy and freedom.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. It is located between the Atlantic Ocean and the Western United States, with the Midwestern United States and Northeastern United States to its north and the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to its south. The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States but is commonly defined as including the states that fought for the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War. The Deep South is fully located in the southeastern corner.
Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia, PACity of Philadelphia
The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. Philadelphia is one of the oldest municipalities in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, and the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
New Yorkcolony of New YorkNew York Colony
On July 30, 1777, George Clinton was inaugurated as the first Governor of New York at Kingston. On July 9, 1778, the State of New York signed the Articles of Confederation and officially became a part of the government of the United States of America, though it had been a part of the nation since it was declared in 1776 with signatories from New York. The province was the scene of the largest battle of the entire war, and the first after the Declaration of Independence was signed.
They returned in force in July 1776, landing in New York and defeating Washington's Continental Army in August at the Battle of Brooklyn. Following that victory, they requested a meeting with representatives from Congress to negotiate an end to hostilities. A delegation including John Adams and Benjamin Franklin met British admiral Richard Howe on Staten Island in New York Harbor on September 11 in what became known as the Staten Island Peace Conference. Howe demanded that the Americans retract the Declaration of Independence, which they refused to do, and negotiations ended. The British then seized New York City and nearly captured Washington's army.
United States militaryU.S. militaryUS military
In terms of size, the U.S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force. The U.S. as of FY2019 has about 14,061 aircraft in inventory. The history of the U.S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army, even before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States. The Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, and Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
O'Sullivan coined the phrase, "Manifest Destiny", as the "design of Providence" supporting the territorial expansion of the United States. Manifest Destiny had serious consequences for Native Americans, since continental expansion for the U.S. took place at the cost of their occupied land. A justification for the policy of conquest and subjugation of the indigenous people emanated from the stereotyped perceptions of all Native Americans as "merciless Indian savages" (as described in the United States Declaration of Independence).
Britain was left essentially bankrupt, with insolvency only averted in 1946 after the negotiation of a $US 4.33 billion loan from the United States, the last instalment of which was repaid in 2006. At the same time, anti-colonial movements were on the rise in the colonies of European nations. The situation was complicated further by the increasing Cold War rivalry of the United States and the Soviet Union. In principle, both nations were opposed to European colonialism. In practice, however, American anti-communism prevailed over anti-imperialism, and therefore the United States supported the continued existence of the British Empire to keep Communist expansion in check.
However, he is also the man who said: "But a hyphenated American is not an American at all. This is just as true of the man who puts "native"* before the hyphen as of the man who puts German or Irish or English or French before the hyphen." (*Roosevelt was referring to "nativists", not American Indians, in this context) (25th Vice President of the United States, 1901; 33rd Governor of New York, 1899–1900; Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1897–1898; New York City Police Commissioners Board President, 1895–1897; New York State Assembly Minority Leader, 1883; New York State Assembly Member, 1882–1884).
MACommonwealth of MassachusettsMass.
Kennedy, who was a senator and U.S. president before his assassination in 1963, Robert F. Kennedy, who was a senator, U.S. attorney general, and presidential candidate before his assassination in 1968, Ted Kennedy, a senator from 1962 until his death in 2009, and Eunice Kennedy Shriver, a co-founder of the Special Olympics. In 1966, Massachusetts became the first state to directly elect an African American to the U.S. senate with Edward Brooke. George H. W. Bush, 41st President of the United States (1989–1993) was born in Milton in 1924.
NJState of New JerseyJersey
South Mountain. 68.6% White American. 13.7% African American. 8.3% Asian American. 0.3% Native American. 2.7% Multiracial American. 6.4% other races. Hispanics and Latinos in New Jersey. Indians in the New York City metropolitan region. Chinese in the New York City metropolitan region. [[List of U.S. cities with significant Korean American populations#Top ten municipalities as ranked by Korean-American percentage of overall population in 2010|List of U.S. cities with significant Korean American populations]]. Filipinos in the New York City metropolitan region. Filipinos in New Jersey. Russians in the New York City metropolitan region. Bergen County. Jersey City.
Smaller towns, such as Greeley, Nebraska (population 466), with an estimated 51.7% of the residents identifying as Irish American as of 2009–13 were part of the Irish Catholic Colonization effort of Bishop O'Connor of New York in the 1880s. The states with the top percentages of Irish: The United States Declaration of Independence contained 56 delegate signatures. Of the signers, eight were of Irish descent. Three signers, Matthew Thornton, George Taylor and James Smith, were born in Ireland; the remaining five Irish Americans, George Read, Thomas McKean, Thomas Lynch Jr., Edward Rutledge, and Charles Carroll, were the sons or grandsons of Irish immigrants.
Dickinson[John] DickinsonJohn Dickinson (delegate)
There, he supported the effort to create a strong central government but only after the Great Compromise assured that each state, regardless of size, would have an equal vote in the future United States Senate. As he had done with the Articles, he also carefully drafted it with the term "Person" rather than "Man" as was used in the Declaration of Independence. He prepared initial drafts of the First Amendment. Following the Convention he promoted the resulting Constitution in a series of nine essays, written under the pen name Fabius. In 1791, Delaware convened a convention to revise its existing Constitution, which had been hastily drafted in 1776.
Founding FathersFounding FatherFounding Father of the United States
Timothy Pickering, U.S. Secretary of State from Massachusetts. Israel Putnam, army general. Edmund Randolph, first United States Attorney General, second Secretary of State. Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, French army general. Haym Solomon, financier and spy for Continental Army. Thomas Sumter, South Carolina military hero and member of both houses of Congress. Richard Varick, Private secretary to George Washington, mayor of New York City, 2nd attorney general of New York State, founder of the American Bible Society. Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, Prussian officer. Joseph Warren, doctor, revolutionary leader. Mercy Otis Warren, political writer.
state capitalcapitalcapital city
Federal Hall, New York City, New York: January 11, 1785, to October 2, 1788 Demolished in 1812. Fraunces Tavern, New York City, New York: October 6, 1788, to March 3, 1789. The United States Constitution addressed (Article 1, section 8, clause 17) the need for a fixed U.S. Capital. This led to the establishment of the District of Columbia and the founding of Washington as the nation's capital. Until the Capitol building was completed, and after it was burned by the British in 1814, requiring its rebuilding, Congress met in various places:. Federal Hall, New York City, New York: March 4, 1789, to December 5, 1790. This is where George Washington was inaugurated as first President.
American cultureAmerican popular cultureAmerican
Museums in Chicago, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. began to have a booming business in acquisitions, competing for works as diverse as the then more recent work of the Impressionists to pieces from Ancient Egypt, all of which captured the public imaginations and further influenced fashion and architecture. Developments in modern art in Europe came to America from exhibitions in New York City such as the Armory Show in 1913. After World War II, New York emerged as a center of the art world. Painting in the United States today covers a vast range of styles.
Staten Island, New YorkRichmondStaten Island, NY
There the representatives of the British government reportedly received their first notification of the Declaration of Independence. In August 1776, the British forces crossed the Narrows to Brooklyn and outflanked the American forces at the Battle of Long Island, resulting in the British control of the harbor and the capture of New York City shortly afterwards. Three weeks later, on September 11, 1776, Sir William's brother, Lord Howe, received a delegation of Americans consisting of Benjamin Franklin, Edward Rutledge, and John Adams at the Conference House on the southwestern tip of the island on the former estate of Christopher Billopp.
name, "Columbia", for the United States itself.
Stamp Act Congress Delegate
. * * Journal of the first Congress of the American Colonies, in opposition to the tyrannical acts of the British Parliament, Stamp Act Congress (1765 : New York, N.Y.); Cruger, Lewis * American Enlightenment. Timeline of the American Revolution.
Starting in 1785, the Congress met in New York City under the Articles of Confederation. In 1789, New York City became the first national capital of the United States under the new United States Constitution. The Constitution also created the current Congress of the United States, and its first sitting was at Federal Hall on Wall Street. The first United States Supreme Court sat there. The United States Bill of Rights was drafted and ratified there. George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall. New York City remained the capital of the U.S. until 1790, when the role was transferred to Philadelphia.