American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican RevolutionAmerican War of Independence
A Guide to the Battles of the American Revolution. New York: Savas Beatie LLC, 2006. ISBN: 193271412X. Schama, Simon. Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves, and the American Revolution, New York, NY: Ecco/HarperCollins, 2006. O'Shaughnessy, Andrew Jackson. The Men who Lost America: British Leadership, the American Revolution, and the Fate of the Empire (Yale UP, 2014). Shy, John. A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976 (ISBN: 0195020138); revised University of Michigan Press, 1990 (ISBN: 0472064312). Collection of essays. Stephenson, Orlando W.

American Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary WarRevolutionary
They returned in force in July 1776, landing in New York and defeating Washington's Continental Army in August at the Battle of Brooklyn. Following that victory, the British requested a meeting with representatives from Congress to negotiate an end to hostilities. A delegation including John Adams and Benjamin Franklin met Howe on Staten Island in New York Harbor on September 11, in what became known as the Staten Island Peace Conference. Howe demanded a retraction of the Declaration of Independence, which was refused, and negotiations ended. The British then quickly seized New York City and nearly captured Washington's army.

George Washington

WashingtonGeneral WashingtonPresident Washington
George Germain, Secretary for the American Colonies, who ran the British war effort from England, believed the war could be won with one "decisive blow." The British forces included over 100 ships and thousands of troops. Howe's army landed unopposed on Staten Island on July 2 for a siege of the city as additional British ships and troops continued to arrive. The Declaration of Independence from Great Britain was adopted on July 4, 1776; on July 9, the Patriots toppled an equestrian statue of King George III in New York City, melting it down to manufacture 40,000 bullets to shoot at British troops.


MACommonwealth of MassachusettsMass.
Although the documentation is incomplete, about 1,700 letters of marque, issued on a per-voyage basis, were granted during the American Revolution. Nearly 800 vessels were commissioned as privateers and are credited with capturing or destroying about 600 British ships. Bostonian John Adams, known as the "Atlas of Independence", was an important figure in both the struggle for independence as well as the formation of the new United States.

New York (state)

New YorkNYNew York State
In 1777, American forces defeated a major British Army, which led France to recognize the independence of the United States, and enter the war as a decisive military ally of the struggling Americans. Statue of Liberty National Monument includes Ellis Island and the Statue of Liberty. The statue, designed by Frédéric Bartholdi, was a gift from France to the United States to mark the Centennial of the American Declaration of Independence; it was dedicated in New York Harbor on October 28, 1886. It has since become an icon of the United States and the concepts of democracy and freedom. Stonewall National Monument, in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, is the first U.S.

Southern United States

SouthSouthernthe South
The southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. It is located between the Atlantic Ocean and the western United States, with the midwestern United States and northeastern United States to its north and the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to its south. The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States but is commonly defined as including the states that fought for the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War. The Deep South is fully located in the southeastern corner.

United States Constitution

ConstitutionU.S. Constitutionconstitutional
Constitutionalism in the United States. History of democracy. List of national constitutions (world countries). List of proposed amendments to the United States Constitution. List of sources of law in the United States. National Constitution Center. Pocket Constitution. State constitution (United States). Second Constitutional Convention of the United States. The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation. Mayflower Compact (1620). Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639). Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641). Bill of Rights 1689 – English Bill of Rights. United States Declaration of Independence (1776). Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1779).

Province of New York

New Yorkcolony of New Yorkcolonial New York
On July 30, 1777, George Clinton was inaugurated as the first Governor of New York at Kingston. On July 9, 1778, the State of New York signed the Articles of Confederation and officially became a part of the government of the United States of America, though it had been a part of the nation since it was declared in 1776 with signatories from New York. The province was the scene of the largest battle of the entire war, and the first after the Declaration of Independence was signed.

Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual UnionArticles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.Confederation
The signers and the states they represented were: Roger Sherman (Connecticut) was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the United States: the Continental Association, the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. Robert Morris (Pennsylvania) signed three of the great state papers of the United States: the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution.

United States Congress

CongressU.S. CongressCongressional
Current members of the United States House of Representatives. Current members of the United States Senate. List of United States Congresses. Lobbying in the United States. 115th United States Congress. Party divisions of United States Congresses. Term limits in the United States. United States Congressional Baseball Game. United States congressional hearing. United States presidents and control of congress. United States Congress Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction. Radio and Television Correspondents' Association. Baker, Ross K. (2000). House and Senate, 3rd ed. New York: W. W. Norton. (Procedural, historical, and other information about both houses).

Washington, D.C.

WashingtonDistrict of ColumbiaWashington, DC
In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Washington was ranked as having the 12th most competitive financial center in the world, and fifth most competitive in the United States (after New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, and Boston). The National Mall is a large, open park in downtown Washington between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol. Given its prominence, the mall is often the location of political protests, concerts, festivals, and presidential inaugurations. The Washington Monument and the Jefferson Pier are near the center of the mall, south of the White House.

Irish Americans

IrishIrish-AmericanIrish immigrants
Smaller towns, such as Greeley, Nebraska (population 466), with an estimated 51.7% of the residents identifying as Irish American as of 2009–13 were part of the Irish Catholic Colonization effort of Bishop O'Connor of New York in the 1880s. The states with the top percentages of Irish: The United States Declaration of Independence contained 56 delegate signatures. Of the signers, eight were of Irish descent. Three signers, Matthew Thornton, George Taylor and James Smith, were born in Ireland; the remaining five Irish Americans, George Read, Thomas McKean, Thomas Lynch, Jr., Edward Rutledge and Charles Carroll, were the sons or grandsons of Irish immigrants.

List of capitals in the United States

state capitalcapitalState capital city
Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: March 1, 1781, to June 21, 1783 (In 1783, Congress moved from Philadelphia after a soldiers' riot. See Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783.). Nassau Hall, Princeton, New Jersey: June 30, 1783, to November 4, 1783. Maryland State House, Annapolis, Maryland: November 26, 1783, to August 19, 1784. French Arms Tavern, Trenton, New Jersey: November 1, 1784, to December 24, 1784. Federal Hall, New York City, New York: January 11, 1785, to October 2, 1788 Demolished in 1812. Fraunces Tavern, New York City, New York: October 6, 1788, to March 3, 1789. The United States Constitution addressed (Article 1, section 8, clause 17) the need for a fixed U.S. Capitol.

Staten Island

RichmondRichmond CountyStaten Island, New York
The New York Cosmos u23, part of the USL Premier Development League (PDL), call Staten Island home. The team plays at Monsignor Farrell High School and is affiliated with the New York Cosmos. Public schools in the borough are managed by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States.

Columbia University

ColumbiaColumbia CollegeColumbia University President
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world.

Lower Manhattan

downtown ManhattandowntownLower
Starting in 1785, the Congress met in New York City under the Articles of Confederation. In 1789, New York City became the first national capital of the United States under the new United States Constitution. The Constitution also created the current Congress of the United States, and its first sitting was at Federal Hall on Wall Street. The first United States Supreme Court sat there. The United States Bill of Rights was drafted and ratified there. George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall. New York City remained the capital of the U.S. until 1790, when the role was transferred to Philadelphia.

Stamp Act Congress

Stamp Act Congress Delegate
The Stamp Act Congress, or First Congress of the American Colonies, was a meeting held between October 7 and 25, 1765, in New York City, consisting of representatives from some of the British colonies in North America; it was the first gathering of elected representatives from several of the American colonies to devise a unified protest against new British taxation. Parliament had passed the Stamp Act, which required the use of specially stamped paper for legal documents, playing cards, calendars, newspapers and dice for virtually all business in the colonies, and was going into effect on November 1, 1765.

Jackson Heights, Queens

Jackson HeightsJackson Heights, Queens, New YorkJackson Heights, New York
Named after Robert Morris, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence, the apartments have ample green spaces, original high ceilings, and fireplaces, and are relatively expensive. Until the Great Depression, these apartments were only half-filled due to the paucity of residents who could pay; after the Depression, the apartments became more affordable. During the Depression, two new buildings were built: Ravenna Court on 37th Avenue between 80th and 81st Streets, built in 1929; and Georgian Court three blocks east, between 83rd and 84th Streets, built in 1930.

Battle of Long Island

Battle of BrooklynLong IslandBrooklyn
The victory over the Americans gave the British control of the strategically important New York City. It was fought on August 27, 1776, and was the first major battle of the American Revolutionary War to take place after the United States declared its independence on July 4, 1776. In troop deployment and combat, it was the largest battle of the entire war. After defeating the British in the Siege of Boston on March 17, 1776, commander-in-chief General George Washington brought the Continental Army to defend the port city of New York, located at the southern end of Manhattan Island.

Congress of the Confederation

CongressConfederation CongressContinental Congress
The Congress of the Confederation was succeeded by the Congress of the United States as provided for in the new Constitution of the United States, proposed September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia and ratified by the states through 1787 to 1788 and even into 1789 and 1790. The Congress of the Confederation opened in the last stages of the American Revolution. Combat ended in October 1781, with the surrender of the British after the Siege and Battle of Yorktown. The British, however, continued to occupy New York City, while the American delegates in Paris, named by the Congress, negotiated the terms of peace with Great Britain.

Italian Americans

name, "Columbia", for the United States itself.

Statue of Liberty

Lady Libertythe Statue of LibertyLiberty
After the exhibition closed, the arm was transported to New York, where it remained on display in Madison Square Park for several years before it was returned to France to join the rest of the statue. During his second trip to the United States, Bartholdi addressed a number of groups about the project, and urged the formation of American committees of the Franco-American Union. Committees to raise money to pay for the foundation and pedestal were formed in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. The New York group eventually took on most of the responsibility for American fundraising and is often referred to as the "American Committee".

Postage stamps and postal history of the United States

United States postage stampsU.S. postage stampU.S. postage stamps
Airmails of the United States. Postage stamps and postal history of the Canal Zone. Artists of stamps of the United States. Constitutional Post. Federal Duck Stamp. History of United States postage rates. List of people on stamps of the United States. Pony Express. Postage stamps and postal history of the Confederate States. Revenue stamps of the United States. Presidents of the United States on U.S. postage stamps. US Regular Issues of 1922-1931. US space exploration history on US stamps. Washington-Franklin Issues. Commemoration of the American Civil War on postage stamps. Pony Express bible. Women on US stamps. Sources. Lester G.

British Empire

The changing world order that the war had brought about, in particular the growth of the United States and Japan as naval powers, and the rise of independence movements in India and Ireland, caused a major reassessment of British imperial policy. Forced to choose between alignment with the United States or Japan, Britain opted not to renew its Japanese alliance and instead signed the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty, where Britain accepted naval parity with the United States.

United States Armed Forces

U.S. militaryUnited States militaryarmed forces
Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army, even before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States. The Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, and Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War. These forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784.